Matching Items (4)

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Does Social Intelligence Improve with Training? A Focus on the Moderating Role of Neuroticism

Description

This study examined the effectiveness of a Social Intelligence Intervention (SII) in improving components of social intelligence, and whether neuroticism moderates such associations in 130 participants aged 45-70. We hypothesized

This study examined the effectiveness of a Social Intelligence Intervention (SII) in improving components of social intelligence, and whether neuroticism moderates such associations in 130 participants aged 45-70. We hypothesized that the SII will improve participants' social intelligence across several factors: social awareness, social skills, social information processing, and perspective taking. Furthermore, we examined if neuroticism moderated participants' responsiveness to the intervention. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals with high levels of neuroticism will have greater improvements in social intelligence. Individuals were randomly assigned to participate in the SII (n=71) or an attention control condition (n=59) that focused on healthy living tips. Individuals provided self-report data prior to participation in the study, and following completion of the intervention or attention control condition. The results were not statistically significant, however there was a trend for social information processing to improve with the SII. Neuroticism and time significantly moderated social awareness. This research suggests that the SII may not be effective in improving social intelligence scores for participants in midlife. Thus, the SII should be enhanced to surpass improvements that could potentially be from common factors in the intervention.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Post Stroke Journey: A Survey Study of the Effects of Family Support and Psychological Factors on Rehabilitation Goals

Description

Stroke is the fifth most common cause of death in America and a leading cause of long-term adult disability, affecting more than 795,000 people a year ("American Stroke Association: A

Stroke is the fifth most common cause of death in America and a leading cause of long-term adult disability, affecting more than 795,000 people a year ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). Many of these individuals experience persistent difficulty with the execution of daily tasks as a direct consequence of a stroke. A key factor in the successful recovery of a stroke survivor is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation sessions can start within two days of the stroke if the patient is in stable condition, and often continues long after their release from the hospital ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). The rehabilitation sessions are driven by a team of rehabilitation care professionals which includes, but is not limited to a physical therapist, occupational therapist, and speech-language pathologist. These professionals are available to the stroke survivor as resources to assist in developing and organizing ways to achieve independence as opposed to dependence. Ultimately, a stroke survivor’s family typically provides the most important long-term support during recovery and rehabilitation ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). However, there is very little research that focuses on the impact that local family can have on the stroke survivor’s establishment and achievement of goals throughout their recovery and rehabilitation. This study examines this gap in knowledge.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Transactional processes of parent-child interactions from early to middle childhood

Description

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time.

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time. The goals of this study were twofold: 1) determine whether there were reciprocal relations in maternal hostility and child negativity across early and middle childhood, and 2) investigate whether individual characteristics (i.e., child temperamental anger and frustration and maternal neuroticism) moderated relations found in goal one. Data were from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Empirical support was found for conceptualizing mother-child interactions as reciprocal. Maternal hostility was related to a decrease in the probability children would exhibit negative behaviors during mother-child interactions measured approximately two years later. Child negativity was also associated with a significant decrease in the probability mothers would display future hostility.

Child temperamental anger and frustration was found to moderate reciprocal relations across all three parent-to-child cross-lagged paths. Children scoring high on a dispositional proclivity to react with anger and frustration were more likely to avoid maternal hostility, via a significant decrease in negativity, across time. Moderation was also supported in two of three child-to-parent lagged paths. Finally, maternal neuroticism moderated the reciprocal effects during early childhood, such that more neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of hostility relative to mothers scoring lower on neuroticism. This affect was attenuated in middle childhood, with patterns becoming similar between mothers scoring high and low on neuroticism. Moreover, children of less neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of exhibiting negativity from 36 to 54 months compared to children of more neurotic mothers. This effect also attenuated with patterns becoming negative at the grade 1 to grade 3 lag. Overall, the results from this study supported a transactional model of parent-child relationships, were consistent with the motivation literature, did not support a coercive process of interaction when the sample and measurement paradigm were low-risk, and generally suggested parents and children have an equal influence on the relational processes investigated from early to middle childhood.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Exploring the influence of survey item order and personality traits on perceived-crowding and recreational-satisfaction in an urban park environment

Description

Crowding and satisfaction remain widely studied concepts among those seeking to understand quality visitor experiences. One area of interest in this study is how the order of crowding and satisfaction

Crowding and satisfaction remain widely studied concepts among those seeking to understand quality visitor experiences. One area of interest in this study is how the order of crowding and satisfaction items on a survey affects their measurement levels. An additional area of interest is the influence of personality traits on experience-use-history, crowding, and satisfaction. This study used two versions of a survey: A) crowding measured prior to satisfaction and B) satisfaction measured prior to crowding, to explore the influence of item order on crowding and satisfaction levels. Additionally, the study explored the influence of personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and experience use history (EUH) on crowding and satisfaction. EUH was included as a variable of interest given previous empirical evidence of its influence on crowding and satisfaction. Data were obtained from an onsite self-administered questionnaire distributed to day use visitors at a 16,000 acre desert landscape municipal park in Arizona. A total of 619 completed questionnaires (equally distributed between the two survey versions) were obtained. The resulting response rate was 80%. One-way ANOVA's indicated significant differences in crowding and satisfaction levels with both crowding and satisfaction levels being higher for survey version B. Path analysis was used to test the influence of personality traits and EUH on crowding and satisfaction. Two models, one for each version of the survey were developed using AMOS 5. The first model was tested using data in which crowding was measured prior to satisfaction. The second model relied on data in which satisfaction was measured prior to crowding. Results indicated that personality traits influenced crowding and satisfaction. Specifically, in the first model, significant relationships were observed between neuroticism and crowding, neuroticism and EUH, EUH and crowding, and between crowding and satisfaction. In the second model, significant relationships were observed between extraversion and crowding, extraversion and satisfaction, and between EUH and satisfaction. Findings suggest crowding and satisfaction item order have a potential to influence their measurement. Additionally, results indicate that personality traits potentially influence visitor experience evaluation. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011