Matching Items (13)
- All Subjects: Computer Science
Development and use of an iPad-based resuscitation code-blue sheet for improving resuscitation outcomes during intensive patient care
The American Heart Association recommended in 1997 the data elements that should be collected from resuscitations in hospitals. (15) Currently, data documentation from resuscitation events in hospitals, termed ‘code blue’ events, utilizes a paper form, which is institution-specific. Problems with data capture and transcription exists, due to the challenges of dynamic documentation of patient, event and outcome variables as the code blue event unfolds.
This thesis is based on the hypothesis that an electronic version of code blue real-time data capture would lead to improved resuscitation data transcription, and enable clinicians to address deficiencies in quality of care. The primary goal of this thesis is to create an iOS based application, primarily designed for iPads, for code blue events at the Mayo Clinic Hospital. The secondary goal is to build an open-source software development framework for converting paper-based hospital protocols into digital format.
The tool created in this study enabled data documentation to be completed electronically rather than on paper for resuscitation outcomes. The tool was evaluated for usability with twenty nurses, the end-users, at Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. The results showed the preference of users for the iPad application. Furthermore, a qualitative survey showed the clinicians perceived the electronic version to be more accurate and efficient than paper-based documentation, both of which are essential for an emergency code blue resuscitation procedure.
Many web search improvements have been developed since the advent of the modern search engine, but one underrepresented area is the application of specific customizations to search results for educational web sites. In order to address this issue and improve the relevance of search results in automated learning environments, this work has integrated context-aware search principles with applications of preference based re-ranking and query modifications. This research investigates several aspects of context-aware search principles, specifically context-sensitive and preference based re-ranking of results which take user inputs as to their preferred content, and combines this with search query modifications which automatically search for a variety of modified terms based on the given search query, integrating these results into the overall re-ranking for the context. The result of this work is a novel web search algorithm which could be applied to any online learning environment attempting to collect relevant resources for learning about a given topic. The algorithm has been evaluated through user studies comparing traditional search results to the context-aware results returned through the algorithm for a given topic. These studies explore how this integration of methods could provide improved relevance in the search results returned when compared against other modern search engines.
Virtual Reality (hereafter VR) and Mixed Reality (hereafter MR) have opened a new line of applications and possibilities. Amidst a vast network of potential applications, little research has been done to provide real time collaboration capability between users of VR and MR. The idea of this thesis study is to develop and test a real time collaboration system between VR and MR. The system works similar to a Google document where two or more users can see what others are doing i.e. writing, modifying, viewing, etc. Similarly, the system developed during this study will enable users in VR and MR to collaborate in real time.
The study of developing a real-time cross-platform collaboration system between VR and MR takes into consideration a scenario in which multiple device users are connected to a multiplayer network where they are guided to perform various tasks concurrently.
Usability testing was conducted to evaluate participant perceptions of the system. Users were required to assemble a chair in alternating turns; thereafter users were required to fill a survey and give an audio interview. Results collected from the participants showed positive feedback towards using VR and MR for collaboration. However, there are several limitations with the current generation of devices that hinder mass adoption. Devices with better performance factors will lead to wider adoption.
Web-Based Programming Grading Assistant: An Investigation of the Role of Students Reviewing Behavior
Paper assessment remains to be an essential formal assessment method in today's classes. However, it is difficult to track student learning behavior on physical papers. This thesis presents a new educational technology—Web Programming Grading Assistant (WPGA). WPGA not only serves as a grading system but also a feedback delivery tool that connects paper-based assessments to digital space. I designed a classroom study and collected data from ASU computer science classes. I tracked and modeled students' reviewing and reflecting behaviors based on the use of WPGA. I analyzed students' reviewing efforts, in terms of frequency, timing, and the associations with their academic performances. Results showed that students put extra emphasis in reviewing prior to the exams and the efforts demonstrated the desire to review formal assessments regardless of if they were graded for academic performance or for attendance. In addition, all students paid more attention on reviewing quizzes and exams toward the end of semester.
Mobile apps have improved human lifestyle in various aspects ranging from instant messaging to tele-health. In the current app development paradigm, apps are being developed individually and agnostic of each other. The goal of this thesis is to allow a new world where multiple apps communicate with each other to achieve synergistic benefits. To enable integration between apps, manual communication between developers is needed, which can be problematic on many levels. In order to promote app integration, a systematic approach towards data sharing between multiple apps is essential. However, current approaches to app integration require large code modifications to reap the benefits of shared data such as requiring developers to provide APIs or use large, invasive middlewares. In this thesis, a data sharing framework was developed providing a non-invasive interface between mobile apps for data sharing and integration. A separate app acts as a registry to allow apps to register database tables to be shared and query this information. Two health monitoring apps were developed to evaluate the sharing framework and different methods of data integration between apps to promote synergistic feedback. The health monitoring apps have shown non-invasive solutions can provide data sharing functionality without large code modifications and manual communication between developers.
Bridging cyber and physical programming classes: an application of semantic visual analytics for programming exams
With the advent of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) educators have the opportunity to collect data from students and use it to derive insightful information about the students. Specifically, for programming based courses the ability to identify the specific areas or topics that need more attention from the students can be of immense help. But the majority of traditional, non-virtual classes lack the ability to uncover such information that can serve as a feedback to the effectiveness of teaching. In majority of the schools paper exams and assignments provide the only form of assessment to measure the success of the students in achieving the course objectives. The overall grade obtained in paper exams and assignments need not present a complete picture of a student’s strengths and weaknesses. In part, this can be addressed by incorporating research-based technology into the classrooms to obtain real-time updates on students' progress. But introducing technology to provide real-time, class-wide engagement involves a considerable investment both academically and financially. This prevents the adoption of such technology thereby preventing the ideal, technology-enabled classrooms. With increasing class sizes, it is becoming impossible for teachers to keep a persistent track of their students progress and to provide personalized feedback. What if we can we provide technology support without adding more burden to the existing pedagogical approach? How can we enable semantic enrichment of exams that can translate to students' understanding of the topics taught in the class? Can we provide feedback to students that goes beyond only numbers and reveal areas that need their focus. In this research I focus on bringing the capability of conducting insightful analysis to paper exams with a less intrusive learning analytics approach that taps into the generic classrooms with minimum technology introduction. Specifically, the work focuses on automatic indexing of programming exam questions with ontological semantics. The thesis also focuses on designing and evaluating a novel semantic visual analytics suite for in-depth course monitoring. By visualizing the semantic information to illustrate the areas that need a student’s focus and enable teachers to visualize class level progress, the system provides a richer feedback to both sides for improvement.
Analyzing the effect of an "open learner model" represented through a feedback system in a teachable agent system
For this master's thesis, an open learner model is integrated with Quinn, a teachable robotic agent developed at Arizona State University. This system is represented as a feedback system, which aims to improve a student’s understanding of a subject. It also helps to understand the effect of the learner model when it is represented by performance of the teachable agent. The feedback system represents performance of the teachable agent, and not of a student. Data in the feedback system is thus updated according to a student's understanding of the subject. This provides students an opportunity to enhance their understanding of a subject by analyzing their performance. To test the effectiveness of the feedback system, student understanding in two different conditions is analyzed. In the first condition a feedback report is not provided to the students, while in the second condition the feedback report is provided in the form of the agent’s performance.
Learning Object Oriented Programming Using Augmented Reality - A Case Study with Elementary School Students
There is a demanding need to empower students from kindergarten through high school to learn computer science and be equipped with the computational thinking skills that they need in today's technology driven world. However, introducing computer programming to students can be challenging, especially for those who aren't familiar with the nuances of code. Several popular tools are used in curriculum for K-12 students which utilize interactive and visualization approaches to engage young kids in learning computational concepts. Possibilities of using Augmented Reality (AR) in teaching programming to novices are explored in this work.
In this thesis Ogmented, an AR application is designed which includes interactive learning material that covers a range of fundamental Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) concepts. This work aims to exploit the idea to learn abstract concepts via AR by capitalizing the strength of visual-aided and interactive elements. A user study with a group of elementary school students is conducted. It explored how students operated the AR application with the interactive elements and how they wrote codes to solve programming problems. It was observed that students who followed instructions while taking tutorials were successfully able to write fragments of codes in exercise modules. Irrespective of their knowledge about programming, majority of students were able to write executable code snippets for concepts they were taught with use of Ogmented. This shares an initial insight on using AR in classroom to teach abstract programming concepts.
Learning Analytics and Behavior of Distributed Self-assessment and Reflections in Programming Problem Solving
Distributed self-assessments and reflections empower learners to take the lead on their knowledge gaining evaluation. Both provide essential elements for practice and self-regulation in learning settings. Nowadays, many sources for practice opportunities are made available to the learners, especially in the Computer Science (CS) and programming domain. They may choose to utilize these opportunities to self-assess their learning progress and practice their skill. My objective in this thesis is to understand to what extent self-assess process can impact novice programmers learning and what advanced learning technologies can I provide to enhance the learner’s outcome and the progress. In this dissertation, I conducted a series of studies to investigate learning analytics and students’ behaviors in working on self-assessments and reflection opportunities. To enable this objective, I designed a personalized learning platform named QuizIT that provides daily quizzes to support learners in the computer science domain. QuizIT adopts an Open Social Student Model (OSSM) that supports personalized learning and serves as a self-assessment system. It aims to ignite self-regulating behavior and engage students in the self-assessment and reflective procedure. I designed and integrated the personalized practice recommender to the platform to investigate the self-assessment process. I also evaluated the self-assessment behavioral trails as a predictor to the students’ performance. The statistical indicators suggested that the distributed reflections were associated with the learner's performance. I proceeded to address whether distributed reflections enable self-regulating behavior and lead to better learning in CS introductory courses. From the student interactions with the system, I found distinct behavioral patterns that showed early signs of the learners' performance trajectory. The utilization of the personalized recommender improved the student’s engagement and performance in the self-assessment procedure. When I focused on enhancing reflections impact during self-assessment sessions through weekly opportunities, the learners in the CS domain showed better self-regulating learning behavior when utilizing those opportunities. The weekly reflections provided by the learners were able to capture more reflective features than the daily opportunities. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates the effectiveness of the learning technologies, including adaptive recommender and reflection, to support novice programming learners and their self-assessing processes.
Education of any skill based subject, such as mathematics or language, involves a significant amount of repetition and pratice. According to the National Survey of Student Engagements, students spend on average 17 hours per week reviewing and practicing material previously learned in a classroom, with higher performing students showing a tendency to spend more time practicing. As such, learning software has emerged in the past several decades focusing on providing a wide range of examples, practice problems, and situations for users to exercise their skills. Notably, math students have benefited from software that procedurally generates a virtually infinite number of practice problems and their corresponding solutions. This allows for instantaneous feedback and automatic generation of tests and quizzes. Of course, this is only possible because software is capable of generating and verifying a virtually endless supply of sample problems across a wide range of topics within mathematics. While English learning software has progressed in a similar manner, it faces a series of hurdles distinctly different from those of mathematics. In particular, there is a wide range of exception cases present in English grammar. Some words have unique spellings for their plural forms, some words have identical spelling for plural forms, and some words are conjugated differently for only one particular tense or person-of-speech. These issues combined make the problem of generating grammatically correct sentences complicated. To compound to this problem, the grammar rules in English are vast, and often depend on the context in which they are used. Verb-tense agreement (e.g. "I eat" vs "he eats"), and conjugation of irregular verbs (e.g. swim -> swam) are common examples. This thesis presents an algorithm designed to randomly generate a virtually infinite number of practice problems for students of English as a second language. This approach differs from other generation approaches by generating based on a context set by educators, so that problems can be generated in the context of what students are currently learning. The algorithm is validated through a study in which over 35 000 sentences generated by the algorithm are verified by multiple grammar checking algorithms, and a subset of the sentences are validated against 3 education standards by a subject matter expert in the field. The study found that this approach has a significantly reduced grammar error ratio compared to other generation algorithms, and shows potential where context specification is concerned.