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In situ SEM Testing for Fatigue Crack Growth: Mechanical Investigation of Titanium

Description

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V,

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V, at the sub-cycle scale, or within a single loading cycle. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis is performed to observe crack behavior at ten loading steps throughout the loading and unloading paths. Analysis involves measuring the incremental crack growth and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of specimens at loading ratios of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5. This report defines the relationship between crack growth and the stress intensity factor, K, of the specimens, as well as the relationship between the R-ratio and stress opening level. The crack closure phenomena and effect of microcracks are discussed as they influence the crack growth behavior. This method has previously been used to characterize crack growth in Al 7075-T6. The results for Ti-6Al-4V are compared to these previous findings in order to strengthen conclusions about crack growth behavior.

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2018-05

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Date Created
2015

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A new atomistic simulation framework for mechanochemical reaction analysis of mechanophore embedded nanocomposites

Description

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes from specimen preparation to mechanical loading test. Ultra-violet photodimerization for mechanophore synthesis and epoxy curing for thermoset polymer generation are successfully simulated by developing a numerical covalent bond generation method using the classical force field within the framework. Mechanical loading tests to activate mechanophores are also virtually conducted by deforming the volume of a simulation unit cell. The unit cell deformation leads to covalent bond elongation and subsequent bond breakage, which is captured using the bond order based force field. The outcome of the virtual loading test is used for local work analysis, which enables a quantitative study of mechanophore activation. Through the local work analysis, the onset and evolution of mechanophore activation indicating damage initiation and propagation are estimated; ultimately, the mechanophore sensitivity to external stress is evaluated. The virtual loading tests also provide accurate estimations of mechanical properties such as elastic, shear, bulk modulus, yield strain/strength, and Poisson’s ratio of the system. Experimental studies are performed in conjunction with the simulation work to validate the hybrid MD simulation framework. Less than 2% error in estimations of glass transition temperature (Tg) is observed with experimentally measured Tgs by use of differential scanning calorimetry. Virtual loading tests successfully reproduce the stress-strain curve capturing the effect of mechanophore inclusion on mechanical properties of epoxy polymer; comparable changes in Young’s modulus and yield strength are observed in experiments and simulations. Early damage signal detection, which is identified in experiments by observing increased intensity before the yield strain, is captured in simulations by showing that the critical strain representing the onset of the mechanophore activation occurs before the estimated yield strain. It is anticipated that the experimentally validated hybrid MD framework presented in this dissertation will provide a low-cost alternative to additional experiments that are required for optimizing material design parameters to improve damage sensing capability and mechanical properties.

In addition to the study of mechanochemical reaction analysis, an atomistic model of interphase in carbon fiber reinforced composites is developed. Physical entanglement between semi-crystalline carbon fiber surface and polymer matrix is captured by introducing voids in multiple graphene layers, which allow polymer matrix to intertwine with graphene layers. The hybrid MD framework is used with some modifications to estimate interphase properties that include the effect of the physical entanglement. The results are compared with existing carbon fiber surface models that assume that carbon fiber has a crystalline structure and hence are unable to capture the physical entanglement. Results indicate that the current model shows larger stress gradients across the material interphase. These large stress gradients increase the viscoplasticity and damage effects at the interphase. The results are important for improved prediction of the nonlinear response and damage evolution in composite materials.

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Date Created
2017

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Deformation and Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

Description

Fiber reinforced composites are rapidly replacing conventional metallic or polymeric materials as materials of choice in a myriad of applications across a wide range of industries. The relatively low weight, high strength, high stiffness, and a variety of thermal and

Fiber reinforced composites are rapidly replacing conventional metallic or polymeric materials as materials of choice in a myriad of applications across a wide range of industries. The relatively low weight, high strength, high stiffness, and a variety of thermal and mechanical environmental and loading capabilities are in part what make composite materials so appealing to material experts and design engineers. Additionally, fiber reinforced composites are highly tailorable and customized composite materials and structures can be readily designed for specific applications including those requiring particular directional material properties, fatigue resistance, damage tolerance, high temperature capabilities, or resistance to environmental degradation due to humidity and oxidation. The desirable properties of fiber reinforced composites arise from the strategic combination of multiple constituents to form a new composite material. However, the significant material anisotropy that occurs as a result of combining multiple constituents, each with different directional thermal and mechanical properties, complicates material analysis and remains a major impediment to fully understanding composite deformation and damage behavior. As a result, composite materials, especially specialized composites such as ceramic matrix composites and various multifunctional composites, are not utilized to their fullest potential. In the research presented in this dissertation, the deformation and damage behavior of several fiber reinforced composite systems were investigated. The damage accumulation and propagation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites under complex in-phase biaxial fatigue loading conditions was investigated and the early stage damage and microscale damage were correlated to the eventual fatigue failure behavior and macroscale damage mechanisms. The temperature-dependent deformation and damage response of woven ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) reinforced with carbon and silicon carbide fibers was also studied. A fracture mechanics-informed continuum damage model was developed to capture the brittle damage behavior of the ceramic matrix. A multiscale thermomechanical simulation framework, consisting of cooldown simulations to capture a realistic material initial state and subsequent mechanical loading simulations to capture the temperature-dependent nonlinear stress-strain behavior, was also developed. The methodologies and results presented in this research represent substantial progress toward increasing understanding of the deformation and damage behavior of some key fiber reinforced composite materials.

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Date Created
2021

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Numerical and experimental investigation of laser-induced optoacoustic wave propagation for damage detection

Description

An integrated experimental and numerical investigation for laser-generated optoacoustic wave propagation in structural materials is performed. First, a multi-physics simulation model is proposed to simulate the pulsed laser as a point heat source which hits the surface of an aluminum

An integrated experimental and numerical investigation for laser-generated optoacoustic wave propagation in structural materials is performed. First, a multi-physics simulation model is proposed to simulate the pulsed laser as a point heat source which hits the surface of an aluminum sheet. The pulsed laser source can generate a localized heating on the surface of the plate and induce an in-plane stress wave. ANSYS – a finite element analysis software – is used to build the 3D model and a coupled thermal-mechanical simulation is performed in which the heat flux is determined by an empirical laser-heat conversion relationship. The displacement and stress field-histories are obtained to get the time of arrival and wave propagation speed of the stress wave. The effect of an added point mass is investigated in detail to observe the local material perturbation and remote wave signals. Following this, the experimental investigation of optoacoustic wave is also performed. A new experimental setup and control is developed and assembled in-house. Various laser firing parameters are investigated experimentally and the optimal combination is used for the experimental testing. Matrix design for different testing conditions is also proposed to include the effect of wave path, sampling procedure, and local point mass on the optoacoustic wave propagation. The developed numerical simulation results are validated with experimental observations. It is shown that the proposed experimental setup can offer a potential fast scanning method for damage detection (local property change) for plate-like structural component.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016

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Predicting structure-property relationships in polymers through the development of thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained molecular models

Description

Improved knowledge connecting the chemistry, structure, and properties of polymers is necessary to develop advanced materials in a materials-by-design approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide tremendous insight into how the fine details of chemistry, molecular architecture, and microstructure affect

Improved knowledge connecting the chemistry, structure, and properties of polymers is necessary to develop advanced materials in a materials-by-design approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide tremendous insight into how the fine details of chemistry, molecular architecture, and microstructure affect many physical properties; however, they face well-known restrictions in their applicable temporal and spatial scales. These limitations have motivated the development of computationally-efficient, coarse-grained methods to investigate how microstructural details affect thermophysical properties. In this dissertation, I summarize my research work in structure-based coarse-graining methods to establish the link between molecular-scale structure and macroscopic properties of two different polymers. Systematically coarse-grained models were developed to study the viscoelastic stress response of polyurea, a copolymer that segregates into rigid and viscous phases, at time scales characteristic of blast and impact loading. With the application of appropriate scaling parameters, the coarse-grained models can predict viscoelastic properties with a speed up of 5-6 orders of magnitude relative to the atomistic MD models. Coarse-grained models of polyethylene were also created to investigate the thermomechanical material response under shock loading. As structure-based coarse-grained methods are generally not transferable to states different from which they were calibrated at, their applicability for modeling non-equilibrium processes such as shock and impact is highly limited. To address this problem, a new model is developed that incorporates many-body interactions and is calibrated across a range of different thermodynamic states using a least square minimization scheme. The new model is validated by comparing shock Hugoniot properties with atomistic and experimental data for polyethylene. Lastly, a high fidelity coarse-grained model of polyethylene was constructed that reproduces the joint-probability distributions of structural variables such as the distributions of bond lengths and bond angles between sequential coarse-grained sites along polymer chains. This new model accurately represents the structure of both the amorphous and crystal phases of polyethylene and enabling investigation of how polymer processing such as cold-drawing and bulk crystallization affect material structure at significantly larger time and length scales than traditional molecular simulations.

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Date Created
2016

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Multiscale Modeling of Oxygen Impurity Effects on Macroscopic Deformation and Fatigue Behavior of Commercially Pure Titanium

Description

Interstitial impurity atoms can significantly alter the chemical and physical properties of the host material. Oxygen impurity in HCP titanium is known to have a considerable strengthening effect mainly through interactions with dislocations. To better understand such an effect, first

Interstitial impurity atoms can significantly alter the chemical and physical properties of the host material. Oxygen impurity in HCP titanium is known to have a considerable strengthening effect mainly through interactions with dislocations. To better understand such an effect, first the role of oxygen on various slip planes in titanium is examined using generalized stacking fault energies (GSFE) computed by the first principles calculations. It is shown that oxygen can significantly increase the energy barrier to dislocation motion on most of the studied slip planes. Then the Peierls-Nabbaro model is utilized in conjunction with the GSFE to estimate the Peierls stress ratios for different slip systems. Using such information along with a set of tension and compression experiments, the parameters of a continuum scale crystal plasticity model, namely CRSS values, are calibrated. Effect of oxygen content on the macroscopic stress-strain response is further investigated through experiments on oxygen-boosted samples at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the crystal plasticity model can very well capture the effect of oxygen content on the global response of the samples. It is also revealed that oxygen promotes the slip activity on the pyramidal planes.

The effect of oxygen impurity on titanium is further investigated under high cycle fatigue loading. For that purpose, a two-step hierarchical crystal plasticity for fatigue predictions is presented. Fatigue indicator parameter is used as the main driving force in an energy-based crack nucleation model. To calculate the FIPs, high-resolution full-field crystal plasticity simulations are carried out using a spectral solver. A nucleation model is proposed and calibrated by the fatigue experimental data for notched titanium samples with different oxygen contents and under two load ratios. Overall, it is shown that the presented approach is capable of predicting the high cycle fatigue nucleation time. Moreover, qualitative predictions of microstructurally small crack growth rates are provided. The multi-scale methodology presented here can be extended to other material systems to facilitate a better understanding of the fundamental deformation mechanisms, and to effectively implement such knowledge in mesoscale-macroscale investigations.

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Date Created
2018

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High Fidelity Modeling and Analysis of Nanoengineered Composites and Complex Sandwich Structures

Description

Damage and failure of advanced composite materials and structures are often manifestations of nonlinear deformation that involve multiple mechanisms and their interactions at the constituent length scale. The presence and interactions of inelastic microscale constituents strongly influence the macroscopic damage

Damage and failure of advanced composite materials and structures are often manifestations of nonlinear deformation that involve multiple mechanisms and their interactions at the constituent length scale. The presence and interactions of inelastic microscale constituents strongly influence the macroscopic damage anisotropy and useful residual life. The mechano-chemical interactions between constituents at the atomistic length scale play a more critical role with nanoengineered composites. Therefore, it is desirable to link composite behavior to specific microscopic constituent properties explicitly and lower length scale features using high-fidelity multiscale modeling techniques.In the research presented in this dissertation, an atomistically-informed multiscale modeling framework is developed to investigate damage evolution and failure in composites with radially-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) architecture. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for the radially-grown CNT interphase region is developed with evolution equations derived using atomistic simulations. The developed model is integrated within a high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) micromechanics theory and is used to parametrically investigate the influence of various input micro and nanoscale parameters on the mechanical properties, such as elastic stiffness, strength, and toughness. In addition, the inter-fiber stresses and the onset of damage in the presence of the interphase region are investigated to better understand the energy dissipation mechanisms that attribute to the enhancement in the macroscopic out-of-plane strength and toughness. Note that the HFGMC theory relies heavily on the description of microscale features and requires many internal variables, leading to high computational costs. Therefore, a novel reduced-order model (ROM) is also developed to surrogate full-field nonlinear HFGMC simulations and decrease the computational time and memory requirements of concurrent multiscale simulations significantly.
The accurate prediction of composite sandwich materials' thermal stability and durability remains a challenge due to the variability of thermal-related material coefficients at different temperatures and the extensive use of bonded fittings. Consequently, the dissertation also investigates the thermomechanical performance of a complex composite sandwich space structure subject to thermal cycling. Computational finite element (FE) simulations are used to investigate the intrinsic failure mechanisms and damage precursors in honeycomb core composite sandwich structures with adhesively bonded fittings.

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Date Created
2021

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Si-Ge-Sn Alloys Using Deep-Learning-Based Interatomic Potentials

Description

Accurate knowledge and understanding of thermal conductivity is very important in awide variety of applications both at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Estimation,however varies widely with respect to scale and application. At a lattice level, calcu-lation of thermal conductivity

Accurate knowledge and understanding of thermal conductivity is very important in awide variety of applications both at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Estimation,however varies widely with respect to scale and application. At a lattice level, calcu-lation of thermal conductivity of any particular alloy require very heavy computationeven for a relatively small number of atoms. This thesis aims to run conventionalmolecular dynamic simulations for a particular supercell and then employ a machinelearning based approach and compare the two in hopes of developing a method togreatly reduce computational costs as well as increase the scale and time frame ofthese systems. Conventional simulations were run using interatomic potentials basedon density function theory-basedab initiocalculations. Then deep learning neuralnetwork based interatomic potentials were used run similar simulations to comparethe two approaches.

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Date Created
2021