Matching Items (29)

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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  • 2019-05

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Global Health and Sustainability Collaborative Research Networks as Models of Collective Action

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Collaborative research is not only a form of social and human capital and a public good, but also a fundamental elicitor of positive Collective Action. Collaborative Research Networks can serve

Collaborative research is not only a form of social and human capital and a public good, but also a fundamental elicitor of positive Collective Action. Collaborative Research Networks can serve as models of proactive and purposive Collective Action and catalysts of societal change, if they function as more than hubs of research and knowledge. It is the goal of this Honors Thesis to examine the current nature under which collaborative research networks, focused on matters of Global Health or Sustainability, operate., how they are organized, what type of collaboration they engage in, and who collaborates with whom. A better understanding of these types of networks can lead to the formation of more effective networks that can develop innovative solutions to our collective Global Health and Sustainability problems.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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Sociocultural perspectives on antibiotic consumption and resistance

Description

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship, education campaigns, and health policy attempt to limit drug use globally, public understanding of antibiotic resistance and its consequences are lacking. The goal of this study is to analyze the social and cultural influences of antibiotic knowledge and usage behavior. Over a three-month period, I interviewed 211 laypersons in Guatemala, Spain, the Netherlands, India, South Africa, and New Zealand to understand their ideas, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antibiotics and compared results across countries. While an overall consensus across countries does exist, I found significant differences between low and high income countries as well as between low and high antibiotic consumption countries. Additionally, I found that having increased public health knowledge is related to lower antibiotic "risky" behavior. These results help contextualize national data on antibiotic consumption and resistance by illustrating relationships between access, beliefs, and consumption patterns within populations. The results also inform the development of community and culture specific educational campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance.

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  • 2017-05

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A Closer Look at the Global Partnership: Re-Evaluating Sustainable Development Goal 17

Description

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind.

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal 17 for global partnership affects its implementation, focusing on “building capacity”—a widely referenced target in the development arena—and the involvement of the private sector. Key informant interviews with experts in the fields of conflict of interest, ethics, and development revealed a wide variety of (often conflicting) notions about partnership, frameworks for capacity development, and the interactions between public and private actors. A literature review of key policy documents examined the terminology and implementation of multistakeholder partnerships, and analysis offered considerations for risks and suggestions in policy terminology. Results indicate a need for increased attention to the use of partnership terminology as a catch-all term to encompass development work, and makes several recommendations for changes to combat misuse of the partnership label. Finally, this study acknowledges that there is a continued need for research-based evidence for effectiveness of the partnership-based development approach.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Hepatitis C Prevention Measures in Pakistan

Description

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Pakistan, with 5% of the population suffering from the disease. A unique aspect about HCV in Pakistan is the major role that healthcare

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Pakistan, with 5% of the population suffering from the disease. A unique aspect about HCV in Pakistan is the major role that healthcare workers play in its transmission, by reusing needles and giving therapeutic injections when they are not needed. This issue is furthered by patients’ misconceptions that invasive treatments, like injections, are more effective than oral medicines. The purpose of this project was to create a short video that addressed this inaccurate and dangerous perception, by educating Pakistanis about HCV and how to prevent infection and reinfection. In addition to disease transmission, accessibility to treatment options in Pakistan were also discussed. The video featured Pakistani physicians and some young adults. There were several limitations that delimited the project, including time, budget, the sudden death of a project participant, and the current COVID-19 epidemic as well as cultural, language, and physical barriers that come from filming a video about Pakistan as Americans. In the future, this video can serve as a framework for future efforts.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Lay Perspectives of Menarche, Contraceptives, and Reproductive Health among Urban Women & Informal Methods of Sexual Health Education in Dakar, Senegal

Description

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless an unmet need for sexual health education in Senegal and limited access to family planning services in low-income communities. I examine data obtained from surveys conducted with participants selected using convenience sampling in five different neighborhoods in Dakar, as well as ethnographic observations during the four month period of study. Qualitative and quantitative analyses address women's comforts levels during menstruation, barriers to access of high quality menstrual care products, familiarity with different kinds of contraceptive methods, and information on where women receive information regarding puberty, sex, and menstruation. Results show that most participants seek out family members, female friends and other respected members in the community for reproductive development information. National programs and international organizations sponsor youth to become community educators, who offer an informal and more accessible method of education. Earlier research shows that informal methods of education can be extremely effective ; in the setting of Dakar, young health educators are also creating inclusive and safe spaces for meaningful discussions about sexuality to be held, combating the negative effects of the traditional patriarchal and conservative culture. Relationships with one's community are extremely important, and can be an invaluable resource in transmitting sexual and reproductive health information to women. Improved understanding of reproductive health among women in Senegal can encourage them to make informed decisions about family planning.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Environmental Contribution to Emerging Antibiotic Resistance

Description

Antibiotic resistance in the modern era has reached near-epidemic levels, resulting in much more difficult treatment of previously well-managed pathogens. Previous understandings of how antibiotic resistance emerges failed to account

Antibiotic resistance in the modern era has reached near-epidemic levels, resulting in much more difficult treatment of previously well-managed pathogens. Previous understandings of how antibiotic resistance emerges failed to account for the function of the environment. Over the past 15 years, new research has provided a link between the environmental and clinical spheres of antibiotic use. This data suggests that environmental bacteria, particularly those found in livestock farming ecosystems, may significantly contribute to the overall flow of antibiotic resistance genes into human populations. The main force behind this is the utilization of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed supplements, seeding individual animals and their surroundings with low doses of antibiotics. Notable increases in resistance have been observed within areas that utilize these supplements, as well as in connected but unrelated systems. Waste management strategies are poorly implemented, leading to the dispersal of contaminated runoff into groundwater and riverine environments. Furthermore, existing waste processing is limited in efficacy, often releasing large amounts of unprocessed antibiotics as well as a concentrated population of resistant bacteria. Within these resistant populations, horizontal gene transfer has emerged as a vehicle for the distribution of resistance genes into other populations of bacteria. Due to the prevalence of these transfer events, a new role for the environment as a reservoir and incubator of resistance genes is proposed. Current strategies for managing the spread of antibiotic resistance are woefully inadequate, and the continued emergence of new resistance mechanisms due to negligence highlights the need for global, multidisciplinary solutions. To corral the spread of antibiotic resistance, a system is proposed that utilizes metagenomic monitoring and the enforcement of core global policies to slow the advance of resistance while waiting for novel treatment strategies to bear fruit.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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What Students Say Can Pave the Way: Creating Open Dialogue for Study Abroad Experiences

Description

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills related to global health competencies, including cultural humility and sensitivity, collaborating with community partners, and sociocultural and political awareness. Although STEGHs offer potential benefits to both students and to sending institutions, these experiences can sometimes be problematic and raise ethical challenges. As the number of students engaged in STEGHs continues to increase, it is important to better understand the impact of these programs on student learning. Current ethical and best practice guidelines for STEGHs state that programs should establish evaluation methods to solicit feedback from students both during and on completion of the program (Crump et al. 2010). However, there is currently no established method for gathering this feedback because of the many different global health competency frameworks, types and duration of programs, and different models of student engagement in such programs. Assessing the quality of a STEGH is a profoundly important and difficult question that cannot be answered as succinctly and quantitatively as classroom performance, which has more standard and established assessment metrics. The goal of this project is to identify the most appropriate and useful assessment metric(s) for determining educational quality and impact for STEGHs at ASU by comparing a typical quantitative evaluation tool (pre-post survey with brief open-ended questions) to a more in-depth qualitative method (key informant interviews). In performing my analysis I seek to examine if the latter can produce a richer narrative of student experiences to inform ongoing program evaluations. My research questions are: 1. What are the current qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods available to assess student learning during short-term experiences in global health? 2. How can current methodology for assessing student experiences with short-term experiences in global health be adapted to collect the most information from students? 3. How do student knowledge and attitudes change before and after their short-term experience in global health? Why is understanding those changes important for adapting programs? My end goal would be to use these new, optimal assessment methods for gathering student perspectives and experiences to adapt pre-departure trainings and post-experience debriefings for study abroad programs, both of which I believe will lead to more sustainable partnerships and a healthier understanding of global health work for students.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Breast Health Seeking Behaviors In Countries With Varying Health Coverage

Description

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health knowledge and behavior globally. The goal of this study is to determine how varying healthcare systems in three countries (Japan, Paraguay, US) affect a woman’s likelihood of seeing a physician in regard to their breasts. For example, Japan is a clear example of a region that provides universal health insurance to its citizens. The government takes responsibility in giving accessible and equitable healthcare to its entire population (Zhang & Oyama, 2016). On the other hand, a country such as Paraguay is composed of both public and private sectors. In order for citizens to gain insurance, one would have to either be formally employed or choose to pay out-of-pocket for hospital visits (“Paraguay”, 2017). A country such as the United States does not have universal health insurance. However, it does have a mix of public and private sectors, meaning there is little to no coverage for its citizens. To accommodate for this, the United States came up with the Affordable Care Act, which extends coverage to the uninsured. Although the United States might be a country that spends more on healthcare than any other nation, there are residents that still lack healthcare (De Lew, Greenberg & Kinchen, 1992). This study, then, compares women’s breast health knowledge and behavior in Japan, Paraguay, and the US. Other variables, which are also considered in this study, that might affect this include wealth level, education, having general awareness of breast cancer, having regular health checks, and having some breast education. Using statistical analysis of breast check rates of women in Japan, Paraguay, and the United States, this research found that women sampled in Asunción, Paraguay check their breasts more often than either women sampled from Scottsdale, U.S. or Osaka, Japan. It was also found that women sampled from Paraguay were more confident in detecting changes in their breast compared to women sampled from the Japan or the US. Finally, it was noted that women sampled from Japan were least likely to partake in seeing a doctor in concern of changes in their breasts compared to women sampled from the other two research locations. These findings have relevance for the implementation of advocacy and public education about breast health.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Utilization of Socioeconomic and Cultural Determinants of Senor de los Milagros of Trujillo, Peru to Identify Barriers to Care

Description

The purpose of this study is to analyze what barriers of care exist within the Senor de los Milagros community in Trujillo, Peru and how these barriers to care can

The purpose of this study is to analyze what barriers of care exist within the Senor de los Milagros community in Trujillo, Peru and how these barriers to care can identify shortcomings in the public healthcare system. This study is a collaboration of field research and outside literature. The research conducted was done via structured interviews with 15 participants, all promotoras (mothers of the community) and their husbands in the Senor de los Milagros community of Trujillo, Peru. Summaries and quotes from these interviews were uploaded and quantified to identify common barriers to care derived from socioeconomic and cultural determinants . Although this was on the main focus of the study, observations and conversations with healthcare staff and patients showed that the two most specific barriers found when data was analyzed were the wait times of public sector facilities and quality of care within these facilities. These barriers to care did not stop the promotoras from seeking care at MINSA facilities, but it does pose the questions as to how it affects healthcare-seeking behaviors and if this affects long-term healthcare outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05