Matching Items (33)

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Breast Health Seeking Behaviors In Countries With Varying Health Coverage

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There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health knowledge and behavior globally. The goal of this study is to determine how varying healthcare systems in three countries (Japan, Paraguay, US) affect a woman’s likelihood of seeing a physician in regard to their breasts. For example, Japan is a clear example of a region that provides universal health insurance to its citizens. The government takes responsibility in giving accessible and equitable healthcare to its entire population (Zhang & Oyama, 2016). On the other hand, a country such as Paraguay is composed of both public and private sectors. In order for citizens to gain insurance, one would have to either be formally employed or choose to pay out-of-pocket for hospital visits (“Paraguay”, 2017). A country such as the United States does not have universal health insurance. However, it does have a mix of public and private sectors, meaning there is little to no coverage for its citizens. To accommodate for this, the United States came up with the Affordable Care Act, which extends coverage to the uninsured. Although the United States might be a country that spends more on healthcare than any other nation, there are residents that still lack healthcare (De Lew, Greenberg & Kinchen, 1992). This study, then, compares women’s breast health knowledge and behavior in Japan, Paraguay, and the US. Other variables, which are also considered in this study, that might affect this include wealth level, education, having general awareness of breast cancer, having regular health checks, and having some breast education. Using statistical analysis of breast check rates of women in Japan, Paraguay, and the United States, this research found that women sampled in Asunción, Paraguay check their breasts more often than either women sampled from Scottsdale, U.S. or Osaka, Japan. It was also found that women sampled from Paraguay were more confident in detecting changes in their breast compared to women sampled from the Japan or the US. Finally, it was noted that women sampled from Japan were least likely to partake in seeing a doctor in concern of changes in their breasts compared to women sampled from the other two research locations. These findings have relevance for the implementation of advocacy and public education about breast health.

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2020-05

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International Partnerships:Sustainable Development Goal 17 and the Role of Nonprofits: A Case Study on the International Alliance for the Prevention of AIDS

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A nonprofit organization’s ability to help its target population depends strongly on the collaboration of the organization’s staff and leadership. An organization that spans across international borders must overcome adversity, particularly communication and power inequity. The International Alliance for the

A nonprofit organization’s ability to help its target population depends strongly on the collaboration of the organization’s staff and leadership. An organization that spans across international borders must overcome adversity, particularly communication and power inequity. The International Alliance for the Prevention of AIDS (IAPA) is a nonprofit with staff in the U.S. and India, making it an international partnership. This research evaluates to what extent the Indian partners believe IAPA meets Sustainable Development Goal 17: “to revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.” I developed three semi-structured interview protocols for volunteers, employees, and IAPA beneficiaries. After interviews were conducted and transcribed, 5 major themes were identified from coding keywords. First, I grouped definitions of "success" in a partnership to create a baseline of expectations. Second, I assessed the extent of participants' knowledge about the U.S. role in IAPA. Third, I identified areas of strength. Fourth, I identified areas of improvement and grievances. Fifth, I assessed the Indian partners' views on mutualism within IAPA. Results indicated that participants believed communication, cooperation, and respect were traits of a successful partnership. The participants believe IAPA mostly exhibit these values, but that the U.S. role as a decision maker can hinder these. They desire more transparency but overall believe IAPA is beneficial and mutualistic. These findings can be furthered by assessing U.S. staff and board member perceptions of the partnership. By continuously investigating the state of international partnerships, we can learn more about how to create sustainable models for the future.

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2019-05

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

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This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years)

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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2019-05

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What Students Say Can Pave the Way: Creating Open Dialogue for Study Abroad Experiences

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The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills related to global health competencies, including cultural humility and sensitivity, collaborating with community partners, and sociocultural and political awareness. Although STEGHs offer potential benefits to both students and to sending institutions, these experiences can sometimes be problematic and raise ethical challenges. As the number of students engaged in STEGHs continues to increase, it is important to better understand the impact of these programs on student learning. Current ethical and best practice guidelines for STEGHs state that programs should establish evaluation methods to solicit feedback from students both during and on completion of the program (Crump et al. 2010). However, there is currently no established method for gathering this feedback because of the many different global health competency frameworks, types and duration of programs, and different models of student engagement in such programs. Assessing the quality of a STEGH is a profoundly important and difficult question that cannot be answered as succinctly and quantitatively as classroom performance, which has more standard and established assessment metrics. The goal of this project is to identify the most appropriate and useful assessment metric(s) for determining educational quality and impact for STEGHs at ASU by comparing a typical quantitative evaluation tool (pre-post survey with brief open-ended questions) to a more in-depth qualitative method (key informant interviews). In performing my analysis I seek to examine if the latter can produce a richer narrative of student experiences to inform ongoing program evaluations. My research questions are: 1. What are the current qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods available to assess student learning during short-term experiences in global health? 2. How can current methodology for assessing student experiences with short-term experiences in global health be adapted to collect the most information from students? 3. How do student knowledge and attitudes change before and after their short-term experience in global health? Why is understanding those changes important for adapting programs? My end goal would be to use these new, optimal assessment methods for gathering student perspectives and experiences to adapt pre-departure trainings and post-experience debriefings for study abroad programs, both of which I believe will lead to more sustainable partnerships and a healthier understanding of global health work for students.

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2018-05

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Alcohol Use Disorders and Public Policy in South Korea

Description

Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use disorders is needed. An investigation into the status and treatment

Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use disorders is needed. An investigation into the status and treatment of alcohol use disorders in South Korea was chosen due to the significant cultural differences from the United States with regards to alcohol consumption, mental health, and healthcare. The investigation used academic and grey literature, news reports, and current healthcare and public health policy to evaluate South Korea's weak areas in addressing alcohol use disorders. Greater investment into mental health research and healthcare delivery, as well as further development of the continuum of care to help patients transition from treatment of the acute symptoms of an alcohol use disorder to lifetime management are needed. Lastly, increased alcohol regulatory policies are recommended.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Dams, Displacement, and Health: Reviewing Impacts of Large Dams on Displaced Communities

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This paper explores the impacts of dam-induced displacement on the health of populations. By the start of the 21st century, an estimated 40-80 million people worldwide were forced to resettle due to the construction of large dams. The process of

This paper explores the impacts of dam-induced displacement on the health of populations. By the start of the 21st century, an estimated 40-80 million people worldwide were forced to resettle due to the construction of large dams. The process of displacement and resettlement is connected to numerous social impacts on communities such as decreases in household income, natural resources, and social connectivity, but less seems to be known about specific health impacts. Analyzing literature in a formal review allowed for increased understanding about what information already exists in published research regarding the connections between dams, displacement, and health. Some negative health impacts as a result of forced displacement were identified, including increases in infectious disease transmission, depression, and mortality rates as well as losses of food and water sources. However, the small amount of cases found in the literature review when compared to the massive scale of dam development worldwide indicates a gap in knowledge in the dam industry and research field specifically about the health of the vast majority of populations forcibly displaced by dams. Health impacts must be considered and systematically studied in dam projects involving displacement to fully understand the needs of resettled populations and move towards equitable processes in development projects worldwide.

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2020-05

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Developing the Codebook for Water and Hygiene Stigma Surveys Global Ethnohydrology Study 2015

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The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of

The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of water insecurity and obesity. In their efforts to research water insecurity and it implications, CHEL has been working on studying water insecurity through the Global Ethnohydrology Study (GES). The Global Ethnohydrology study examines local knowledge and perceptions of water issues, using transdisciplinary methods in a multi-year and cross-country program. In the 2015-2016 study, the GES examined water, hygiene norms, and hygiene stigma. It sought to investigate how hygiene norms are impacted by the level of water security, examining if water-poor communities have laxer laxer or more accommodating hygiene norms. This paper will explore the development of the codebook for this study, following the process in which the qualitative data from the GES 2015 was organized through a series of codes so that it may later be analyzed.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Sociocultural perspectives on antibiotic consumption and resistance

Description

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship,

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship, education campaigns, and health policy attempt to limit drug use globally, public understanding of antibiotic resistance and its consequences are lacking. The goal of this study is to analyze the social and cultural influences of antibiotic knowledge and usage behavior. Over a three-month period, I interviewed 211 laypersons in Guatemala, Spain, the Netherlands, India, South Africa, and New Zealand to understand their ideas, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antibiotics and compared results across countries. While an overall consensus across countries does exist, I found significant differences between low and high income countries as well as between low and high antibiotic consumption countries. Additionally, I found that having increased public health knowledge is related to lower antibiotic "risky" behavior. These results help contextualize national data on antibiotic consumption and resistance by illustrating relationships between access, beliefs, and consumption patterns within populations. The results also inform the development of community and culture specific educational campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance.

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2017-05

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A Closer Look at the Global Partnership: Re-Evaluating Sustainable Development Goal 17

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In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal 17 for global partnership affects its implementation, focusing on “building capacity”—a widely referenced target in the development arena—and the involvement of the private sector. Key informant interviews with experts in the fields of conflict of interest, ethics, and development revealed a wide variety of (often conflicting) notions about partnership, frameworks for capacity development, and the interactions between public and private actors. A literature review of key policy documents examined the terminology and implementation of multistakeholder partnerships, and analysis offered considerations for risks and suggestions in policy terminology. Results indicate a need for increased attention to the use of partnership terminology as a catch-all term to encompass development work, and makes several recommendations for changes to combat misuse of the partnership label. Finally, this study acknowledges that there is a continued need for research-based evidence for effectiveness of the partnership-based development approach.

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2018-05

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Lay Perspectives of Menarche, Contraceptives, and Reproductive Health among Urban Women & Informal Methods of Sexual Health Education in Dakar, Senegal

Description

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless

In this study, I aim to understand general knowledge of menstruation and reproductive health among women who live and work in Dakar, Senegal. While there is an established nationalized sex education curriculum and robust HIV prevention campaigns, there is nonetheless an unmet need for sexual health education in Senegal and limited access to family planning services in low-income communities. I examine data obtained from surveys conducted with participants selected using convenience sampling in five different neighborhoods in Dakar, as well as ethnographic observations during the four month period of study. Qualitative and quantitative analyses address women's comforts levels during menstruation, barriers to access of high quality menstrual care products, familiarity with different kinds of contraceptive methods, and information on where women receive information regarding puberty, sex, and menstruation. Results show that most participants seek out family members, female friends and other respected members in the community for reproductive development information. National programs and international organizations sponsor youth to become community educators, who offer an informal and more accessible method of education. Earlier research shows that informal methods of education can be extremely effective ; in the setting of Dakar, young health educators are also creating inclusive and safe spaces for meaningful discussions about sexuality to be held, combating the negative effects of the traditional patriarchal and conservative culture. Relationships with one's community are extremely important, and can be an invaluable resource in transmitting sexual and reproductive health information to women. Improved understanding of reproductive health among women in Senegal can encourage them to make informed decisions about family planning.

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2016-05