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Assessment of global model simulations of present and future climate

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Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations have organized a multi-national

Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations have organized a multi-national effort to use global atmosphere-ocean models to project anthropogenically induced climate changes in the 21st century. The computer simulations performed with those models and archived by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) form the most comprehensive quantitative basis for the prediction of global environmental changes on decadal-to-centennial time scales. While the CMIP5 archives have been widely used for policy making, the inherent biases in the models have not been systematically examined. The main objective of this study is to validate the CMIP5 simulations of the 20th century climate with observations to quantify the biases and uncertainties in state-of-the-art climate models. Specifically, this work focuses on three major features in the atmosphere: the jet streams over the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the low level jet (LLJ) stream over central North America which affects the weather in the United States, and the near-surface wind field over North America which is relevant to energy applications. The errors in the model simulations of those features are systematically quantified and the uncertainties in future predictions are assessed for stakeholders to use in climate applications. Additional atmospheric model simulations are performed to determine the sources of the errors in climate models. The results reject a popular idea that the errors in the sea surface temperature due to an inaccurate ocean circulation contributes to the errors in major atmospheric jet streams.

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2014

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Optimization of the implementation of renewable resources in a municipal electric utility in Arizona

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A municipal electric utility in Mesa, Arizona with a peak load of approximately 85 megawatts (MW) was analyzed to determine how the implementation of renewable resources (both wind and solar) would affect the overall cost of energy purchased by the

A municipal electric utility in Mesa, Arizona with a peak load of approximately 85 megawatts (MW) was analyzed to determine how the implementation of renewable resources (both wind and solar) would affect the overall cost of energy purchased by the utility. The utility currently purchases all of its energy through long term energy supply contracts and does not own any generation assets and so optimization was achieved by minimizing the overall cost of energy while adhering to specific constraints on how much energy the utility could purchase from the short term energy market. Scenarios were analyzed for a five percent and a ten percent penetration of renewable energy in the years 2015 and 2025. Demand Side Management measures (through thermal storage in the City's district cooling system, electric vehicles, and customers' air conditioning improvements) were evaluated to determine if they would mitigate some of the cost increases that resulted from the addition of renewable resources.

In the 2015 simulation, wind energy was less expensive than solar to integrate to the supply mix. When five percent of the utility's energy requirements in 2015 are met by wind, this caused a 3.59% increase in the overall cost of energy. When that five percent is met by solar in 2015, it is estimated to cause a 3.62% increase in the overall cost of energy. A mix of wind and solar in 2015 caused a lower increase in the overall cost of energy of 3.57%. At the ten percent implementation level in 2015, solar, wind, and a mix of solar and wind caused increases of 7.28%, 7.51% and 7.27% respectively in the overall cost of energy.

In 2025, at the five percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 3.07% and 2.22% respectively. In 2025, at the ten percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 6.23% and 4.67% respectively.

Demand Side Management reduced the overall cost of energy by approximately 0.6%, mitigating some of the cost increase from adding renewable resources.

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2014

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Study of cross-flow cooling efects in a stirling engine heat exchanger

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While much effort in Stirling engine development is placed on making the high-temperature region of the Stirling engine warmer, this research explores methods to lower the temperature of the cold region by improving heat transfer in the cooler. This paper

While much effort in Stirling engine development is placed on making the high-temperature region of the Stirling engine warmer, this research explores methods to lower the temperature of the cold region by improving heat transfer in the cooler. This paper presents heat transfer coefficients obtained for a Stirling engine heat exchanger with oscillatory flow. The effects of oscillating frequency and input heat rate on the heat transfer coefficients are evaluated and details on the design and development of the heat exchanger test apparatus are also explained. Featured results include the relationship between overall heat transfer coefficients and oscillation frequency which increase from 21.5 to 46.1 Wm-2K-1 as the oscillation frequency increases from 6.0 to 19.3 Hz. A correlation for the Nusselt number on the inside of the heat exchange tubes in oscillatory flow is presented in a concise, dimensionless form in terms of the kinetic Reynolds number as a result of a statistical analysis. The test apparatus design is proven to be successful throughout its implementation due to the usefulness of data and clear trends observed. The author is not aware of any other publicly-available research on a Stirling engine cooler to the extent presented in this paper. Therefore, the present results are analyzed on a part-by-part basis and compared to segments of other research; however, strong correlations with data from other studies are not expected. The data presented in this paper are part of a continuing effort to better understand heat transfer properties in Stirling engines as well as other oscillating flow applications.

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2011

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Numerical methods and simulations of complex multiphase flows

Description

Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phe- nomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often

Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phe- nomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impos- sible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This disserta- tion describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier- Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational architectures. In the first system, the code's ability to handle surface tension and large tem- perature gradients is established. In the second system, the code's ability to sim- ulate simple interface geometries with strong shear is demonstrated. In the third system, the ability to handle extremely complex geometries and topology changes with strong shear is shown.

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2011

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Modeling and optimization of a hybrid solar PV-powered air conditioning system with ice storage

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In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and optimized. The HACS utilizes solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to help reduce the demand from the utility during peak hours. The system also includes an ice Thermal

In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and optimized. The HACS utilizes solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to help reduce the demand from the utility during peak hours. The system also includes an ice Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank to accumulate cooling energy during off-peak hours. The AC runs continuously on grid power during off-peak hours to generate cooling for the house and to store thermal energy in the TES. During peak hours, the AC runs on the power supplied from the PV, and cools the house along with the energy stored in the TES. A higher initial cost is expected due to the additional components of the HACS (PV and TES), but a lower operational cost due to higher energy efficiency, energy storage and renewable energy utilization. A house cooled by the HACS will require a smaller size AC unit (about 48% less in the rated capacity), compared to a conventional AC system. To compare the cost effectiveness of the HACS with a regular AC system, time-of-use (TOU) utility rates are considered, as well as the cost of the system components and the annual maintenance. The model shows that the HACS pays back its initial cost of $28k in about 6 years with an 8% APR, and saves about $45k in total cost when compared to a regular AC system that cools the same house for the same period of 6 years.

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2011

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Direct numerical simulation of the flow over a golf ball

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The flow around a golf ball is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). An immersed boundary approach is adopted in which the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a fractional step method on a structured, staggered grid in cylindrical coordinates.

The flow around a golf ball is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). An immersed boundary approach is adopted in which the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a fractional step method on a structured, staggered grid in cylindrical coordinates. The boundary conditions on the surface are imposed using momentum forcing in the vicinity of the boundary. The flow solver is parallelized using a domain decomposition strategy and message passing interface (MPI), and exhibits linear scaling on as many as 500 processors. A laminar flow case is presented to verify the formal accuracy of the method. The immersed boundary approach is validated by comparison with computations of the flow over a smooth sphere. Simulations are performed at Reynolds numbers of 2.5 × 104 and 1.1 × 105 based on the diameter of the ball and the freestream speed and using grids comprised of more than 1.14 × 109 points. Flow visualizations reveal the location of separation, as well as the delay of complete detachment. Predictions of the aerodynamic forces at both Reynolds numbers are in reasonable agreement with measurements. Energy spectra of the velocity quantify the dominant frequencies of the flow near separation and in the wake. Time-averaged statistics reveal characteristic physical patterns in the flow as well as local trends within dimples. A mechanism of drag reduction due to the dimples is confirmed, and metrics for dimple optimization are proposed.

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2011

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Structure and proper orthogonal decomposition in simulations of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with canonical geometries

Description

Structural features of canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows are described using several techniques, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows of channels, pipes, and flat-plate boundary layers include physics important to a wide variety of practical fluid flows

Structural features of canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows are described using several techniques, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows of channels, pipes, and flat-plate boundary layers include physics important to a wide variety of practical fluid flows with a minimum of geometric complications. Yet, significant questions remain for their turbulent motions' form, organization to compose very long motions, and relationship to vortical structures. POD extracts highly energetic structures from flow fields and is one tool to further understand the turbulence physics. A variety of direct numerical simulations provide velocity fields suitable for detailed analysis. Since POD modes require significant interpretation, this study begins with wall-normal, one-dimensional POD for a set of turbulent channel flows. Important features of the modes and their scaling are interpreted in light of flow physics, also leading to a method of synthesizing one-dimensional POD modes. Properties of a pipe flow simulation are then studied via several methods. The presence of very long streamwise motions is assessed using a number of statistical quantities, including energy spectra, which are compared to experiments. Further properties of energy spectra, including their relation to fictitious forces associated with mean Reynolds stress, are considered in depth. After reviewing salient features of turbulent structures previously observed in relevant experiments, structures in the pipe flow are examined in greater detail. A variety of methods reveal organization patterns of structures in instantaneous fields and their associated vortical structures. Properties of POD modes for a boundary layer flow are considered. Finally, very wide modes that occur when computing POD modes in all three canonical flows are compared. The results demonstrate that POD extracts structures relevant to characterizing wall-bounded turbulent flows. However, significant care is necessary in interpreting POD results, for which modes can be categorized according to their self-similarity. Additional analysis techniques reveal the organization of smaller motions in characteristic patterns to compose very long motions in pipe flows. The very large scale motions are observed to contribute large fractions of turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. The associated vortical structures possess characteristics of hairpins, but are commonly distorted from pristine hairpin geometries.

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2012

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Collective behavior of swimming bimetallic motors in chemical concentration gradients

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Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric ion flux on a bacterium's surface could generate electric fields

Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric ion flux on a bacterium's surface could generate electric fields that drive locomotion via self-electrophoresis. Recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the engineering of synthetic analogues, bimetallic colloidal particles, that swim due to asymmetric ion flux originally proposed by Mitchell. Bimetallic colloidal particles swim through aqueous solutions by converting chemical fuel to fluid motion through asymmetric electrochemical reactions. This dissertation presents novel bimetallic motor fabrication strategies, motor functionality, and a study of the motor collective behavior in chemical concentration gradients. Brownian dynamics simulations and experiments show that the motors exhibit chemokinesis, a motile response to chemical gradients that results in net migration and concentration of particles. Chemokinesis is typically observed in living organisms and distinct from chemotaxis in that there is no particle directional sensing. The synthetic motor chemokinesis observed in this work is due to variation in the motor's velocity and effective diffusivity as a function of the fuel and salt concentration. Static concentration fields are generated in microfluidic devices fabricated with porous walls. The development of nanoscale particles that swim autonomously and collectively in chemical concentration gradients can be leveraged for a wide range of applications such as directed drug delivery, self-healing materials, and environmental remediation.

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2011

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Thermal interface material characterization under thermo-mechanical stress of induced angle of tilt

Description

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are extensively used in thermal management applications especially in the microelectronics industry. With the advancement in microprocessors design and speed, the thermal management is becoming more complex. With these advancements in microelectronics, there have been parallel

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are extensively used in thermal management applications especially in the microelectronics industry. With the advancement in microprocessors design and speed, the thermal management is becoming more complex. With these advancements in microelectronics, there have been parallel advancements in thermal interface materials. Given the vast number of available TIM types, selection of the material for each specific application is crucial. Most of the metrologies currently available on the market are designed to qualify TIMs between two perfectly flat surfaces, mimicking an ideal scenario. However, in realistic applications parallel surfaces may not be the case. In this study, a unique characterization method is proposed to address the need for TIMs characterization between non-parallel surfaces. Two different metrologies are custom-designed and built to measure the impact of tilt angle on the performance of TIMs. The first metrology, Angular TIM Tester, is based on the ASTM D5470 standard with flexibility to perform characterization of the sample under induced tilt angle of the rods. The second metrology, Bare Die Tilting Metrology, is designed to validate the performance of TIM under induced tilt angle between the bare die and the cooling solution in an "in-situ" package testing format. Several types of off-the-shelf thermal interface materials were tested and the results are outlined in the study. Data were collected using both metrologies for all selected materials. It was found that small tilt angles, up to 0.6°, have an impact on thermal resistance of all materials especially for in-situ testing. In addition, resistance change between 0° and the selected tilt angle was found to be in close agreement between the two metrologies for paste-based materials and phase-change material. However, a clear difference in the thermal performance of the tested materials was observed between the two metrologies for the gap filler materials.

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2011

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Optimized vortex tube bundle for large flow rate applications

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ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a cold stream. Many studies have been carried out to find

ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a cold stream. Many studies have been carried out to find the mechanisms of the energy separation in the vortex tube. Recent rapid development in computational fluid dynamics is providing a powerful tool to investigate the complex flow in the vortex tube. However various issues in these numerical simulations remain, such as choosing the most suitable turbulent model, as well as the lack of systematic comparative analysis. LES model for the vortex tube simulation is hardly used in the present literatures, and the influence of parameters on the performance of the vortex tube has scarcely been studied. This study is aimed to find the influence of various parameters on the performance of the vortex tube, the best geometric value of vortex tube and the realizable method to reach the required cold out flow rate 40 kg/s . First of all, setting up an original 3-D simulation vortex tube model. By comparing experiment results reported in the literature and our simulation results, a most suitable model for the simulation of the vortex tube is obtained. Secondly, we perform simulations to optimize parameters that can deliver a set of desired output, such as cold stream pressure, temperature and flow-rate. We also discuss the use of the cold air flow for petroleum engineering applications.

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2013