Matching Items (31)
- All Subjects: Mechanical Engineering
- Creators: Chen, Kangping
As miniature and high-heat-dissipation equipment became major manufacture and operation trends, heat-rejecting and heat-transport solutions faced increasing challenges. In the 1970s, researchers showed that particle suspensions can enhance the heat transfer efficiency of their base fluids. However, their work was hindered by the sedimentation and erosion issues caused by the relatively large particle sizes in their suspensions. More recently, nanofluids--suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids-were proposed to be applied as heat transfer fluids, because of the enhanced thermal conductivity that has generally been observed. However, in practical applications, a heat conduction mechanism may not be sufficient for cooling high-heat-dissipation devices such as microelectronics or powerful optical equipment. Thus, the thermal performance under convective, i.e., flowing heat transfer conditions becomes of primary interest. In addition, with the presence of nanoparticles, the viscosity of a nanofluid is greater than its base fluid and deviates from Einstein's classical prediction. Through the use of a test rig designed and assembled as part of this dissertation, the viscosity and heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids can be simultaneously determined by pressure drop and temperature difference measurements under laminar flow conditions. An extensive characterization of the nanofluid samples, including pH, electrical conductivity, particle sizing and zeta potential, is also documented. Results indicate that with constant wall heat flux, the relative viscosities of nanofluid decrease with increasing volume flow rate. The results also show, based on Brenner's model, that the nanofluid viscosity can be explained in part by the aspect ratio of the aggregates. The measured heat transfer coefficient values for nanofluids are generally higher than those for base fluids. In the developing region, this can be at least partially explained by Prandtl number effects. The Nusselt number ( Nu ) results for nanofluid show that Nu increases with increasing nanofluid volume fraction and volume flow rate. However, only DI-H2O (deionized water) and 5/95 PG/H2O (PG = propylene glycol) based nanofluids with 1 vol% nanoparticle loading have Nu greater than the theoretical prediction, 4.364. It is suggested that the nanofluid has potential to be applied within the thermally developing region when utilizing the nanofluid as a heat transfer liquid in a circular tube. The suggested Reynold's number is greater than 100.
Numerical simulation of dynamic contact angles and contact lines in multiphase flows using level set method
Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.
Conventional fluid dynamics models such as the Navier-Stokes equations are derived for prediction of fluid motion at or near equilibrium, classic examples being the motion of fluids for which inter-molecular collisions are dominant. Flows at equilibrium permit simplifications such as the introduction of viscosity and also lead to solutions that are single-valued. However, many other regimes of interest include "fluids"' far from equilibrium; for example, rarefied gases or particle-laden flows in which the dispersed phase can be comprised of granular solids, droplets, or bubbles. Particle motion in these flows is not typically dominated by collisions and may exhibit significant memory effects; therefore, is often poorly described using continuum, field-based (Eulerian) approaches. Non-equilibrium flows generally lack a straightforward counterpart to viscosity and their multi-valued solutions cannot be represented by most Eulerian methods. This strongly motivates different strategies to address current shortcomings and the novel approach adopted in this work is based on the Conditional Quadrature Method of Moments (CQMOM). In CQMOM, moment equations are derived from the Boltzmann equation using a quadrature approximation of the velocity probability density function (PDF). CQMOM circumvents the drawbacks of current methods and leads to multivariate and multidimensional solutions in an Eulerian frame of reference. In the present work, the discretized PDF is resolved using an adaptive two-point quadrature in three-dimensional velocity space. The method is applied to computation of a series of non-equilibrium flows, ranging from simple two-dimensional test cases to fully-turbulent three-dimensional wall-bounded particle-laden flows. The primary contribution of the present effort is on development, application, and assessment of CQMOM for predicting the key features of dilute particle-laden flows. Statistical descriptors such as mean concentration and mean velocity are in good agreement with previous results, for both collision-less and collisional flows at varying particle Stokes numbers. Turbulent statistics and measures of local accumulation agree less favorably with prior results and identify areas for improvement in the modeling strategy.
ABSTRACT Electronics especially mobile electronics such as smart phones, tablet PCs, notebooks and digital cameras are undergoing rapid development nowadays and have thoroughly changed our lives. With the requirement of more transistors, higher power, smaller size, lighter weight and even bendability, thermal management of these devices became one of the key challenges. Compared to active heat management system, heat pipe, which is a passive fluidic system, is considered promising to solve this problem. However, traditional heat pipes have size, weight and capillary limitation. Thus new type of heat pipe with smaller size, lighter weight and higher capillary pressure is needed. Nanofiber has been proved with superior properties and has been applied in multiple areas. This study discussed the possibility of applying nanofiber in heat pipe as new wick structure. In this study, a needleless electrospinning device with high productivity rate was built onsite to systematically investigate the effect of processing parameters on fiber properties as well as to generate nanofiber mat to evaluate its capability in electronics cooling. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were generated. Tensiometer was used for wettability measurement. The results show that independent parameters including spinneret type, working distance, solution concentration and polymer type are strongly correlated with fiber morphology compared to other parameters. The results also show that the fabricated nanofiber mat has high capillary pressure.
Wind measurements are fundamental inputs for the evaluation of potential energy yield and performance of wind farms. Three-dimensional scanning coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) may provide a new basis for wind farm site selection, design, and control. In this research, CDL measurements obtained from multiple wind energy developments are analyzed and a novel wind farm control approach has been modeled. The possibility of using lidar measurements to more fully characterize the wind field is discussed, specifically, terrain effects, spatial variation of winds, power density, and the effect of shear at different layers within the rotor swept area. Various vector retrieval methods have been applied to the lidar data, and results are presented on an elevated terrain-following surface at hub height. The vector retrieval estimates are compared with tower measurements, after interpolation to the appropriate level. CDL data is used to estimate the spatial power density at hub height. Since CDL can measure winds at different vertical levels, an approach for estimating wind power density over the wind turbine rotor-swept area is explored. Sample optimized layouts of wind farm using lidar data and global optimization algorithms, accounting for wake interaction effects, have been explored. An approach to evaluate spatial wind speed and direction estimates from a standard nested Coupled Ocean and Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model and CDL is presented. The magnitude of spatial difference between observations and simulation for wind energy assessment is researched. Diurnal effects and ramp events as estimated by CDL and COAMPS were inter-compared. Novel wind farm control based on incoming winds and direction input from CDL's is developed. Both yaw and pitch control using scanning CDL for efficient wind farm control is analyzed. The wind farm control optimizes power production and reduces loads on wind turbines for various lidar wind speed and direction inputs, accounting for wind farm wake losses and wind speed evolution. Several wind farm control configurations were developed, for enhanced integrability into the electrical grid. Finally, the value proposition of CDL for a wind farm development, based on uncertainty reduction and return of investment is analyzed.
Production from a high pressure gas well at a high production-rate encounters the risk of operating near the choking condition for a compressible flow in porous media. The unbounded gas pressure gradient near the point of choking, which is located near the wellbore, generates an effective tensile stress on the porous rock frame. This tensile stress almost always exceeds the tensile strength of the rock and it causes a tensile failure of the rock, leading to wellbore instability. In a porous rock, not all pores are choked at the same flow rate, and when just one pore is choked, the flow through the entire porous medium should be considered choked as the gas pressure gradient at the point of choking becomes singular. This thesis investigates the choking condition for compressible gas flow in a single microscopic pore. Quasi-one-dimensional analysis and axisymmetric numerical simulations of compressible gas flow in a pore scale varicose tube with a number of bumps are carried out, and the local Mach number and pressure along the tube are computed for the flow near choking condition. The effects of tube length, inlet-to-outlet pressure ratio, the number of bumps and the amplitude of the bumps on the choking condition are obtained. These critical values provide guidance for avoiding the choking condition in practice.
A comparison of performance between reconstruction and advection algorithms for volume-of-fluid methods
The Volume-of-Fluid method is a popular method for interface tracking in Multiphase applications within Computational Fluid Dynamics. To date there exists several algorithms for reconstruction of a geometric interface surface. Of these are the Finite Difference algorithm, Least Squares Volume-of-Fluid Interface Reconstruction Algorithm, LVIRA, and the Efficient Least Squares Volume-of-Fluid Interface Reconstruction Algorithm, ELVIRA. Along with these geometric interface reconstruction algorithms, there exist several volume-of-fluid transportation algorithms. This paper will discuss two operator-splitting advection algorithms and an unsplit advection algorithm. Using these three interface reconstruction algorithms, and three advection algorithms, a comparison will be drawn to see how different combinations of these algorithms perform with respect to accuracy as well as computational expense.
Analyses of Spray Atomization Based on Integral Form of Conservation Equations: Applications to Liquid Jets in Cross Flows and to CFD
Liquid injection in cross ﬂows has applications in gas-turbine engines, afterburners and some rocket combustion chambers. Integral form of the conservation equations has been used to ﬁnd a cubic formula for the drop size in liquid sprays in cross ﬂows. Similar to the work on axial liquid sprays, the energy balance dictates that the initial kinetic energy of the gas and injected liquid be distributed into the ﬁnal surface tension energy, kinetic energy of the gas and droplets, and viscous dissipation incurred. Kinetic energy of the cross ﬂow is added to the energy balance. Then, only the viscous dissipation term needs to be phenomenologically modelled. The mass and energy balance for the spray ﬂows renders to an expression that relates the drop size to all of the relevant parameters, including the gas- and liquid-phase velocities. The results agree well with experimental data and correlations for the drop size. The solution also provides for drop size-velocity cross-correlation, leading to drop size distributions based on the gas-phase velocity distribution. These aspects can be used in estimating the drop size for practical applications, and also in computational simulations of liquid injection in cross ﬂows, and in other spray geometries in general.
The formation and stability of a slowly evolving zonal jet in 2-D flow with beta effect is analyzed using the model developed by Manfroi and Young in which the final governing equation was derived by means of a perturbation analysis of a barotropic vorticity equation with sinusoidal meridional mean flow. However in the original study the term β0, that represents the effect of large-scale Rossby waves, was dropped and was proceeded on a path of finding solutions for a simplified 1-D flow. The idea of this study is to understand the effects of the dropped term on the overall dynamics of the zonal jet evolution. For this purpose the system that is entirely deterministic with no additional forcing is solved by means of a standard finite difference scheme. The Numerical solutions are found for varying β0 and μ values where μ represents the bottom drag. In addition to this the criteria for the formation of zonal jets developed originally for the 1-D system is verified for the 2-D system as well. The study reveals the similarity in some of the results of the 1-D and the 2-D system like the merging of jets in the absence of bottom drag, formation of steady jets in presence of a non-zero bottom drag and the adherence to the boundary criteria for the formation of zonal jets. But when it comes to the formation of steady jets, a finite β0 value is required above which the solution is similar to the 1-D system. Also the jets formed under the presence of non-zero bottom drag seem wavy in nature which is different from the steady horizontal jets produced in the 1-D system.
Role of interactions of boundary conditions and baroclinic vorticity in the instability of thermally stratified spinup in a cylinder
A numerical study of incremental spin-up and spin-up from rest of a thermally- stratified fluid enclosed within a right circular cylinder with rigid bottom and side walls and stress-free upper surface is presented. Thermally stratified spin-up is a typical example of baroclinity, which is initiated by a sudden increase in rotation rate and the tilting of isotherms gives rise to baroclinic source of vorticity. Research by (Smirnov et al. [2010a]) showed the differences in evolution of instabilities when Dirichlet and Neumann thermal boundary conditions were applied at top and bottom walls. Study of parametric variations carried out in this dissertation confirmed the instability patterns observed by them for given aspect ratio and Rossby number values greater than 0.5. Also results reveal that flow maintained axisymmetry and stability for short aspect ratio containers independent of amount of rotational increment imparted. Investigation on vorticity components provides framework for baroclinic vorticity feedback mechanism which plays important role in delayed rise of instabilities when Dirichlet thermal Boundary Conditions are applied.