Matching Items (12)

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Part of the Pack: A Review of How Dogs Form Relationships with People

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Extensive research on the human mother-child relationship has led to the investigation of how relationships between dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) and humans compare. Studies suggest that dogs share a

Extensive research on the human mother-child relationship has led to the investigation of how relationships between dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) and humans compare. Studies suggest that dogs share a strong affectional bond with their owners and if put under stressful situations, exhibit key characteristics of attachment also observed in human babies. The goal of this review is to assess a variety of studies that explore different ways of measuring attachment between dogs and humans, beginning with a discussion of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST). The SST provides a foundation for the first studies that introduced attachment to the canine science field. It also aids in linking numerous attachment studies that look into different factors like the ages and physiology of the dogs, varying degrees of familiar people interacting with the dogs, owner-reported attitudes and behaviors, and the connection to wolves’ attachments with humans. I propose ways in which this particular scientific field can be enhanced and place a heavy emphasis on the implications of studying attachment particularly in shelter dogs. Synthesis and evaluation of the significant research on dog-human connections will not only lead to ways of fostering better relationships between owners and their dogs, but also allows us to better appreciate the special bond we have with dogs that lets us learn more every day.

Keywords: dog, attachment, human-animal interaction, animal shelter, dog behavior, preference
assessment

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Impact of Divorce on a Child's Perception of Parental Attachment

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With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether

With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether children's relationships with their parents differ based on their parents being married or divorced/separated. We hypothesized that a child's perceived relationship with their parents would be significantly influenced by parental marital status, such that those whose parents are divorced will demonstrate a negative relationship with the perception of their parents. Using data collected from the longitudinal New England Study of Suburban Youth (NESSY), we ran correlational analyses as well as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether different aspects of attachment (Alienation, Communication, and Trust), measured with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment \u2014 Revised for Children (IPPA-R) were significantly linked to parental marital status (Luthar & Barkin, 2012). Using our sample size of 489 students in the twelfth grade, we divided the groups into children with married parents (414) and children with divorced or separated parents (75). An ANOVA produced a significant difference between children's perceived relationship with their father and parental marital status; the adolescents' perception of the father's Alienation, Communication, and Trust were negatively associated with divorce. However, the child's perceived relationship with their mother was similar across both groups. These results suggest further research is needed to determine the effects of a child's perception of their relationship with their father during development, in particular in situations when parents have divorced before high school graduation.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Fido Helped Me with My Homework: Emotional Support Animals and Stress Levels in College Students

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We have seen the joy pets bring into people’s lives, and the sadness that follows the loss of them. Many pet owners view their pets as more than just animals:

We have seen the joy pets bring into people’s lives, and the sadness that follows the loss of them. Many pet owners view their pets as more than just animals: they are family. They offer a level of love and support similar to friends and family, despite not being human. Some pets are also trained as service animals to assist humans who struggle with diagnosed physical, mental, and other disabilities. However, emotional support animals appear to lie somewhere between pets and service animals, as there are rules and policies still developing around them. With more and more college students requesting to bring ESAs on campus, the question of their effectiveness has been raised. The aim of this honors thesis study is to examine the effectiveness of ESAs in alleviating mental health symptoms in college students. More specifically, I wanted to evaluate students who currently live on campus (or have lived on campus in the past). The first aim will be to determine whether non-pet owners versus ESA owners (and pet owners in general) show a difference in their stress levels. The second aim is to examine if owning a pet or ESA predicts stress levels differently between genders. The final aim of the study is to determine if degree of attachment to pets predicts differences in stress in the owners.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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How Social Intelligence Correlates with and Affects Securely and Insecurely Attached Individuals

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The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy,

The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy, a school for the highly gifted, completed an online social intelligence training program through the Social Intelligence Institute and were assessed on a number of items. These items include the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), the Attachment Questionnaire for Children (AQ-C), and a daily diary measure in which they recorded and rated their social interactions day to day. All participants were found to be either securely or insecurely attached, and those that were insecurely attached were further divided into insecure anxious attachment style and insecure avoidant attachment style. It was hypothesized that those with a secure attachment style would have higher initial TSIS scores than those with an insecure attachment style. It was also hypothesized that insecurely attached individuals would benefit more from the social intelligence training program than securely attached individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries, and insecure avoidant individuals would benefit more from the program than insecure anxious individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries. None of these hypotheses were supported by the data, as there was no significant difference between the initial social intelligence scores of the three attachment styles, and none of the variables measured were found to be significant predictors of "In tune" scores. Key Words: social intelligence, social intelligence training, attachment, attachment style, children, adolescents, gifted, IQ, high IQ

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Investing in Me or You: A Novel Role of the Attachment System in Self and Other Tradeoffs

Description

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the same tradeoff function in adults. Perhaps more pressing, for adults, are the novel social tradeoffs adults face when deciding how to invest resources between themselves and their close relationship partners. The current study investigated the role of the attachment system in navigating two such tradeoffs, in a sample of ASU undergraduates. In one tradeoff condition, participants had the option of working on puzzles to earn either themselves or their closest friend a monetary reward. In the second tradeoff condition, participants worked to earn monetary rewards for a close or new friend. Analyses showed no evidence of attachment avoidance predicting prioritizing redistributing money to a close friend in either condition. While there was no effect of anxiety on prioritizing one’s close friend over one’s self, there was a marginal effect in both prioritizing one’s close friend over a new friend when redistributing money and starting on the close friend’s word search first. Although attachment style largely did not predict earning or redistributing monetary rewards in these two relationship tradeoffs, implications for how these results fit within the broader theoretical perspective are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The role of adult attachment anxiety in the relation between cognitions and daily pain in Fibromyalgia patients

Description

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients.

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients. However, relatively few studies have explored the dynamic relation between pain and pain-related cognitions within a day, and no studies have tested the moderating role of relationship attachment on the within-day cognition—pain association in chronic pain patients. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess whether late morning pain flares predicted changes in afternoon positive and negative pain-related cognitive appraisals, and whether these changes in turn predicted end-of-day pain, and 2) explore whether adult attachment anxiety moderated the pain-cognition relation in individuals with chronic pain due to fibromyalgia. One hundred and seventy four partnered individuals with fibromyalgia completed initial assessments of demographics and attachment anxiety, and subsequently completed electronic assessments of pain intensity and positive and negative cognitive pain-related appraisals three times a day for three weeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling established that a latent negative cognitive appraisal factor (encompassing shared variance from catastrophizing, pain irritation, and self-criticism related to pain) mediated the link between late morning and end-of-day pain intensity, in line with the hypothesis. Analyses also provided some support for a mediating role for a positive cognitive appraisal factor (a composite of pain control, pain self-efficacy, and feeling pain without reacting) in the daily course of pain; the mediated effect for positive appraisals was weaker than the mediated effect of negative appraisals, but was sustained in a model that included negative appraisals. Inconsistent with prediction, attachment anxiety did not moderate the within-day links between pain and cognitions. These findings establish the dynamic links within day between pain and pain-related cognitions, and highlight the potential impact of both negative and positive cognitions on daily pain regulation. They point to the value of broadening cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies for chronic pain patients to target not only negative but also positive cognitions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Social Affect Regulation and Physical Affection Between Married Partners: An Experimental Examination of the Stress-Buffering Effect of Spousal Touch and the Role of Adult Attachment

Description

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect plays a crucial evolutionary role in social behavior, and social behavior likewise assumes an important role in affect and affect regulation. Emotion researchers are increasingly interested the specific ways people help to regulate and dysregulate one another’s affect, though experimental examinations of the extant models and theory are relatively few. This thesis presents a broad theoretical framework for social affect regulation between close others, considering the role of attachment theory and its developmental foundations for social affect regulation in adulthood. Affectionate and responsive touch is considered a major mechanism of regulatory benefit between people, both developmentally and in adulthood, and is the focus of the present investigation. Method: A total sample of 231 heterosexual married couples were recruited from the community. Participants were assigned to engage in affectionate touch or sit quietly, and/or engage in positive conversation prior to a stress task. Physiological data was collected continuously across the experiment. Hypotheses: Phasic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was used to index the degree of regulatory engagement during the stressor for those who did and did not touch. It was hypothesized that touch would reduce stress appraisal and thus the need for regulatory engagement. This effect was predicted to be greater for those more anxiously attached while increasing the need for regulatory engagement in those more avoidantly attached. Secondarily, partner effects of attachment on sympathetic activation via pre-ejection period (PEP) change were tested. It was predicted that both attachment dimensions would predict a decrease in partner PEP change in the touch condition, with avoidant attachment having the strongest effect. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to account for nonindependence in dyadic observations. The first set of hypotheses were not supported, while the second set were partially supported. Wives’ avoidance significantly predicted husbands’ PEP change, but in the positive direction. This effect also significantly increased in the touch condition. Theoretical considerations and limitations are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Synchrony and attachment

Description

Attachment relationships serve a variety of important functions for infants and adults. Despite the importance of attachment relationships in adults, the mechanisms that underlie the formation or maintenance of these

Attachment relationships serve a variety of important functions for infants and adults. Despite the importance of attachment relationships in adults, the mechanisms that underlie the formation or maintenance of these kinds of relationships outside of romantic relationships remains chronically understudied. The current research investigated whether the mechanism of synchrony, which is associated with attachment formation in the parent-infant literature, may still be tied to attachment in adults. To measure this association, these studies showed participants videos to prime synchrony, and then measured activation of attachment concepts in a word completion task. The results of Experiment 1 showed that attachment style moderated the effects of the video prime such that those who were securely attached showed activation of attachment concepts while watching the Synchrony video. Those with a preoccupied attachment style showed activation of attachment concepts when they viewed the Asynchrony video. Those with a dismissive attachment style showed an unhypothesized activation of social distance concepts when viewing the Synchrony video. Experiment 2 suggested an overall effect of the Synchrony video on activation of attachment concepts. However, there was no effect of attachment style on these results. Limits of these studies and future directions are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Proprioceptive Activities to Lower Stress (PALS)

Description

A history of trauma can affect a child’s capacity to express emotions due to the neurological footprints left from neglect and abuse. Oftentimes, children do not have a caregiver as

A history of trauma can affect a child’s capacity to express emotions due to the neurological footprints left from neglect and abuse. Oftentimes, children do not have a caregiver as a protector which leaves them vulnerable to harm. In response, children use emotional survival strategies of either flight or fight to adapt to their stressful environment. Occupational Therapy Practitioners (OTP) are positioned to address social and emotional development; however, they often feel ill equipped to address the complexity of trauma and its impact on emotions. OTPs need to look at each sensory system from a nurturing/grounding perspective using movement-based strategies as inroads to address the child’s emotional capacity. A sensory integration intervention, Proprioceptive Activities to Lower Stress (PALS), was developed to study the effect on a six-year-old boy’s expressions of emotions using a single subject design. Three emotions were measured using a facial analysis system, Noldus FaceReader™. The emotions were happiness, sadness, and neutral. Neutral is defined as the level of emotional detachment. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in the expressions of happiness and sad post the PALS program.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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How the template of relationships with parents is applied to romantic relationships and self-esteem during the transition to emerging adulthood: new considerations of the role of fathers, stability of representations, and bidirectional effects

Description

The current study examined effects of representations of relationships with parents on young adults’ representations of romantic relationships and self-esteem, with particular attention paid to the role of fathers, instability

The current study examined effects of representations of relationships with parents on young adults’ representations of romantic relationships and self-esteem, with particular attention paid to the role of fathers, instability of representations, and bidirectional effects. Data were obtained from two waves (Waves 4 and 5) of a five-wave study. At wave 4, 287 young adults (mean age = 20) participated, and at Wave 5, 276 young adults (mean age = 22) participated. One-time interviews (Behavioral Systems Questionnaires; BSQ) were conducted to measure the level of representations of relationships with parents. Nightly diary checklists (7 nights at Wave 4, and 5 nights at Wave 5) were used to measure the level and instability of representations of romantic relationships (BSQ) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale). Two styles of representations, including secure versus dismissing (e.g., relying on parents or romantic partners when distressed versus not relying on them) and preoccupied (e.g., worrying about rejection and excessive dependency) were measured for relationships with parents and romantic partners. The results showed evidence for unique roles of fathers, instability of representations, and bidirectional effects. Relationships with fathers affected young adults’ self-esteem. More nightly fluctuations in security with romantic partners predicted higher levels of security with romantic partners, but only in the context of more secure relationships. More nightly fluctuations in self-esteem predicted more dismissive representations of fathers. Bidirectional effects involved young adults’ representations of both romantic relationships and self-esteem, and their representations of relationships with parents. The relation between instability of representations of romantic relationships and later security in romantic relationships might represent learning about romantic relationships. The relation between instability of self-esteem and later dismissive styles with fathers (e.g., not relying on fathers when distressed) at this age might be an indication of learning to become autonomous from fathers. Finally, I also hypothesize that during emerging adulthood, fathers tend to encourage children to solve their stress or problems by themselves, while mothers tend to still provide help when children are distressed. These suggested hypotheses should be examined in future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016