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An improved framework for design concept generation based on experiential and intuitive methods

Description

Conceptual design stage plays a critical role in product development. However, few systematic methods and tools exist to support conceptual design. The long term aim of this project is to develop a tool for facilitating holistic ideation for conceptual design.

Conceptual design stage plays a critical role in product development. However, few systematic methods and tools exist to support conceptual design. The long term aim of this project is to develop a tool for facilitating holistic ideation for conceptual design. This research is a continuation of past efforts in ASU Design Automation Lab. In past research, an interactive software test bed (Holistic Ideation Tool - version 1) was developed to explore logical ideation methods. Ideation states were identified and ideation strategies were developed to overcome common ideation blocks. The next version (version 2) of the holistic ideation tool added Cascading Evolutionary Morphological Charts (CEMC) framework and intuitive ideation strategies (reframing, restructuring, random connection, and forced connection).

Despite these remarkable contributions, there exist shortcomings in the previous versions (version 1 and version 2) of the holistic ideation tool. First, there is a need to add new ideation methods to the holistic ideation tool. Second, the organizational framework provided by previous versions needs to be improved, and a holistic approach needs to be devised, instead of separate logical or intuitive approaches. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to make the improvements and to resolve technical issues that are involved in their implementation.

Towards this objective, a new web based holistic ideation tool (version 3) has been created. The new tool adds and integrates Knowledge Bases of Mechanisms and Components Off-The-Shelf (COTS) into logical ideation methods. Additionally, an improved CEMC framework has been devised for organizing ideas efficiently. Furthermore, the usability of the tool has been improved by designing and implementing a new graphical user interface (GUI) which is more user friendly. It is hoped that these new features will lead to a platform for the designers to not only generate creative ideas but also effectively organize and store them in the conceptual design stage. By placing it on the web for public use, the Testbed has the potential to be used for research on the ideation process by effectively collecting large amounts of data from designers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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3-D conformance analysis of manufacturing plans using M-maps, by explicating formal GD&T schema from the process plan

Description

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures and operation parameters; tolerances typically show up in less formal

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures and operation parameters; tolerances typically show up in less formal manner in such plans, if at all. It is not uncommon to see only dimensional plus/minus values on rough sketches accompanying the instructions. On the other hand, design drawings use standard GD&T (Geometrical Dimensioning and tolerancing) symbols with datums and DRFs (Datum Reference Frames) clearly specified. This is not to say that process planners do not consider tolerances; they are implied by way of choices of fixtures, tools, machines, and operations. When converting design tolerances to the manufacturing datum flow, process planners do tolerance charting, that is based on operation sequence but the resulting plans cannot be audited for conformance to design specification.

In this thesis, I will present a framework for explicating the GD&T schema implied by machining process plans. The first step is to derive the DRFs from the fixturing method in each set-up. Then basic dimensions for the features to be machined in each set up are determined with respect to the extracted DRF. Using shop data for the machines and operations involved, the range of possible geometric variations are estimated for each type of tolerances (form, size, orientation, and position). The sequence of manufacturing operations determines the datum flow chain. Once we have a formal manufacturing GD&T schema, we can analyze and compare it to tolerance specifications from design using the T-map math model. Since the model is based on the manufacturing process plan, it is called resulting T-map or m-map. Then the process plan can be validated by adjusting parameters so that the m-map lies within the T-map created for the design drawing. How the m-map is created to be compared with the T-map is the focus of this research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Problem map: a framework for investigating the role of problem formulation in creative design

Description

Design problem formulation is believed to influence creativity, yet it has received only modest attention in the research community. Past studies of problem formulation are scarce and often have small sample sizes. The main objective of this research is to

Design problem formulation is believed to influence creativity, yet it has received only modest attention in the research community. Past studies of problem formulation are scarce and often have small sample sizes. The main objective of this research is to understand how problem formulation affects creative outcome. Three research areas are investigated: development of a model which facilitates capturing the differences among designers' problem formulation; representation and implication of those differences; the relation between problem formulation and creativity.

This dissertation proposes the Problem Map (P-maps) ontological framework. P-maps represent designers' problem formulation in terms of six groups of entities (requirement, use scenario, function, artifact, behavior, and issue). Entities have hierarchies within each group and links among groups. Variables extracted from P-maps characterize problem formulation.

Three experiments were conducted. The first experiment was to study the similarities and differences between novice and expert designers. Results show that experts use more abstraction than novices do and novices are more likely to add entities in a specific order. Experts also discover more issues.

The second experiment was to see how problem formulation relates to creativity. Ideation metrics were used to characterize creative outcome. Results include but are not limited to a positive correlation between adding more issues in an unorganized way with quantity and variety, more use scenarios and functions with novelty, more behaviors and conflicts identified with quality, and depth-first exploration with all ideation metrics. Fewer hierarchies in use scenarios lower novelty and fewer links to requirements and issues lower quality of ideas.

The third experiment was to see if problem formulation can predict creative outcome. Models based on one problem were used to predict the creativity of another. Predicted scores were compared to assessments of independent judges. Quality and novelty are predicted more accurately than variety, and quantity. Backward elimination improves model fit, though reduces prediction accuracy.

P-maps provide a theoretical framework for formalizing, tracing, and quantifying conceptual design strategies. Other potential applications are developing a test of problem formulation skill, tracking students' learning of formulation skills in a course, and reproducing other researchers’ observations about designer thinking.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Least-squares fit for points measured along line-profiles formed from line and arc segments

Description

Tolerances on line profiles are used to control cross-sectional shapes of parts, such as turbine blades. A full life cycle for many mechanical devices depends (i) on a wise assignment of tolerances during design and (ii) on careful quality control

Tolerances on line profiles are used to control cross-sectional shapes of parts, such as turbine blades. A full life cycle for many mechanical devices depends (i) on a wise assignment of tolerances during design and (ii) on careful quality control of the manufacturing process to ensure adherence to the specified tolerances. This thesis describes a new method for quality control of a manufacturing process by improving the method used to convert measured points on a part to a geometric entity that can be compared directly with tolerance specifications. The focus of this paper is the development of a new computational method for obtaining the least-squares fit of a set of points that have been measured with a coordinate measurement machine along a line-profile. The pseudo-inverse of a rectangular matrix is used to convert the measured points to the least-squares fit of the profile. Numerical examples are included for convex and concave line-profiles, that are formed from line- and circular arc-segments.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Effect of rolling induced anisotropy on fatigue crack initiation and short crack propagation in Al 2024-T351

Description

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue properties has not been studied extensively and it is likely

A full understanding of material behavior is important for the prediction of residual useful life of aerospace structures via computational modeling. In particular, the influence of rolling-induced anisotropy on fatigue properties has not been studied extensively and it is likely to have a meaningful effect. In this work, fatigue behavior of a wrought Al alloy (2024-T351) is studied using notched uniaxial samples with load axes along either the longitudinal or transverse direction, and center notched biaxial samples (cruciforms) with a uniaxial stress state of equivalent amplitude about the bore. Local composition and crystallography were quantified before testing using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Electron Backscattering Diffraction. Interrupted fatigue testing at stresses close to yielding was performed on the samples to nucleate and propagate short cracks and nucleation sites were located and characterized using standard optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results show that crack nucleation occurred due to fractured particles for longitudinal dogbone/cruciform samples; while transverse samples nucleated cracks by debonded and fractured particles. Change in crack nucleation mechanism is attributed to dimensional change of particles with respect to the material axes caused by global anisotropy. Crack nucleation from debonding reduced life till matrix fracture because debonded particles are sharper and generate matrix cracks sooner than their fractured counterparts. Longitudinal samples experienced multisite crack initiation because of reduced cross sectional areas of particles parallel to the loading direction. Conversely the favorable orientation of particles in transverse samples reduced instances of particle fracture eliminating multisite cracking and leading to increased fatigue life. Cyclic tests of cruciform samples showed that crack growth favors longitudinal and transverse directions with few instances of crack growth 45 degrees (diagonal) to the rolling direction. The diagonal crack growth is attributed to stronger influences of local anisotropy on crack nucleation. It was observed that majority of the time crack nucleation is governed by the mixed influences of global and local anisotropies. Measurements of crystal directions parallel to the load on main crack paths revealed directions clustered near the {110} planes and high index directions. This trend is attributed to environmental effects as a result of cyclic testing in air.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Standardization of CMM algorithms and development of inspection maps for geometric tolerances

Description

The essence of this research is the reconciliation and standardization of feature fitting algorithms used in Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) software and the development of Inspection Maps (i-Maps) for representing geometric tolerances in the inspection stage based on these standardized

The essence of this research is the reconciliation and standardization of feature fitting algorithms used in Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) software and the development of Inspection Maps (i-Maps) for representing geometric tolerances in the inspection stage based on these standardized algorithms. The i-Map is a hypothetical point-space that represents the substitute feature evaluated for an actual part in the inspection stage. The first step in this research is to investigate the algorithms used for evaluating substitute features in current CMM software. For this, a survey of feature fitting algorithms available in the literature was performed and then a case study was done to reverse engineer the feature fitting algorithms used in commercial CMM software. The experiments proved that algorithms based on least squares technique are mostly used for GD&T; inspection and this wrong choice of fitting algorithm results in errors and deficiency in the inspection process. Based on the results, a standardization of fitting algorithms is proposed in light of the definition provided in the ASME Y14.5 standard and an interpretation of manual inspection practices. Standardized algorithms for evaluating substitute features from CMM data, consistent with the ASME Y14.5 standard and manual inspection practices for each tolerance type applicable to planar features are developed. Second, these standardized algorithms developed for substitute feature fitting are then used to develop i-Maps for size, orientation and flatness tolerances that apply to their respective feature types. Third, a methodology for Statistical Process Control (SPC) using the I-Maps is proposed by direct fitting of i-Maps into the parent T-Maps. Different methods of computing i-Maps, namely, finding mean, computing the convex hull and principal component analysis are explored. The control limits for the process are derived from inspection samples and a framework for statistical control of the process is developed. This also includes computation of basic SPC and process capability metrics.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

Description

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Development and verification of a library of future fitting algorithms for CMMs

Description

Conformance of a manufactured feature to the applied geometric tolerances is done by analyzing the point cloud that is measured on the feature. To that end, a geometric feature is fitted to the point cloud and the results are assessed

Conformance of a manufactured feature to the applied geometric tolerances is done by analyzing the point cloud that is measured on the feature. To that end, a geometric feature is fitted to the point cloud and the results are assessed to see whether the fitted feature lies within the specified tolerance limits or not. Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) use feature fitting algorithms that incorporate least square estimates as a basis for obtaining minimum, maximum, and zone fits. However, a comprehensive set of algorithms addressing the fitting procedure (all datums, targets) for every tolerance class is not available. Therefore, a Library of algorithms is developed to aid the process of feature fitting, and tolerance verification. This paper addresses linear, planar, circular, and cylindrical features only. This set of algorithms described conforms to the international Standards for GD&T.; In order to reduce the number of points to be analyzed, and to identify the possible candidate points for linear, circular and planar features, 2D and 3D convex hulls are used. For minimum, maximum, and Chebyshev cylinders, geometric search algorithms are used. Algorithms are divided into three major categories: least square, unconstrained, and constrained fits. Primary datums require one sided unconstrained fits for their verification. Secondary datums require one sided constrained fits for their verification. For size and other tolerance verifications, we require both unconstrained and constrained fits

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Tolerance maps for patterns of profiles

Description

This thesis contains the applications of the ASU mathematical model (Tolerance Maps, T-Maps) to the construction of T-Maps for patterns of line profiles. Previously, Tolerance Maps were developed for patterns of features such as holes, pins, slots and tabs to

This thesis contains the applications of the ASU mathematical model (Tolerance Maps, T-Maps) to the construction of T-Maps for patterns of line profiles. Previously, Tolerance Maps were developed for patterns of features such as holes, pins, slots and tabs to control their position. The T-Maps that are developed in this thesis are fully compatible with the ASME Y14.5 Standard. A pattern of square profiles, both linear and 2D, is used throughout this thesis to illustrate the idea of constructing the T-Maps for line profiles. The Standard defines two ways of tolerancing a pattern of profiles - Composite Tolerancing and Multiple Single Segment Tolerancing. Further, in the composite tolerancing scheme, there are two different ways to control the entire pattern - repeating a single datum or two datums in the secondary datum reference frame. T-Maps are constructed for all the different specifications. The Standard also describes a way to control the coplanarity of discontinuous surfaces using a profile tolerance and T-Maps have been developed. Since verification of manufactured parts relative to the tolerance specifications is crucial, a least squares fit approach, which was developed earlier for line profiles, has been extended to patterns of line profiles. For a pattern, two tolerances are specified, and the manufactured profile needs to lie within the tolerance zones established by both of these tolerances. An i-Map representation of the manufactured variation, located within the T-Map is also presented in this thesis.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Tolerance analysis of parallel assemblies using tolerance-maps® and a functional map derived from induced deformations

Description

This thesis concerns the role of geometric imperfections on assemblies in which the location of a target part is dependent on supports at two features. In some applications, such as a turbo-machine rotor that is supported by a series of

This thesis concerns the role of geometric imperfections on assemblies in which the location of a target part is dependent on supports at two features. In some applications, such as a turbo-machine rotor that is supported by a series of parts at each bearing, it is the interference or clearance at a functional target feature, such as at the blades that must be controlled. The first part of this thesis relates the limits of location for the target part to geometric imperfections of other parts when stacked-up in parallel paths. In this section parts are considered to be rigid (non-deformable). By understanding how much of variation from the supporting parts contribute to variations of the target feature, a designer can better utilize the tolerance budget when assigning values to individual tolerances. In this work, the T-Map®, a spatial math model is used to model the tolerance accumulation in parallel assemblies. In other applications where parts are flexible, deformations are induced when parts in parallel are clamped together during assembly. Presuming that perfectly manufactured parts have been designed to fit perfectly together and produce zero deformations, the clamping-induced deformations result entirely from the imperfect geometry that is produced during manufacture. The magnitudes and types of these deformations are a function of part dimensions and material stiffnesses, and they are limited by design tolerances that control manufacturing variations. These manufacturing variations, if uncontrolled, may produce high enough stresses when the parts are assembled that premature failure can occur before the design life. The last part of the thesis relates the limits on the largest von Mises stress in one part to functional tolerance limits that must be set at the beginning of a tolerance analysis of parts in such an assembly.

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Date Created
2012