Matching Items (48)

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The “Dark Side” of Institutional Trust

Description

The majority of trust research has focused on the benefits trust can have for individual actors, institutions, and organizations. This “optimistic bias” is particularly evident in work focused on institutional

The majority of trust research has focused on the benefits trust can have for individual actors, institutions, and organizations. This “optimistic bias” is particularly evident in work focused on institutional trust, where concepts such as procedural justice, shared values, and moral responsibility have gained prominence. But trust in institutions may not be exclusively good. We reveal implications for the “dark side” of institutional trust by reviewing relevant theories and empirical research that can contribute to a more holistic understanding. We frame our discussion by suggesting there may be a “Goldilocks principle” of institutional trust, where trust that is too low (typically the focus) or too high (not usually considered by trust researchers) may be problematic. The chapter focuses on the issue of too-high trust and processes through which such too-high trust might emerge. Specifically, excessive trust might result from external, internal, and intersecting external-internal processes. External processes refer to the actions institutions take that affect public trust, while internal processes refer to intrapersonal factors affecting a trustor’s level of trust. We describe how the beneficial psychological and behavioral outcomes of trust can be mitigated or circumvented through these processes and highlight the implications of a “darkest” side of trust when they intersect. We draw upon research on organizations and legal, governmental, and political systems to demonstrate the dark side of trust in different contexts. The conclusion outlines directions for future research and encourages researchers to consider the ethical nuances of studying how to increase institutional trust.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The Struggles of the Community Assistant Position at Universities: A Managerial Approach

Description

The Community Assistant position at Arizona State University is dealing with an issue of poor year-to-year retention. Currently, a large number of Community Assistants who could return for another year

The Community Assistant position at Arizona State University is dealing with an issue of poor year-to-year retention. Currently, a large number of Community Assistants who could return for another year are choosing not to, which is further exacerbated by the fact that graduating Community Assistants cannot stay even if they wanted to because the position must be held by active students. Through research, interviews, and testimony, this paper constructs what the Community Assistant role entails and the priorities that the role instills in current Community Assistants at ASU. It then seeks to answer the question of why low levels of year-to-year retention matter and why so many are choosing to move to different positions after their first year has ended. By building from the information provided by current Community Assistants and various management theories from a variety of sources, this paper offers actionable recommendations for Arizona State University Housing to increase retention and motivation within the Community Assistant position.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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A case study on the processes of academic advising in a school-centric environment

Description

This study examined the processes of academic advisement in a school-centric university environment utilizing the O'Banion Model of Academic Advising (1972) as a baseline for theoretical comparison. The primary research

This study examined the processes of academic advisement in a school-centric university environment utilizing the O'Banion Model of Academic Advising (1972) as a baseline for theoretical comparison. The primary research question sought to explore if the O'Banion Model of Academic Advising, a dominant theory of advisement processes, was still representative of and present in contemporary advisement. A qualitative case study methodology was utilized to explore the lived experiences of professional staff academic advisors in the academic advisement process. Eleven professional staff advisors were interviewed for up to 90 minutes each about their lived experience in providing academic advisement services. A structured series of questions were asked about the academic advisors' experiences with the process and their daily advisement activities. The participants were asked how the vision, mission, philosophies, and structures of the institution impacted their role and responsibilities in the advisement process. Mixed results were found over the presence of the O'Banion Model in contemporary advisement. The results revealed significant additional workloads, unique structures, and complex roles as a result of the institution's school-centric philosophy. Role ambiguity and confusion over responsibility for the advisement process were found.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Employee authenticity's influence on engagement, coworker interactions, and perceived effectiveness

Description

I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel

I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel they display their true selves at work, they can more fully employ their physical, cognitive and emotional energies in their work roles, which in turn leads to higher levels of employee effectiveness (e.g., task performance, perceived value to the organization, and promotability). In addition to this personal motivational process, individuals who are more authentic also develop high-quality relationships with their coworkers, thereby receiving more instrumental support and minimizing the antagonistic encounters they have with their colleagues. Both types of coworker interactions should, in turn, also influence the focal individual's effectiveness at work. Finally, I hypothesize that the relationships between authenticity and these relational and effectiveness outcomes are moderated by certain personality traits, such that when an individual is highly narcissistic, has very low self-esteem, or has strongly held values or beliefs generally perceived to be negative or deviant, the relationships change: authenticity's positive influence on coworker instrumental support becomes less positive, and authenticity's negative influence on coworker incivility becomes less negative. These moderation effects are expected for employee effectiveness as well. The sample used to test these hypotheses consisted of 102 employees and their 16 supervisors from two private companies headquartered in the Southwest United States. Authenticity was found to be positively associated with employee engagement, coworker instrumental support, and employee effectiveness, and negatively associated with coworker incivility. Once other factors were controlled for, significant relationships remained with employee engagement and coworker support. Contrary to expectations, neither engagement nor coworker interactions mediated the authenticity-employee effectiveness relationship. A dark side of authenticity was found for two of the three personality traits: self-esteem moderated the relationship between authenticity and coworker instrumental support, such that when self-esteem was low, the relationship between authenticity and coworker support was significantly weaker. Additionally, narcissism moderated the relationship between authenticity and employee effectiveness such that when narcissism was low, the relationship between authenticity and effectiveness was positive, but when narcissism was high, the relationship became negative.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Experimentation of managerial techniques for the optimization of a voluntary construction workforce

Description

Using experience, observations, data, current research, and writings in the field of volunteer management, it was determined there was a need to study the effects of leadership/management practices on the

Using experience, observations, data, current research, and writings in the field of volunteer management, it was determined there was a need to study the effects of leadership/management practices on the productivity outcomes of a volunteer construction workforce. A simple wood bench that would be tiled and painted was designed to test the areas of Time, Waste, Quality, Safety, and Satisfaction of different volunteer groups. The challenge was bolstered by giving the teams no power tools and limited available resources. A simple design of experiment model was used to test highs and lows in the three management techniques of Instruction, Help, and Encouragement. Each scenario was tested multiple times. Data was collected, normalized and analyzed using statistical analysis software. A few significant findings were discovered. The first; the research showed that there was no significant correlation between the management practices of the leader and the satisfaction of the volunteers. The second; the research also showed when further analyzed into specific realistic scenarios that the organizations would be better to focus on high amounts of Help and Encouragement in order to maximize the productivity of their volunteer construction workforce. This is significant as it allows NPO's and governments to focus their attention where best suited to produce results. The results were shared and the study was further validated as "significant" by conducting interviews with experts in the construction nonprofit sector.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Can We Be Coworkers and Friends? An Inductive Study of the Experience and Management of Virtual Coworker Friendships

Description

Scholars and practitioners increasingly recognize that coworker friendships are integral to both individual- and organizational-level outcomes. At the same time, though, the rapid increase in virtual work has taken a

Scholars and practitioners increasingly recognize that coworker friendships are integral to both individual- and organizational-level outcomes. At the same time, though, the rapid increase in virtual work has taken a principal source of adult friendships – workplaces – and drastically changed the way that individuals interact within them. No longer are proximity and extra-organizational socializing, two of the strongest predictors of coworker friendships in a co-located workplace, easily accessible. How, then, do employees become friends with each other when interacting mostly online? Once these virtual coworker friendships are forged, individuals must balance the often-conflicting norms of the friendship relationship with the coworker relationship. How, if at all, are these tensions experienced and managed when co-worker friendships are virtual? My dissertation seeks to answer these questions through a longitudinal, grounded theory study of virtual coworker friendship in a global IT firm. The emerging theory articulates the “barrier of virtuality” that challenges virtual coworker friendship formation, necessitating that individuals employ two sets of activities and one set of competencies to form friendships with one another: presence bridgers, relational informalizers, and relational digital fluency. The data also suggest that the coworker friendship tension process itself is largely similar to the previously articulated process in co-located contexts. However, the virtual context changed the frequency, types of shocks that elicited the tensions, and management of these tensions. My findings have numerous implications for the literatures on relationships at work, virtual work, and organizational tensions. They also suggest significant ways in which individuals and organizations can more effectively foster virtual coworker friendships while minimizing the potential harm of virtual coworker friendship tensions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Sucking-up in context: effects of relativity and congruence of ingratiation on social exchange relationships with supervisors and teammates

Description

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social exchange relationships with target audiences (i.e., supervisors) and subsequently obtain desired outcomes at work. On the other hand, third party observers of ingratiation often view this behavior (and the people enacting it) in a negative manner, thereby hindering ingratiatory employees’ ability to develop high quality social exchange relationships with these individuals. However, this research primarily focuses on how organizational actors perceive of ingratiatory employees while neglecting the social context in which this behavior occurs. This is an important limitation because there are compelling reasons to believe that the social context plays a crucial role in how individuals react to ingratiation. Specifically, the social context may influence the extent to which ingratiation is salient, valued, and/or perceived as normative behavior by organizational members both within and external to the ingratiator-target dyad, which in turn affects how this behavior relates to relationship quality with the target and observers. The objective of my dissertation is to address this limitation by integrating a social context perspective with social exchange theory to build a “frog-pond” model of ingratiation. To that end, I propose that employees’ ingratiation relative to their team members, rather than absolute levels of ingratiation, drives positive exchange quality with supervisors. Furthermore, I hypothesize that congruence between the focal employee’s ingratiation and other team members’ ingratiation increases employees’ social exchange quality with team members. I also shed light on the asymmetrical nature of ingratiation (in)congruence by investigating how different types of congruence and incongruence impact social exchange quality with team members in different ways. In addition, I examine how relative ingratiation indirectly influences supervisors’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee via focal employee-supervisor social exchange quality, as well as how ingratiation congruence indirectly affects team members’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee through social exchange quality between the two parties. I test my hypotheses in a multi-wave multi-source field study of 222 employees and 64 teams/supervisors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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University Staff; Creativity and Innovation in Higher Education

Description

This action research project was a concurrent mixed method case study design The purpose of this action research study was to begin to understand how an institution of higher education

This action research project was a concurrent mixed method case study design The purpose of this action research study was to begin to understand how an institution of higher education can best support creativity and innovation of university staff members. More specifically this study looked at the influence of a design thinking workshop on university staff perceived creative and innovative ability. Additionally, this study looked at the influence of individual attributes on staff creativity, and the influence of organizational attributes on staff innovation. Amabile and Pratt’s Dynamic Component Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations informed this study. Participants for this study were recruited from the Educational Outreach and Student Services division of Arizona State University at the Downtown Phoenix campus. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using a Creativity and Innovation Survey (CIS) and individual interviews. The Creativity and Innovation Survey was distributed to staff before and after they participated in a two module design thinking workshop. Interviews with staff occurred after the conclusion of the workshops. In responses to the CIS and in interview staff had a strong belief in their ability to be creative and innovative in the workplace. A correlational analysis of CIS data indicated that a positive and significant relationship existed between creativity and individual attributes, as well as between, innovation and organizational attributes. Staff also expressed these relationships during interviews. The themes of collaboration, supervision, and resources each emerged from the interview data as important influencers of staff creativity and innovation. Although staff expressed there was a value in the design thinking workshops during interviews, a significant difference was not found in staffs’ perceived creativity and innovation after participating in the design thinking workshop. Implications for practice and for future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Factors Encouraging Upward Employee Voice in an Online Workplace Portal: A Case Study of an Academic Research Institute

Description

Few studies bridge workplace engagement and employee voice with internal communication. This analysis builds upon both the crucial concept of employee engagement and its implications for communication professionals and leaders.

Few studies bridge workplace engagement and employee voice with internal communication. This analysis builds upon both the crucial concept of employee engagement and its implications for communication professionals and leaders. Further, it calls for more strategic integration of upward employee voice in internal communications. By examining factors that support communication (in two directions) and especially upward employee voice, researchers examine a case study of an intranet site at a major academic research institute. Factors that support employee expression are compared with data streams from both user survey and website analytics. The results point to voice-inducing techniques include projecting critical mass, fostering trust, and emphasizing intranet usefulness and rewards. By enriching workplace communications, voice can strengthen the employee’s ability to contribute, connect leaders with a source for direct feedback, and help employers be more responsive and nimbler.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Role of organizational power and politics in the success of public service public private partnerships

Description

This dissertation studies the role of organizational politics and power and their role in the success of public service Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). By doing so, it addresses two areas

This dissertation studies the role of organizational politics and power and their role in the success of public service Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). By doing so, it addresses two areas of research in network governance and organizational theory. On one hand it explores the role of public private partnerships in the emerging network governance paradigm of public administration. On the other hand it studies the widely discussed but considerably under-researched role of organizational power in network governance. The literature review establishes public service PPPs as a sub type of governance networks, and provides an initial framework to study the nature and dynamics of power in these PPPs. The research is descriptive in nature and uses inductive reasoning in the tradition of Kathleen Eisenhardt. Case studies in rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan are conducted on two very similar PPPs. A replication logic is used to understand how power contributed to the success of one of those projects and lack of success in the other. Based on analysis of the findings, the dissertation concludes that public service PPPs succeed when the goals of the PPP are aligned with the goals of the most powerful collaborators. This is because regardless of its structure, a public service PPP pursues the goals targeted by the sum total of the power of its politically active collaborators. The dissertation also provides insight into the complexity of the concept of success in public service PPPs and the donor control on the operation and outcomes of public service PPPs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012