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Metabolic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise: A Review

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the driving force of the human body which allows individuals to move freely. Metabolism is responsible for its creation, and research has indicated that with training, metabolism can be modified to respond more efficiently to aerobic

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the driving force of the human body which allows individuals to move freely. Metabolism is responsible for its creation, and research has indicated that with training, metabolism can be modified to respond more efficiently to aerobic stimulus. During an acute bout of exercise, cardiac output increases to maintain oxygen supply to the body. Oxidative muscle fibers contract to move the body for prolonged periods of time, creating oxidative stress which is managed by the mitochondria which produce the ATP that supplies the muscle fiber, and as the body returns to its resting state, oxygen continues to be consumed in order to return to steady state. Following endurance training, changes in cardiac output, muscle fiber types, mitochondria, substrate utilization, and oxygen consumption following exercise make adaptations to make metabolism more efficient. Resting heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases. Fast twitch muscle fibers shift into more oxidative fibers, sometimes through mitochondrial biogenesis, and more fat is able to be utilized during exercise. The excess postexercise oxygen consumption following exercise bouts is reduced, and return to steady state becomes quicker. In conclusion, endurance training optimizes metabolic response during acute bouts of aerobic exercise.

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2018-05

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Postprandial Glucose Responses to a High Glycemic Meal with Raw or Cooked Vegetables

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Early humans adapted to eating cooked food with increased energy density and absorption of macronutrients. However, in modern times many suffer from diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes which can result from too much energy being absorbed from food.

Early humans adapted to eating cooked food with increased energy density and absorption of macronutrients. However, in modern times many suffer from diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes which can result from too much energy being absorbed from food. This study measures glucose responses to a high glycemic meal with a side dish of raw or cooked vegetables. There was a slight trend for raw vegetables to have decreased postprandial blood glucose responses when compared to cooked vegetables.

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2014-05