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Description
Currently Java is making its way into the embedded systems and mobile devices like androids. The programs written in Java are compiled into machine independent binary class byte codes. A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) executes these classes. The Java platform additionally specifies the Java Native Interface (JNI). JNI allows Java

Currently Java is making its way into the embedded systems and mobile devices like androids. The programs written in Java are compiled into machine independent binary class byte codes. A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) executes these classes. The Java platform additionally specifies the Java Native Interface (JNI). JNI allows Java code that runs within a JVM to interoperate with applications or libraries that are written in other languages and compiled to the host CPU ISA. JNI plays an important role in embedded system as it provides a mechanism to interact with libraries specific to the platform. This thesis addresses the overhead incurred in the JNI due to reflection and serialization when objects are accessed on android based mobile devices. It provides techniques to reduce this overhead. It also provides an API to access objects through its reference through pinning its memory location. The Android emulator was used to evaluate the performance of these techniques and we observed that there was 5 - 10 % performance gain in the new Java Native Interface.
ContributorsChandrian, Preetham (Author) / Lee, Yann-Hang (Thesis advisor) / Davulcu, Hasan (Committee member) / Li, Baoxin (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
As pointed out in the keynote speech by H. V. Jagadish in SIGMOD'07, and also commonly agreed in the database community, the usability of structured data by casual users is as important as the data management systems' functionalities. A major hardness of using structured data is the problem of easily

As pointed out in the keynote speech by H. V. Jagadish in SIGMOD'07, and also commonly agreed in the database community, the usability of structured data by casual users is as important as the data management systems' functionalities. A major hardness of using structured data is the problem of easily retrieving information from them given a user's information needs. Learning and using a structured query language (e.g., SQL and XQuery) is overwhelmingly burdensome for most users, as not only are these languages sophisticated, but the users need to know the data schema. Keyword search provides us with opportunities to conveniently access structured data and potentially significantly enhances the usability of structured data. However, processing keyword search on structured data is challenging due to various types of ambiguities such as structural ambiguity (keyword queries have no structure), keyword ambiguity (the keywords may not be accurate), user preference ambiguity (the user may have implicit preferences that are not indicated in the query), as well as the efficiency challenges due to large search space. This dissertation performs an expansive study on keyword search processing techniques as a gateway for users to access structured data and retrieve desired information. The key issues addressed include: (1) Resolving structural ambiguities in keyword queries by generating meaningful query results, which involves identifying relevant keyword matches, identifying return information, composing query results based on relevant matches and return information. (2) Resolving structural, keyword and user preference ambiguities through result analysis, including snippet generation, result differentiation, result clustering, result summarization/query expansion, etc. (3) Resolving the efficiency challenge in processing keyword search on structured data by utilizing and efficiently maintaining materialized views. These works deliver significant technical contributions towards building a full-fledged search engine for structured data.
ContributorsLiu, Ziyang (Author) / Chen, Yi (Thesis advisor) / Candan, Kasim S (Committee member) / Davulcu, Hasan (Committee member) / Jagadish, H V (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods, have been exploited to extract such invariant pose features from

Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods, have been exploited to extract such invariant pose features from video data by decomposing various key contributing factors, such as pose, view angle, and body shape, in the generation of the image observations. Experimental results have shown that the resulting pose features extracted using the proposed methods exhibit excellent invariance properties to changes in view angles and body shapes. Furthermore, using the proposed invariant multifactor pose features, a suite of simple while effective algorithms have been developed to solve the movement recognition and pose estimation problems. Using these proposed algorithms, excellent human movement analysis results have been obtained, and most of them are superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art algorithms on the same testing datasets. Moreover, a number of key movement analysis challenges, including robust online gesture spotting and multi-camera gesture recognition, have also been addressed in this research. To this end, an online gesture spotting framework has been developed to automatically detect and learn non-gesture movement patterns to improve gesture localization and recognition from continuous data streams using a hidden Markov network. In addition, the optimal data fusion scheme has been investigated for multicamera gesture recognition, and the decision-level camera fusion scheme using the product rule has been found to be optimal for gesture recognition using multiple uncalibrated cameras. Furthermore, the challenge of optimal camera selection in multi-camera gesture recognition has also been tackled. A measure to quantify the complementary strength across cameras has been proposed. Experimental results obtained from a real-life gesture recognition dataset have shown that the optimal camera combinations identified according to the proposed complementary measure always lead to the best gesture recognition results.
ContributorsPeng, Bo (Author) / Qian, Gang (Thesis advisor) / Ye, Jieping (Committee member) / Li, Baoxin (Committee member) / Spanias, Andreas (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
This thesis describes a synthetic task environment, CyberCog, created for the purposes of 1) understanding and measuring individual and team situation awareness in the context of a cyber security defense task and 2) providing a context for evaluating algorithms, visualizations, and other interventions that are intended to improve cyber situation

This thesis describes a synthetic task environment, CyberCog, created for the purposes of 1) understanding and measuring individual and team situation awareness in the context of a cyber security defense task and 2) providing a context for evaluating algorithms, visualizations, and other interventions that are intended to improve cyber situation awareness. CyberCog provides an interactive environment for conducting human-in-loop experiments in which the participants of the experiment perform the tasks of a cyber security defense analyst in response to a cyber-attack scenario. CyberCog generates the necessary performance measures and interaction logs needed for measuring individual and team cyber situation awareness. Moreover, the CyberCog environment provides good experimental control for conducting effective situation awareness studies while retaining realism in the scenario and in the tasks performed.
ContributorsRajivan, Prashanth (Author) / Femiani, John (Thesis advisor) / Cooke, Nancy J. (Thesis advisor) / Lindquist, Timothy (Committee member) / Gary, Kevin (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
With the introduction of compressed sensing and sparse representation,many image processing and computer vision problems have been looked at in a new way. Recent trends indicate that many challenging computer vision and image processing problems are being solved using compressive sensing and sparse representation algorithms. This thesis assays some applications

With the introduction of compressed sensing and sparse representation,many image processing and computer vision problems have been looked at in a new way. Recent trends indicate that many challenging computer vision and image processing problems are being solved using compressive sensing and sparse representation algorithms. This thesis assays some applications of compressive sensing and sparse representation with regards to image enhancement, restoration and classication. The first application deals with image Super-Resolution through compressive sensing based sparse representation. A novel framework is developed for understanding and analyzing some of the implications of compressive sensing in reconstruction and recovery of an image through raw-sampled and trained dictionaries. Properties of the projection operator and the dictionary are examined and the corresponding results presented. In the second application a novel technique for representing image classes uniquely in a high-dimensional space for image classification is presented. In this method, design and implementation strategy of the image classification system through unique affine sparse codes is presented, which leads to state of the art results. This further leads to analysis of some of the properties attributed to these unique sparse codes. In addition to obtaining these codes, a strong classier is designed and implemented to boost the results obtained. Evaluation with publicly available datasets shows that the proposed method outperforms other state of the art results in image classication. The final part of the thesis deals with image denoising with a novel approach towards obtaining high quality denoised image patches using only a single image. A new technique is proposed to obtain highly correlated image patches through sparse representation, which are then subjected to matrix completion to obtain high quality image patches. Experiments suggest that there may exist a structure within a noisy image which can be exploited for denoising through a low-rank constraint.
ContributorsKulkarni, Naveen (Author) / Li, Baoxin (Thesis advisor) / Ye, Jieping (Committee member) / Sen, Arunabha (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. To validate these approaches in a disease-specific context, we built a schizophreniaspecific network based on the inferred associations and performed a comprehensive prioritization of human genes with respect to the disease. These results are expected to be validated empirically, but computational validation using known targets are very positive.
ContributorsLee, Jang (Author) / Gonzalez, Graciela (Thesis advisor) / Ye, Jieping (Committee member) / Davulcu, Hasan (Committee member) / Gallitano-Mendel, Amelia (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
Service based software (SBS) systems are software systems consisting of services based on the service oriented architecture (SOA). Each service in SBS systems provides partial functionalities and collaborates with other services as workflows to provide the functionalities required by the systems. These services may be developed and/or owned by different

Service based software (SBS) systems are software systems consisting of services based on the service oriented architecture (SOA). Each service in SBS systems provides partial functionalities and collaborates with other services as workflows to provide the functionalities required by the systems. These services may be developed and/or owned by different entities and physically distributed across the Internet. Compared with traditional software system components which are usually specifically designed for the target systems and bound tightly, the interfaces of services and their communication protocols are standardized, which allow SBS systems to support late binding, provide better interoperability, better flexibility in dynamic business logics, and higher fault tolerance. The development process of SBS systems can be divided to three major phases: 1) SBS specification, 2) service discovery and matching, and 3) service composition and workflow execution. This dissertation focuses on the second phase, and presents a privacy preserving service discovery and ranking approach for multiple user QoS requirements. This approach helps service providers to register services and service users to search services through public, but untrusted service directories with the protection of their privacy against the service directories. The service directories can match the registered services with service requests, but do not learn any information about them. Our approach also enforces access control on services during the matching process, which prevents unauthorized users from discovering services. After the service directories match a set of services that satisfy the service users' functionality requirements, the service discovery approach presented in this dissertation further considers service users' QoS requirements in two steps. First, this approach optimizes services' QoS by making tradeoff among various QoS aspects with users' QoS requirements and preferences. Second, this approach ranks services based on how well they satisfy users' QoS requirements to help service users select the most suitable service to develop their SBSs.
ContributorsYin, Yin (Author) / Yau, Stephen S. (Thesis advisor) / Candan, Kasim (Committee member) / Dasgupta, Partha (Committee member) / Santanam, Raghu (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
Advancements in computer vision and machine learning have added a new dimension to remote sensing applications with the aid of imagery analysis techniques. Applications such as autonomous navigation and terrain classification which make use of image classification techniques are challenging problems and research is still being carried out to find

Advancements in computer vision and machine learning have added a new dimension to remote sensing applications with the aid of imagery analysis techniques. Applications such as autonomous navigation and terrain classification which make use of image classification techniques are challenging problems and research is still being carried out to find better solutions. In this thesis, a novel method is proposed which uses image registration techniques to provide better image classification. This method reduces the error rate of classification by performing image registration of the images with the previously obtained images before performing classification. The motivation behind this is the fact that images that are obtained in the same region which need to be classified will not differ significantly in characteristics. Hence, registration will provide an image that matches closer to the previously obtained image, thus providing better classification. To illustrate that the proposed method works, naïve Bayes and iterative closest point (ICP) algorithms are used for the image classification and registration stages respectively. This implementation was tested extensively in simulation using synthetic images and using a real life data set called the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) dataset. The results show that the ICP algorithm does help in better classification with Naïve Bayes by reducing the error rate by an average of about 10% in the synthetic data and by about 7% on the actual datasets used.
ContributorsMuralidhar, Ashwini (Author) / Saripalli, Srikanth (Thesis advisor) / Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia (Committee member) / Turaga, Pavan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
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Description
This thesis proposed a novel approach to establish the trust model in a social network scenario based on users' emails. Email is one of the most important social connections nowadays. By analyzing email exchange activities among users, a social network trust model can be established to judge the trust rate

This thesis proposed a novel approach to establish the trust model in a social network scenario based on users' emails. Email is one of the most important social connections nowadays. By analyzing email exchange activities among users, a social network trust model can be established to judge the trust rate between each two users. The whole trust checking process is divided into two steps: local checking and remote checking. Local checking directly contacts the email server to calculate the trust rate based on user's own email communication history. Remote checking is a distributed computing process to get help from user's social network friends and built the trust rate together. The email-based trust model is built upon a cloud computing framework called MobiCloud. Inside MobiCloud, each user occupies a virtual machine which can directly communicate with others. Based on this feature, the distributed trust model is implemented as a combination of local analysis and remote analysis in the cloud. Experiment results show that the trust evaluation model can give accurate trust rate even in a small scale social network which does not have lots of social connections. With this trust model, the security in both social network services and email communication could be improved.
ContributorsZhong, Yunji (Author) / Huang, Dijiang (Thesis advisor) / Dasgupta, Partha (Committee member) / Syrotiuk, Violet (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011
Description
In the last few decades, the rapid development of electronic music technologies has changed the way society interacts with music, which in turn impacts the profession of music therapy. Except for a few cases, music therapy has not extensively explored the integration of new technology. However, current research trends show

In the last few decades, the rapid development of electronic music technologies has changed the way society interacts with music, which in turn impacts the profession of music therapy. Except for a few cases, music therapy has not extensively explored the integration of new technology. However, current research trends show a willingness and excitement to explore the possibilities (Nagler, 2011; Ramsey, 2011; Magee, et al., 2011; Magee & Burland, 2008; Magee 2006). The project described in this paper intends to demonstrate one of these possibilities by combining modern technologies to create an interactive musical system with practical applications in music therapy. In addition to designing a practical tool, the project aims to question the role of technology in music therapy and to initiate dialogue between technologists and music therapists. The project, entitled MIST: A Musical Interactive Space for Therapy, uses modern gestural technology (the Microsoft® Kinect®) to capture body movements and turn them into music. It is intended for use in a clinical setting with children with mild to moderate disabilities. The system is a software/hardware package that is inexpensive, user-friendly, and portable. There are two functional modes of the system: the first sonifies specific movement tasks of reaching and balancing; the second is an interactive musical play space in which an entire room becomes responsive to presence and movement, creating a sonic playground. The therapeutic goals of the system are to motivate and train physical movement, encourage exploration of space and the body, and allow for musical expression, play, auditory perception, and social interaction.
ContributorsHeadlee, Kimberlee (Author) / Ingalls, Todd M (Thesis advisor) / Crowe, Barbara J. (Thesis advisor) / Stauffer, Sandra L (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2011