Matching Items (15)

Metallurgical Test Comparison of Aerospace Material using Additive Manufacturing Technologies vs. Wrought Technologies

Description

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new technology will meet or exceed the requirements met by previous manufacturing methods, as well as producing more cost effective, geometrically-complex products. This investigation evaluated the performance of 3D-printed aerospace test specimens made by Powder Bed Fusion Technologies, and compared them to forged specimens. A design of experiments varying build parameters was conducted in order to determine AM component porosity. Factors such as powder post-processing, directionality of the build, and fractology of the samples were evaluated through tensile strength testing and hardness testing of Inconel 718 wrought and EBM printed materials. Using electron microsopy, the responses to these factors were analyzed for stress fractures, grain boundaries, and other defects that occurred in the testing process. The comparison determined which metallurgical process provides the most effective material for aircraft usage.

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  • 2017-05

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Studying the Effect of Model Input on Output Accuracy Using an Automated CFD Tool

Description

This project aims to study the relationship between model input parameters and model output accuracy of the Tool for Automation of Computational Aerodynamics of Airfoils (TACAA). The input parameters of

This project aims to study the relationship between model input parameters and model output accuracy of the Tool for Automation of Computational Aerodynamics of Airfoils (TACAA). The input parameters of study are Mach number and Reynolds number, and inputs are tested through three flight speed regimes and from laminar to turbulent flow. Each of these input parameters are tested for the NACA 0012 and SC-1095 airfoils to ensure that the accuracy is similar regardless of geometric complexity. The TACAA program was used to run all simulation testing, and its overall functionality is discussed. The results gathered from the preliminary testing showed that the spread of variable input data points caused data gaps in the transonic regime results, which provided motivation to conduct further testing within the transonic region for both airfoils. After collecting all TACAA results, data from wind tunnel testing was compiled to compare. The comparison showed that (1) additional testing would be necessary to fully assess the accuracy of the results for the SC-1095 airfoil and (2) TACAA is generally accurate for compressible, turbulent flows.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Modeling Trajectories of Supersonic Projectiles

Description

The goal of this thesis project was to build an understanding of supersonic projectile dynamics through the creation of a trajectory model that incorporates several different aerodynamic concepts and builds

The goal of this thesis project was to build an understanding of supersonic projectile dynamics through the creation of a trajectory model that incorporates several different aerodynamic concepts and builds a criteria for the stability of a projectile. This was done iteratively where the model was built from a foundation of kinematics with various aerodynamic principles being added incrementally. The primary aerodynamic principle that influenced the trajectory of the projectile was in the coefficient of drag. The drag coefficient was split into three primary components: the form drag, skin friction drag, and base pressure drag. These together made up the core of the model, additional complexity served to increase the accuracy of the model and generalize to different projectile profiles.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

The Impact of Implementing an Invariant-Based Theory of Composites on the Automotive Industry

Description

A novel approach, the Invariant Based Theory of Composites and the "Trace" method it proposes, has the potential to reduce aerospace composite development times and costs by over 30% thus

A novel approach, the Invariant Based Theory of Composites and the "Trace" method it proposes, has the potential to reduce aerospace composite development times and costs by over 30% thus reinvigorating the development process and encouraging composite technology growth. The "trace" method takes advantage of inherent stiffness properties of laminates, specifically carbon fiber, to make predictions of material properties used to derive design allowables. The advantages of the "trace" theory may not necessarily be specific to the aerospace industry, however many automotive manufacturers are facing environmental, social and political pressure to increase the gas mileage in their vehicles and reduce their carbon footprint. Therefore, the use of lighter materials, such as carbon fiber composites, to replace heavier metals in cars is inevitable yet as of now few auto manufacturers implement composites in their cars. The high material, testing and development costs, much like the aerospace industry, have been prohibitive to widespread use of these materials but progress is being made in overcoming those challenges. The "trace" method, while initially intended for quasi-isotropic, aerospace grade carbon-fiber laminates, still yields reasonable, and correctable, results for types of laminates as well such as with woven fabrics and thermoplastic matrices, much of which are being used in these early stages of automotive composite development. Despite the varying use of materials, the "trace" method could potentially boost automotive composites in a similar way to the aerospace industry by reducing testing time and costs and perhaps even playing a role in establishing emerging simulations of these materials.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Design of Indraft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

Description

The objective of this project is to design an indraft supersonic wind tunnel that is safe and comparatively simple to construct. The processes and methodology of design are discussed. As

The objective of this project is to design an indraft supersonic wind tunnel that is safe and comparatively simple to construct. The processes and methodology of design are discussed. As with every supersonic wind tunnel, the critical components are the nozzle, diffuser, and the means of achieving the pressure differential which drives the flow. The nozzle was designed using method of characteristics (MOC) and a boundary layer analysis experimental proven on supersonic wind tunnels [5]. The diffuser was designed using the unique design features of this wind tunnel in combination with equations from Pope [7]. The pressure differential is achieved via a vacuum chamber behind the diffuser creating a pressure differential between the ambient air and the low pressure in the tank. The run time of the wind tunnel depends on the initial pressure of the vacuum tank and the volume. However, the volume of the tank has a greater influence on the run time. The volume of the tank is not specified as the largest tank feasible should be used to allow the longest run time. The run time for different volumes is given. Another method of extending the run duration is added vacuum pumps to the vacuum chamber. If these pumps can move a sufficient mass out of the vacuum chamber, the run time can be significantly extended. The mounting design addresses the loading requirements which is closely related to the accuracy of the data. The mounting mechanism is attached to the rear of the model to minimize shockwave interference and maximize the structural integrity along the direction with the highest loading. This mechanism is then mounted to the bottom of the wind tunnel for structural rigidity and ease of access.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Design of a Gravity-Fed Hydrodynamic Testing Tunnel

Description

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given location, and to produce a repeatable design sizing and shape process for specified constraints. The primary design goals include a 1 m/s flow velocity in a 30cm x 30cm test section for 300 seconds. Secondary parameters, such as system height, tank height, area contraction ratio, and roof loading limits, may change depending on preference, location, or environment. The final chosen configuration is a gravity fed design with six major components: the reservoir tank, the initial duct, the contraction nozzle, the test section, the exit duct, and the variable control exit nozzle. Important sizing results include a minimum water weight of 60,000 pounds, a system height of 7.65 meters, a system length of 6 meters (not including the reservoir tank), a large shallow reservoir tank width of 12.2 meters, and height of 0.22 meters, and a control nozzle exit radius range of 5.25 cm to 5.3 cm. Computational fluid dynamic simulation further supports adherence to the design constraints but points out some potential areas for improvement in dealing with flow irregularities. These areas include the bends in the ducts, and the contraction nozzle. Despite those areas recommended for improvement, it is reasonable to conclude that the design and process fulfill the project goals.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Validation of Active Pixel Sensors to Develop Enhanced Star Trackers

Description

Active pixel sensors hold a lot of promise for space applications in star tracking because of their effectiveness against radiation, small size, and on-chip processing. The research focus is on

Active pixel sensors hold a lot of promise for space applications in star tracking because of their effectiveness against radiation, small size, and on-chip processing. The research focus is on documenting and validating ground test equipment for these types of sensors. Through demonstrating the utility of a commercial sensor, the research will be able to work on ensuring the accuracy of ground tests. This contribution allows for future research on improving active pixel sensor performance.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Modeling and Testing of a CubeSat Attitude Control System

Description

Accurate pointing is essential for any space mission with an imaging payload. The Phoenix Cubesat mission is being designed to take thermal images of major US cities from Low Earth

Accurate pointing is essential for any space mission with an imaging payload. The Phoenix Cubesat mission is being designed to take thermal images of major US cities from Low Earth Orbit in order to study the Urban Heat Island effect. Accurate pointing is vital to ensure mission success, so the satellite's Attitude Determination and Control System, or ADCS, must be properly tested and calibrated on the ground to ensure that it performs to its requirements. A commercial ADCS unit, the MAI-400, has been selected for this mission. The expected environmental disturbances must be characterized and modeled in order to inform planning the operations of this system. Appropriate control gains must also be selected to ensure the optimal satellite response. These gains are derived through a system model in Simulink and its response optimization tool, and these gains are then tested in a supplier provided Dynamic Simulator.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Survey of Modern Gridded Ion Propulsion Systems and Their Development and Applications in Future Space Missions

Description

This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design

This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design parameters and process that is a part of designing and optimizing a gridded ion thruster. It also identifies operational limits that may be associated with solar-powered ion propulsion systems and posits plausible solutions or alternatives to remedy such limitations. These topics are presented with the intent of reviewing how ion propulsion technology evolved in its journey to develop to today's systems, and to facilitate thought and discussion on where further development of ion propulsion systems can be directed.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Effect of Powder Reuse on DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) Product Integrity: Why Honeywell Believes the Future is Additive Manufacturing

Description

Honeywell is currently extending the reach of additive manufacturing (AM) in its product line and expects to produce as much as 40% of its inventory through AM in five years.

Honeywell is currently extending the reach of additive manufacturing (AM) in its product line and expects to produce as much as 40% of its inventory through AM in five years. Additive manufacturing itself is expected to grow into a $3.1 billion dollar industry in the next 5 to 10 years. Reusing IN 718 powder, a nickel-based super alloy metal powder, is an ideal option to reduce costs as well as reduce waste because it can be used with additive manufacturing, but the main obstacles are lack of procedure standardization and product quality assurances from this process. The goal of the capstone project, "Effect of Powder Reuse on DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) Product Integrity," is to create a powder characterization protocol in order to determine if the IN 718 powder can be reused and what effect the IN 718 reused powder has on the mechanical properties of the products Honeywell fabricates. To provide context and impact of this capstone project, this paper serves to identify the benefits of AM for Honeywell and the cost effectiveness of reusing the powder versus using virgin powder every time. It was found that Honeywell's investment in AM is due to the cost effectiveness of AM, versatility in product design, and to ensure Honeywell remains competitive in the future. In terms of reducing expenses, reusing powder enables costs to be approximately 45% less than using virgin powder. With these key pieces of information, the motivations for this capstone project are understood to a fuller and more profound degree.

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  • 2016-05