Matching Items (30)
- All Subjects: Mechanical Engineering
- All Subjects: Gas-turbine disks
Structure and proper orthogonal decomposition in simulations of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with canonical geometries
Structural features of canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows are described using several techniques, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows of channels, pipes, and flat-plate boundary layers include physics important to a wide variety of practical fluid flows with a minimum of geometric complications. Yet, significant questions remain for their turbulent motions' form, organization to compose very long motions, and relationship to vortical structures. POD extracts highly energetic structures from flow fields and is one tool to further understand the turbulence physics. A variety of direct numerical simulations provide velocity fields suitable for detailed analysis. Since POD modes require significant interpretation, this study begins with wall-normal, one-dimensional POD for a set of turbulent channel flows. Important features of the modes and their scaling are interpreted in light of flow physics, also leading to a method of synthesizing one-dimensional POD modes. Properties of a pipe flow simulation are then studied via several methods. The presence of very long streamwise motions is assessed using a number of statistical quantities, including energy spectra, which are compared to experiments. Further properties of energy spectra, including their relation to fictitious forces associated with mean Reynolds stress, are considered in depth. After reviewing salient features of turbulent structures previously observed in relevant experiments, structures in the pipe flow are examined in greater detail. A variety of methods reveal organization patterns of structures in instantaneous fields and their associated vortical structures. Properties of POD modes for a boundary layer flow are considered. Finally, very wide modes that occur when computing POD modes in all three canonical flows are compared. The results demonstrate that POD extracts structures relevant to characterizing wall-bounded turbulent flows. However, significant care is necessary in interpreting POD results, for which modes can be categorized according to their self-similarity. Additional analysis techniques reveal the organization of smaller motions in characteristic patterns to compose very long motions in pipe flows. The very large scale motions are observed to contribute large fractions of turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. The associated vortical structures possess characteristics of hairpins, but are commonly distorted from pristine hairpin geometries.
ABSTRACT The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG − this gas typically contains a high concentration of NO and cannot be discharged directly to the atmosphere because of environmental restrictions. In the HRSG, one method of reducing the flue gas NO concentration is to inject ammonia into the gas at a plane upstream of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit through an injection grid (AIG); the SCR is where the NO is reduced to N2 and H2O. The amount and spatial distribution of the injected ammonia are key considerations for NO reduction while using the minimum possible amount of ammonia. This work had three objectives. First, a flow network model of the Ammonia Flow Control Unit (AFCU) was to be developed to calculate the quantity of ammonia released into the flue gas from each AIG perforation. Second, CFD simulation of the flue gas flow was to be performed to obtain the velocity, temperature, and species concentration fields in the gas upstream and downstream of the SCR. Finally, performance characteristics of the ammonia injection system were to be evaluated. All three objectives were reached. The AFCU was modeled using JAVA - with a graphical user interface provided for the user. The commercial software Fluent was used for CFD simulation. To evaluate the efficacy of the ammonia injection system in reducing the flue gas NO concentration, the twelve butterfly valves in the AFCU ammonia delivery piping (risers) were throttled by various degrees in the model and the NO concentration distribution computed for each operational scenario. When the valves were kept fully open, it was found that it led to a more uniform reduction in NO concentration compared to throttling the valves such that the riser flows were equal. Additionally, the SCR catalyst was consumed somewhat more uniformly, and ammonia slip (ammonia not consumed in reaction) was found lower. The ammonia use could be decreased by 10 percent while maintaining the NO concentration limit in the flue gas exhausting into the atmosphere.
Characterization of ingestion through the rim seal of rotor-stator disk cavity in a subscale single-stage axial turbine
In order to achieve higher gas turbine efficiency, the main gas temperature at turbine inlet has been steadily increased from approximately 900°C to about 1500°C over the last few decades. This temperature is higher than the maximum acceptable temperature for turbine internals. The hot main gas may get ingested into the space between rotor and stator, the rotor-stator disk cavity in a stage because of the pressure differential between main gas annulus and the disk cavity. To reduce this ingestion, the disk cavity is equipped with a rim seal; additionally, secondary (purge) air is supplied to the cavity. Since the purge air is typically bled off the compressor discharge, this reducing the overall gas turbine efficiency, much research has been carried out to estimate the minimum purge flow necessary (cw,min) for complete sealing of disk cavities.
In this work, experiments have been performed in a subscale single-stage axial turbine featuring vanes, blades and an axially-overlapping radial-clearance seal at the disk cavity rim. The turbine stage is also equipped with a labyrinth seal radially inboard. The stage geometry and the experimental conditions were such that the ingestion into the disk cavity was driven by the pressure asymmetry in the main gas annulus. In the experiments, time-averaged static pressure was measured at several locations in the main annulus and in the disk cavity; the pressure differential between a location on the vane platform close to lip (this being the rim seal part on the stator) and a location in the 'seal region' in the cavity is considered to be the driving potential for both ingestion and egress. Time-averaged volumetric concentration of the tracer gas (CO2) in the purge air supplied was measured at multiple radial locations on the stator surface. The pressure and ingestion data were then used to calculate the ingestion and egress discharge coefficients for a range of purge flow rates, employing a simple orifice model of the rim seal. For the experiments performed, the egress discharge coefficient increased and the ingestion discharge coefficient decreased with the purge air flow rate. A method for estimation of cw,min is also proposed.
Analyses of Spray Atomization Based on Integral Form of Conservation Equations: Applications to Liquid Jets in Cross Flows and to CFD
Liquid injection in cross ﬂows has applications in gas-turbine engines, afterburners and some rocket combustion chambers. Integral form of the conservation equations has been used to ﬁnd a cubic formula for the drop size in liquid sprays in cross ﬂows. Similar to the work on axial liquid sprays, the energy balance dictates that the initial kinetic energy of the gas and injected liquid be distributed into the ﬁnal surface tension energy, kinetic energy of the gas and droplets, and viscous dissipation incurred. Kinetic energy of the cross ﬂow is added to the energy balance. Then, only the viscous dissipation term needs to be phenomenologically modelled. The mass and energy balance for the spray ﬂows renders to an expression that relates the drop size to all of the relevant parameters, including the gas- and liquid-phase velocities. The results agree well with experimental data and correlations for the drop size. The solution also provides for drop size-velocity cross-correlation, leading to drop size distributions based on the gas-phase velocity distribution. These aspects can be used in estimating the drop size for practical applications, and also in computational simulations of liquid injection in cross ﬂows, and in other spray geometries in general.
Numerical Modeling of Cake Formation and Permeate Flux Decline in Membrane Filtration Using OpenFOAM
Membrane filtration is an important technology in industry. In the past few decades, equations have been developed from experimental results to predict cake formation and permeate flux decline in the membrane filtration process. In the current work, the block of particles on membrane surface is achieved by setting surface flux on membrane surface zero. This approach is implemented for both microfiltration and nanofiltration using OpenFOAM. Moreover, a new method to deal with cake resistance for nanofiltration is introduced. Cake resistance is applied to both cake and membrane. To validate the new techniques, results of crossflow microfiltration are compared to theoretical results and results of two crossflow nanofiltration cases are compared to experimental data. In addition, the new techniques are applied to dead end filtration to observe the different structure of the cake and explore the effect of resistance on velocity profile.
In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and optimized. The HACS utilizes solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to help reduce the demand from the utility during peak hours. The system also includes an ice Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank to accumulate cooling energy during off-peak hours. The AC runs continuously on grid power during off-peak hours to generate cooling for the house and to store thermal energy in the TES. During peak hours, the AC runs on the power supplied from the PV, and cools the house along with the energy stored in the TES. A higher initial cost is expected due to the additional components of the HACS (PV and TES), but a lower operational cost due to higher energy efficiency, energy storage and renewable energy utilization. A house cooled by the HACS will require a smaller size AC unit (about 48% less in the rated capacity), compared to a conventional AC system. To compare the cost effectiveness of the HACS with a regular AC system, time-of-use (TOU) utility rates are considered, as well as the cost of the system components and the annual maintenance. The model shows that the HACS pays back its initial cost of $28k in about 6 years with an 8% APR, and saves about $45k in total cost when compared to a regular AC system that cools the same house for the same period of 6 years.
While much effort in Stirling engine development is placed on making the high-temperature region of the Stirling engine warmer, this research explores methods to lower the temperature of the cold region by improving heat transfer in the cooler. This paper presents heat transfer coefficients obtained for a Stirling engine heat exchanger with oscillatory flow. The effects of oscillating frequency and input heat rate on the heat transfer coefficients are evaluated and details on the design and development of the heat exchanger test apparatus are also explained. Featured results include the relationship between overall heat transfer coefficients and oscillation frequency which increase from 21.5 to 46.1 Wm-2K-1 as the oscillation frequency increases from 6.0 to 19.3 Hz. A correlation for the Nusselt number on the inside of the heat exchange tubes in oscillatory flow is presented in a concise, dimensionless form in terms of the kinetic Reynolds number as a result of a statistical analysis. The test apparatus design is proven to be successful throughout its implementation due to the usefulness of data and clear trends observed. The author is not aware of any other publicly-available research on a Stirling engine cooler to the extent presented in this paper. Therefore, the present results are analyzed on a part-by-part basis and compared to segments of other research; however, strong correlations with data from other studies are not expected. The data presented in this paper are part of a continuing effort to better understand heat transfer properties in Stirling engines as well as other oscillating flow applications.
Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are extensively used in thermal management applications especially in the microelectronics industry. With the advancement in microprocessors design and speed, the thermal management is becoming more complex. With these advancements in microelectronics, there have been parallel advancements in thermal interface materials. Given the vast number of available TIM types, selection of the material for each specific application is crucial. Most of the metrologies currently available on the market are designed to qualify TIMs between two perfectly flat surfaces, mimicking an ideal scenario. However, in realistic applications parallel surfaces may not be the case. In this study, a unique characterization method is proposed to address the need for TIMs characterization between non-parallel surfaces. Two different metrologies are custom-designed and built to measure the impact of tilt angle on the performance of TIMs. The first metrology, Angular TIM Tester, is based on the ASTM D5470 standard with flexibility to perform characterization of the sample under induced tilt angle of the rods. The second metrology, Bare Die Tilting Metrology, is designed to validate the performance of TIM under induced tilt angle between the bare die and the cooling solution in an "in-situ" package testing format. Several types of off-the-shelf thermal interface materials were tested and the results are outlined in the study. Data were collected using both metrologies for all selected materials. It was found that small tilt angles, up to 0.6°, have an impact on thermal resistance of all materials especially for in-situ testing. In addition, resistance change between 0° and the selected tilt angle was found to be in close agreement between the two metrologies for paste-based materials and phase-change material. However, a clear difference in the thermal performance of the tested materials was observed between the two metrologies for the gap filler materials.
Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.
Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations have organized a multi-national effort to use global atmosphere-ocean models to project anthropogenically induced climate changes in the 21st century. The computer simulations performed with those models and archived by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) form the most comprehensive quantitative basis for the prediction of global environmental changes on decadal-to-centennial time scales. While the CMIP5 archives have been widely used for policy making, the inherent biases in the models have not been systematically examined. The main objective of this study is to validate the CMIP5 simulations of the 20th century climate with observations to quantify the biases and uncertainties in state-of-the-art climate models. Specifically, this work focuses on three major features in the atmosphere: the jet streams over the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the low level jet (LLJ) stream over central North America which affects the weather in the United States, and the near-surface wind field over North America which is relevant to energy applications. The errors in the model simulations of those features are systematically quantified and the uncertainties in future predictions are assessed for stakeholders to use in climate applications. Additional atmospheric model simulations are performed to determine the sources of the errors in climate models. The results reject a popular idea that the errors in the sea surface temperature due to an inaccurate ocean circulation contributes to the errors in major atmospheric jet streams.