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Student Knowledge Regarding Infectious Disease and Its Impact on Prevention Behavior

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Advancements in both the medical field and public health have substantially minimized the detrimental impact of infectious diseases. Health education and disease prevention remains a vital tool to maintain and propagate this success. In order to determine the relationship between

Advancements in both the medical field and public health have substantially minimized the detrimental impact of infectious diseases. Health education and disease prevention remains a vital tool to maintain and propagate this success. In order to determine the relationship between knowledge of disease and reported preventative behavior 180 participants amongst the ASU student population were surveyed about their knowledge and prevention behavior for 10 infectious diseases. Of the 180 participants only 138 were completed surveys and used for analysis. No correlation was found between knowledge or perceived risk and preventative measures within the total sample of 138 respondents, however there was a correlation found within Lyme disease and Giardia exposure to information and prevention. Additionally, a cultural consensus analysis was used to compare the data of 17 US-born and 17 foreign-born participants to analyze patterns of variation and agreement on disease education based on national origins. Cultural consensus analysis showed a strong model of agreement among all participants as well as within the US-born and foreign-born student groups. There was a model of agreement within the questions pertaining to transmission and symptoms. There was not however a model of agreement within treatment questions. The findings suggest that accurate knowledge on infectious diseases may be less impactful on preventative behavior than social expectations.

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2018-05

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What Students Say Can Pave the Way: Creating Open Dialogue for Study Abroad Experiences

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The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills related to global health competencies, including cultural humility and sensitivity, collaborating with community partners, and sociocultural and political awareness. Although STEGHs offer potential benefits to both students and to sending institutions, these experiences can sometimes be problematic and raise ethical challenges. As the number of students engaged in STEGHs continues to increase, it is important to better understand the impact of these programs on student learning. Current ethical and best practice guidelines for STEGHs state that programs should establish evaluation methods to solicit feedback from students both during and on completion of the program (Crump et al. 2010). However, there is currently no established method for gathering this feedback because of the many different global health competency frameworks, types and duration of programs, and different models of student engagement in such programs. Assessing the quality of a STEGH is a profoundly important and difficult question that cannot be answered as succinctly and quantitatively as classroom performance, which has more standard and established assessment metrics. The goal of this project is to identify the most appropriate and useful assessment metric(s) for determining educational quality and impact for STEGHs at ASU by comparing a typical quantitative evaluation tool (pre-post survey with brief open-ended questions) to a more in-depth qualitative method (key informant interviews). In performing my analysis I seek to examine if the latter can produce a richer narrative of student experiences to inform ongoing program evaluations. My research questions are: 1. What are the current qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods available to assess student learning during short-term experiences in global health? 2. How can current methodology for assessing student experiences with short-term experiences in global health be adapted to collect the most information from students? 3. How do student knowledge and attitudes change before and after their short-term experience in global health? Why is understanding those changes important for adapting programs? My end goal would be to use these new, optimal assessment methods for gathering student perspectives and experiences to adapt pre-departure trainings and post-experience debriefings for study abroad programs, both of which I believe will lead to more sustainable partnerships and a healthier understanding of global health work for students.

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2018-05

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Alcohol Use Disorders and Public Policy in South Korea

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Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use disorders is needed. An investigation into the status and treatment

Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use disorders is needed. An investigation into the status and treatment of alcohol use disorders in South Korea was chosen due to the significant cultural differences from the United States with regards to alcohol consumption, mental health, and healthcare. The investigation used academic and grey literature, news reports, and current healthcare and public health policy to evaluate South Korea's weak areas in addressing alcohol use disorders. Greater investment into mental health research and healthcare delivery, as well as further development of the continuum of care to help patients transition from treatment of the acute symptoms of an alcohol use disorder to lifetime management are needed. Lastly, increased alcohol regulatory policies are recommended.

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2018-05

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Developing the Codebook for Water and Hygiene Stigma Surveys Global Ethnohydrology Study 2015

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The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of

The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of water insecurity and obesity. In their efforts to research water insecurity and it implications, CHEL has been working on studying water insecurity through the Global Ethnohydrology Study (GES). The Global Ethnohydrology study examines local knowledge and perceptions of water issues, using transdisciplinary methods in a multi-year and cross-country program. In the 2015-2016 study, the GES examined water, hygiene norms, and hygiene stigma. It sought to investigate how hygiene norms are impacted by the level of water security, examining if water-poor communities have laxer laxer or more accommodating hygiene norms. This paper will explore the development of the codebook for this study, following the process in which the qualitative data from the GES 2015 was organized through a series of codes so that it may later be analyzed.

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2017-05

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Sociocultural perspectives on antibiotic consumption and resistance

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In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship,

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship, education campaigns, and health policy attempt to limit drug use globally, public understanding of antibiotic resistance and its consequences are lacking. The goal of this study is to analyze the social and cultural influences of antibiotic knowledge and usage behavior. Over a three-month period, I interviewed 211 laypersons in Guatemala, Spain, the Netherlands, India, South Africa, and New Zealand to understand their ideas, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antibiotics and compared results across countries. While an overall consensus across countries does exist, I found significant differences between low and high income countries as well as between low and high antibiotic consumption countries. Additionally, I found that having increased public health knowledge is related to lower antibiotic "risky" behavior. These results help contextualize national data on antibiotic consumption and resistance by illustrating relationships between access, beliefs, and consumption patterns within populations. The results also inform the development of community and culture specific educational campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance.

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2017-05

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A Closer Look at the Global Partnership: Re-Evaluating Sustainable Development Goal 17

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In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal 17 for global partnership affects its implementation, focusing on “building capacity”—a widely referenced target in the development arena—and the involvement of the private sector. Key informant interviews with experts in the fields of conflict of interest, ethics, and development revealed a wide variety of (often conflicting) notions about partnership, frameworks for capacity development, and the interactions between public and private actors. A literature review of key policy documents examined the terminology and implementation of multistakeholder partnerships, and analysis offered considerations for risks and suggestions in policy terminology. Results indicate a need for increased attention to the use of partnership terminology as a catch-all term to encompass development work, and makes several recommendations for changes to combat misuse of the partnership label. Finally, this study acknowledges that there is a continued need for research-based evidence for effectiveness of the partnership-based development approach.

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2018-05

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Lay Perspectives of Menarche, Contraceptives, and Reproductive Health among Urban Women & Informal Methods of Sexual Health Education in Dakar, Senegal

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In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless an unmet need for sexual health education in Senegal and limited access to family planning services in low-income communities. I examine data obtained from surveys conducted with participants selected using convenience sampling in five different neighborhoods in Dakar, as well as ethnographic observations during the four month period of study. Qualitative and quantitative analyses address women's comforts levels during menstruation, barriers to access of high quality menstrual care products, familiarity with different kinds of contraceptive methods, and information on where women receive information regarding puberty, sex, and menstruation. Results show that most participants seek out family members, female friends and other respected members in the community for reproductive development information. National programs and international organizations sponsor youth to become community educators, who offer an informal and more accessible method of education. Earlier research shows that informal methods of education can be extremely effective ; in the setting of Dakar, young health educators are also creating inclusive and safe spaces for meaningful discussions about sexuality to be held, combating the negative effects of the traditional patriarchal and conservative culture. Relationships with one's community are extremely important, and can be an invaluable resource in transmitting sexual and reproductive health information to women. Improved understanding of reproductive health among women in Senegal can encourage them to make informed decisions about family planning.

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2016-05

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Analysis of Inhibition of Influenza Replication via Synthetic Antibodies

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The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on campus at Arizona State University has been developing synbodies as a possible Influenza therapeutic. Specifically, at CIM, we have attempted to design these initial synbodies to target the entire Influenza virus and preliminary data leads us to believe that these synbodies target Nucleoprotein (NP). Given that the synbody targets NP, the penetration of cells via synbody should also occur. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. The focus of my honors thesis is to explore how synthetic antibodies can potentially inhibit replication of the Influenza (H1N1) A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain so that a therapeutic can be developed. A high affinity synbody for Influenza can be utilized to test for inhibition of Influenza as shown by preliminary data. The 5-5-3819 synthetic antibody's internalization in live cells was visualized with Madin-Darby Kidney Cells under a Confocal Microscope. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. Expression of NP over 8 hours time was analyzed via Western Blot Analysis, which showed NP accumulation was retarded in synbody treated cells. The data obtained from my honors thesis and preliminary data provided suggest that the synthetic antibody penetrates live cells and targets NP. The results of my thesis presents valuable information that can be utilized by other researchers so that future experiments can be performed, eventually leading to the creation of a more effective therapeutic for influenza.

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2014-05

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Knowledge and Attitudes of American College Students About the Affordable Care Act

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The Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare, was signed into law with the goals of providing quality and affordable health care to every American, but there is concern that not enough young adults are gaining health insurance. Some believe it is

The Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare, was signed into law with the goals of providing quality and affordable health care to every American, but there is concern that not enough young adults are gaining health insurance. Some believe it is because of the "young invincible" mentality of being healthy enough to not need health insurance, and others claim that the cost of health care is the main reason behind low enrollment rates in young adults. However, young adults may not be obtaining insurance because of a lack of understanding and awareness concerning the ACA. Do young adults understand how the ACA functions, and does this understanding (or lack thereof) determine their opinions towards it? In order to research this question, students at Arizona State University were given the opportunity to complete a survey and interview detailing their knowledge of Obamacare and how they felt about the health care law. Results indicated that though many respondents supported the law, respondents did not feel like they had enough information to understand the health care law, affecting their knowledge of it. These findings imply that in order for the ACA to be considered successful among young adults, awareness and education of the law must increase in order for young people to feel like they have an adequate understanding of it.

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2015-05

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Midwifery around the World: A Study in the Role of Midwives in Local Communities and Healthcare Systems

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2015 marks the deadline for the UN Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce global maternal mortality rate (MMR) by 75% since 1990. As of 2015, MMR has only been reduced by 45%. Many international organizations claim that more medically trained

2015 marks the deadline for the UN Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce global maternal mortality rate (MMR) by 75% since 1990. As of 2015, MMR has only been reduced by 45%. Many international organizations claim that more medically trained midwives can meet global maternal health care needs. This study investigates two major questions. What is the role of midwives in diverse international maternal healthcare contexts? How do midwives in these different contexts define their roles and the barriers to providing the best care for women? From May to August 2015, I conducted over 70 interviews with midwives in Netherlands, Sweden, Rwanda, Bangladesh, Australia and Guatemala, interviewing between 6 and 13 midwives from each country. The majority of midwives defined their roles as supporting women's individual capacities and power through normal birth, and knowing when to refer when high-risk complications arise. Although thematic barriers vary by country, midwives in all countries believed that maternal healthcare can be improved by increased collaboration between midwives and other health care professionals, better access to culturally appropriate services, and greater public awareness of the role of midwives.

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2016-05