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Adaptive Technologies using Soft Robotic Bladders

Description

The traditional understanding of robotics includes mechanisms of rigid structures, which can manipulate surrounding objects, taking advantage of mechanical actuators such as motors and servomechanisms. Although these methods provide the underlying fundamental concepts behind much of modern technological infrastructure, in

The traditional understanding of robotics includes mechanisms of rigid structures, which can manipulate surrounding objects, taking advantage of mechanical actuators such as motors and servomechanisms. Although these methods provide the underlying fundamental concepts behind much of modern technological infrastructure, in fields such as manufacturing, automation, and biomedical application, the robotic structures formed by rigid axels on mechanical actuators lack the delicate differential sensors and actuators associated with known biological systems. The rigid structures of traditional robotics also inhibit the use of simple mechanisms in congested and/or fragile environments. By observing a variety of biological systems, it is shown that nature models its structures over millions of years of evolution into a combination of soft structures and rigid skeletal interior supports. Through technological bio-inspired designs, researchers hope to mimic some of the complex behaviors of biological mechanisms using pneumatic actuators coupled with highly compliant materials that exhibit relatively large reversible elastic strain. This paper begins the brief history of soft robotics, the various classifications of pneumatic fluid systems, the associated difficulties that arise with the unpredictable nature of fluid reactions, the methods of pneumatic actuators in use today, the current industrial applications of soft robotics, and focuses in large on the construction of a universally adaptable soft robotic gripper and material application tool. The central objective of this experiment is to compatibly pair traditional rigid robotics with the emerging technologies of sort robotic actuators. This will be done by combining a traditional rigid robotic arm with a soft robotic manipulator bladder for the purposes of object manipulation and excavation of extreme environments.

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2016-05

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Quantifying Microstructural Effects on the Strain Localization During Fatigue

Description

The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium has been selected due to its desirable properties and applicability

The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium has been selected due to its desirable properties and applicability in several engineering fields. Both samples are polished and etched in order to visualize and characterize the microstructure and its features. The samples then undergo strain-controlled fatigue tests for several thousand cycles. Throughout testing, images of the samples are taken at zero and maximum load for DIC analysis. The DIC results can be used to study the local strains of the samples. The DIC analysis performed on the CP-Ti sample and presented in this study will be used to understand how the addition of oxygen in the Ti-O impacts fatigue response. The outcome of this research can be used to develop long-lasting, high strength materials.

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2016-05

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Fracture of nanoporous gold

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This research examines several critical aspects of the so-called "film induced cleavage" model of stress corrosion cracking using silver-gold alloys as the parent-phase material. The model hypothesizes that the corrosion generates a brittle nanoporous film, which subsequently fractures forming a

This research examines several critical aspects of the so-called "film induced cleavage" model of stress corrosion cracking using silver-gold alloys as the parent-phase material. The model hypothesizes that the corrosion generates a brittle nanoporous film, which subsequently fractures forming a high-speed crack that is injected into the uncorroded parent-phase alloy. This high speed crack owing to its kinetic energy can penetrate beyond the corroded layer into the parent phase and thus effectively reducing strength of the parent phase. Silver-gold alloys provide an ideal system to study this effect, as hydrogen effect can be ruled out on thermodynamic basis. During corrosion of the silver-gold alloy, the less noble metal i.e. silver is removed from the system leaving behind a nanoporous gold (NPG) layer. In the case of polycrystalline material, this corrosion process proceeds deeper along the grain boundary than the matrix grain. All of the cracks with apparent penetration beyond the corroded (dealloyed) layer are intergranular. Our aim was to study the crack penetration depth along the grain boundary to ascertain whether the penetration occurs past the grain-boundary dealloyed depth. EDS and imaging in high-resolution aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) have been used to evaluate the grain boundary corrosion depth.

The mechanical properties of monolithic NPG are also studied. The motivation behind this is two-fold. The crack injection depth depends on the speed of the crack formed in the nanoporous layer, which in turn depends on the mechanical properties of the NPG. Also NPG has potential applications in actuation, sensing and catalysis. The measured value of the Young's modulus of NPG with 40 nm ligament size and 28% density was ~ 2.5 GPa and the Poisson's ratio was ~ 0.20. The fracture stress was observed to be ~ 11-13 MPa. There was no significant change observed between these mechanical properties on oxidation of NPG at 1.4 V. The fracture toughness value for the NPG was ~ 10 J/m2. Also dynamic fracture tests showed that the NPG is capable of supporting crack velocities ~ 100 - 180 m/s.

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2014

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Date Created
2015

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The C++ implementation of refined level set grid (RLSG) method

Description

In this thesis, a FORTRAN code is rewritten in C++ with an object oriented ap-

proach. There are several reasons for this purpose. The first reason is to establish

the basis of a GPU programming. To write programs that utilize GPU hardware,

CUDA

In this thesis, a FORTRAN code is rewritten in C++ with an object oriented ap-

proach. There are several reasons for this purpose. The first reason is to establish

the basis of a GPU programming. To write programs that utilize GPU hardware,

CUDA or OpenCL is used which only support C and C++. FORTRAN has a feature

that lets its programs to call C/C++ functions. FORTRAN sends relevant data to

C/C++, which in turn sends that data to OpenCL. Although this approach works,

it makes the code messy and bulky and in the end more difficult to deal with. More-

over, there is a slight performance decrease from the additional data copy. This is

the motivation to have the code entirely written in C++ to make it more uniform,

efficient and clean. The second reason is the object oriented feature of the C++. The

“abstraction”, “inheritance” and “run-time polymorphism” features of C++ provide

some form of classes and objects, the ability to build new abstractions, and some

form of run-time binding, respectively. In recent years, some of popular codes has

been rewritten in C++ which were initially in FORTRAN. One of these softwares is

LAMMPS.

In this code the level set equation is solved by RLSG method to track the interface in

two phase flow. In gas/fluid flows, the surface tension is important and only exists at

the interface. Therefore, the location and some geometric features of interface need

to be evaluated which can be achieved by solving the level set equation.

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Date Created
2015

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3D modeling of incipient spall damage in shocked FCC multicrystals

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Correlations have been found between the damage sites and the surrounding microstructure to determine the preferred sites of spall damage, since it tends to localize at and around the regions of intrinsic defects such as grain boundaries and triple points. However, considerable amount of work still has to be done in this regard to determine the physics driving the damage at these intrinsic weak sites in the microstructure. The main focus of this research work is to understand the physical mechanisms behind the damage localization at these preferred sites. A crystal plasticity constitutive model is implemented with different damage criteria to study the effects of stress concentration and strain localization at the grain boundaries. A cohesive zone modeling technique is used to include the intrinsic strength of the grain boundaries in the simulations. The constitutive model is verified using single elements tests, calibrated using single crystal impact experiments and validated using bicrystal and multicrystal impact experiments. The results indicate that strain localization is the predominant driving force for damage initiation and evolution. The microstructural effects on theses damage sites are studied to attribute the extent of damage to microstructural features such as grain orientation, misorientation, Taylor factor and the grain boundary planes. The finite element simulations show good correlation with the experimental results and can be used as the preliminary step in developing accurate probabilistic models for damage nucleation.

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Date Created
2013

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Study of interface adhesive properties of wurtzite materials for carbon fiber composites

Description

Recently, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as an interphase in composite materials has been demonstrated to increase the interfacial shear strength between carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix. In this research work, the strong adhesion between ZnO and

Recently, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as an interphase in composite materials has been demonstrated to increase the interfacial shear strength between carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix. In this research work, the strong adhesion between ZnO and carbon fiber is investigated to elucidate the interactions at the interface that result in high interfacial strength. First, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to calculate the adhesive energy between bare carbon and ZnO. Since the carbon fiber surface has oxygen functional groups, these were modeled and MD simulations showed the preference of ketones to strongly interact with ZnO, however, this was not observed in the case of hydroxyls and carboxylic acid. It was also found that the ketone molecules ability to change orientation facilitated the interactions with the ZnO surface. Experimentally, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the adhesive energy between ZnO and carbon through a liftoff test by employing highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate and a ZnO covered AFM tip. Oxygen functionalization of the HOPG surface shows the increase of adhesive energy. Additionally, the surface of ZnO was modified to hold a negative charge, which demonstrated an increase in the adhesive energy. This increase in adhesion resulted from increased induction forces given the relatively high polarizability of HOPG and the preservation of the charge on ZnO surface. It was found that the additional negative charge can be preserved on the ZnO surface because there is an energy barrier since carbon and ZnO form a Schottky contact. Other materials with the same ionic properties of ZnO but with higher polarizability also demonstrated good adhesion to carbon. This result substantiates that their induced interaction can be facilitated not only by the polarizability of carbon but by any of the materials at the interface. The versatility to modify the magnitude of the induced interaction between carbon and an ionic material provides a new route to create interfaces with controlled interfacial strength.

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Date Created
2013

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The effects of nonlinear damping on post-flutter behavior using geometrically nonlinear reduced order modeling

Description

Recent studies of the occurrence of post-flutter limit cycle oscillations (LCO) of the F-16 have provided good support to the long-standing hypothesis that this phenomenon involves a nonlinear structural damping. A potential mechanism for the appearance of nonlinearity in the

Recent studies of the occurrence of post-flutter limit cycle oscillations (LCO) of the F-16 have provided good support to the long-standing hypothesis that this phenomenon involves a nonlinear structural damping. A potential mechanism for the appearance of nonlinearity in the damping are the nonlinear geometric effects that arise when the deformations become large enough to exceed the linear regime. In this light, the focus of this investigation is first on extending nonlinear reduced order modeling (ROM) methods to include viscoelasticity which is introduced here through a linear Kelvin-Voigt model in the undeformed configuration. Proceeding with a Galerkin approach, the ROM governing equations of motion are obtained and are found to be of a generalized van der Pol-Duffing form with parameters depending on the structure and the chosen basis functions. An identification approach of the nonlinear damping parameters is next proposed which is applicable to structures modeled within commercial finite element software.

The effects of this nonlinear damping mechanism on the post-flutter response is next analyzed on the Goland wing through time-marching of the aeroelastic equations comprising a rational fraction approximation of the linear aerodynamic forces. It is indeed found that the nonlinearity in the damping can stabilize the unstable aerodynamics and lead to finite amplitude limit cycle oscillations even when the stiffness related nonlinear geometric effects are neglected. The incorporation of these latter effects in the model is found to further decrease the amplitude of LCO even though the dominant bending motions do not seem to stiffen as the level of displacements is increased in static analyses.

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Date Created
2015

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Analysis of cavitation-induced pressure loads on compliant polymer coatings

Description

Cavitation erosion is a significant cause of wear in marine components, such as impellers, propellers or rudders. While the erosion process has been widely studied on metals, the effect of cavitation on polymers is not well-understood. The stress response in

Cavitation erosion is a significant cause of wear in marine components, such as impellers, propellers or rudders. While the erosion process has been widely studied on metals, the effect of cavitation on polymers is not well-understood. The stress response in metals differs greatly from that of polymers, e.g. rate and temperature effects are far more important, thus damage and wear mechanisms of polymers under cavitating flows are significantly different. In this work, heat-driven failure caused by viscous dissipation and void nucleation resulting from tensile stresses arising from stress wave reflections are investigated as two possible material failure mechanisms.

As a first step in developing a fundamental understanding of the cavitation erosion process on polymer surfaces, simulations are performed of the collapse of individual bubbles against a compliant surface e.g. metallic substrates with polyurea coatings. The surface response of collapse-driven impact loads is represented by a idealized, time-dependent, Gaussian pressure distribution on the surface. A two-dimensional distribution of load radii and durations is considered corresponding to characteristic of cavitating flows accelerated erosion experiments. Finite element simulations are performed to fit a response curve that relates the loading parameters to the energy dissipated in the coating and integrated with collapse statistics to generate an expected heat input into the coating.

The impulsive pressure, which is generated due to bubble collapse, impacts the material and generates intense shock waves. The stress waves within the material reflects by interaction with the substrate. A transient region of high tensile stress is produced by the interaction of these waves. Simulations suggests that maximum hydrostatic tension which cause failure of polyurea layer is observed in thick coating. Also, the dissipated viscous energy and corresponding temperature rise in a polyurea is calculated, and it is concluded that temperature has influence on deformation.

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Date Created
2015

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Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts

Description

The football helmet is a device used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. The current design methodology of using a hard shell with an energy

The football helmet is a device used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. The current design methodology of using a hard shell with an energy absorbing liner may be adequate for minimizing TBI, however it has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The latest research in brain injury mechanisms has established that the current design methodology has produced a helmet to reduce linear acceleration of the head. However, angular accelerations also have an adverse effect on the brain response, and must be investigated as a contributor of brain injury.

To help better understand how the football helmet design features effect the brain response during impact, this research develops a validated football helmet model and couples it with a full LS-DYNA human body model developed by the Global Human Body Modeling Consortium (v4.1.1). The human body model is a conglomeration of several validated models of different sections of the body. Of particular interest for this research is the Wayne State University Head Injury Model for modeling the brain. These human body models were validated using a combination of cadaveric and animal studies. In this study, the football helmet was validated by laboratory testing using drop tests on the crown of the helmet. By coupling the two models into one finite element model, the brain response to impact loads caused by helmet design features can be investigated. In the present research, LS-DYNA is used to study a helmet crown impact with a rigid steel plate so as to obtain the strain-rate, strain, and stress experienced in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem as these anatomical regions are areas of concern with respect to mTBI.

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Date Created
2014