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This thesis focuses on the continued extension, validation, and application of combined thermal-structural reduced order models for nonlinear geometric problems. The first part of the thesis focuses on the determination of the temperature distribution and structural response induced by an oscillating flux on the top surface of a flat panel. This flux is introduced here as a simplified representation of the thermal effects of an oscillating shock on a panel of a supersonic/hypersonic vehicle. Accordingly, a random acoustic excitation is also considered to act on the panel and the level of the thermo-acoustic excitation is assumed to be large enough to induce a nonlinear geometric response of the panel. Both temperature distribution and structural response are determined using recently proposed reduced order models and a complete one way, thermal-structural, coupling is enforced. A steady-state analysis of the thermal problem is first carried out that is then utilized in the structural reduced order model governing equations with and without the acoustic excitation. A detailed validation of the reduced order models is carried out by comparison with a few full finite element (Nastran) computations. The computational expedience of the reduced order models allows a detailed parametric study of the response as a function of the frequency of the oscillating flux. The nature of the corresponding structural ROM equations is seen to be of a Mathieu-type with Duffing nonlinearity (originating from the nonlinear geometric effects) with external harmonic excitation (associated with the thermal moments terms on the panel). A dominant resonance is observed and explained. The second part of the thesis is focused on extending the formulation of the combined thermal-structural reduced order modeling method to include temperature dependent structural properties, more specifically of the elasticity tensor and the coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties were assumed to vary linearly with local temperature and it was found that the linear stiffness coefficients and the "thermal moment" terms then are cubic functions of the temperature generalized coordinates while the quadratic and cubic stiffness coefficients were only linear functions of these coordinates. A first validation of this reduced order modeling strategy was successfully carried out.
Damage assessment and residual useful life estimation (RULE) are essential for aerospace, civil and naval structures. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) attempts to automate the process of damage detection and identification. Multiscale modeling is a key element in SHM. It not only provides important information on the physics of failure, such as damage initiation and growth, the output can be used as "virtual sensing" data for detection and prognosis. The current research is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary effort to develop an integrated SHM framework for metallic aerospace components. In this thesis a multiscale model has been developed by bridging the relevant length scales, micro, meso and macro (or structural scale). Micro structural representations obtained from material characterization studies are used to define the length scales and to capture the size and orientation of the grains at the micro level. Parametric studies are conducted to estimate material parameters used in this constitutive model. Numerical and experimental simulations are performed to investigate the effects of Representative Volume Element (RVE) size, defect area fraction and distribution. A multiscale damage criterion accounting for crystal orientation effect is developed. This criterion is applied for fatigue crack initial stage prediction. A damage evolution rule based on strain energy density is modified to incorporate crystal plasticity at the microscale (local). Optimization approaches are used to calculate global damage index which is used for the RVE failure prediciton. Potential cracking directions are provided from the damage criterion simultaneously. A wave propagation model is incorporated with the damage model to detect changes in sensing signals due to plastic deformation and damage growth.
Buildings in the United States, account for over 68 percent of electricity consumed, 39 percent of total energy use, and 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions. By the year 2035, about 75% of the U.S. building sector will be either new or renovated. The energy efficiency requirements of current building codes would have a significant impact on future energy use, hence, one of the most widely accepted solutions to slowing the growth rate of GHG emissions and then reversing it involves a stringent adoption of building energy codes. A large number of building energy codes exist and a large number of studies which state the energy savings possible through code compliance. However, most codes are difficult to comprehend and require an extensive understanding of the code, the compliance paths, all mandatory and prescriptive requirements as well as the strategy to convert the same to energy model inputs. This paper provides a simplified solution for the entire process by providing an easy to use interface for code compliance and energy simulation through a spreadsheet based tool, the ECCO or the Energy Code COmpliance Tool. This tool provides a platform for a more detailed analysis of building codes as applicable to each and every individual building in each climate zone. It also facilitates quick building energy simulation to determine energy savings achieved through code compliance. This process is highly beneficial not only for code compliance, but also for identifying parameters which can be improved for energy efficiency. Code compliance is simplified through a series of parametric runs which generates the minimally compliant baseline building and 30% beyond code building. This tool is seen as an effective solution for architects and engineers for an initial level analysis as well as for jurisdictions as a front-end diagnostic check for code compliance.
A method of determining nanoparticle temperature through fluorescence intensity levels is described. Intracellular processes are often tracked through the use of fluorescence tagging, and ideal temperatures for many of these processes are unknown. Through the use of fluorescence-based thermometry, cellular processes such as intracellular enzyme movement can be studied and their respective temperatures established simultaneously. Polystyrene and silica nanoparticles are synthesized with a variety of temperature-sensitive dyes such as BODIPY, rose Bengal, Rhodamine dyes 6G, 700, and 800, and Nile Blue A and Nile Red. Photographs are taken with a QImaging QM1 Questar EXi Retiga camera while particles are heated from 25 to 70 C and excited at 532 nm with a Coherent DPSS-532 laser. Photographs are converted to intensity images in MATLAB and analyzed for fluorescence intensity, and plots are generated in MATLAB to describe each dye's intensity vs temperature. Regression curves are created to describe change in fluorescence intensity over temperature. Dyes are compared as nanoparticle core material is varied. Large particles are also created to match the camera's optical resolution capabilities, and it is established that intensity values increase proportionally with nanoparticle size. Nile Red yielded the closest-fit model, with R2 values greater than 0.99 for a second-order polynomial fit. By contrast, Rhodamine 6G only yielded an R2 value of 0.88 for a third-order polynomial fit, making it the least reliable dye for temperature measurements using the polynomial model. Of particular interest in this work is Nile Blue A, whose fluorescence-temperature curve yielded a much different shape from the other dyes. It is recommended that future work describe a broader range of dyes and nanoparticle sizes, and use multiple excitation wavelengths to better quantify each dye's quantum efficiency. Further research into the effects of nanoparticle size on fluorescence intensity levels should be considered as the particles used here greatly exceed 2 ìm. In addition, Nile Blue A should be further investigated as to why its fluorescence-temperature curve did not take on a characteristic shape for a temperature-sensitive dye in these experiments.
A new method of adaptive mesh generation for the computation of fluid flows is investigated. The method utilizes gradients of the flow solution to adapt the size and stretching of elements or volumes in the computational mesh as is commonly done in the conventional Hessian approach. However, in the new method, higher-order gradients are used in place of the Hessian. The method is applied to the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on model problems. Results indicate that a significant efficiency benefit is realized.
The focus of this investigation is on the renewed assessment of nonlinear reduced order models (ROM) for the accurate prediction of the geometrically nonlinear response of a curved beam. In light of difficulties encountered in an earlier modeling effort, the various steps involved in the construction of the reduced order model are carefully reassessed. The selection of the basis functions is first addressed by comparison with the results of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis. The normal basis functions suggested earlier, i.e. the transverse linear modes of the corresponding flat beam, are shown in fact to be very close to the POD eigenvectors of the normal displacements and thus retained in the present effort. A strong connection is similarly established between the POD eigenvectors of the tangential displacements and the dual modes which are accordingly selected to complement the normal basis functions. The identification of the parameters of the reduced order model is revisited next and it is observed that the standard approach for their identification does not capture well the occurrence of snap-throughs. On this basis, a revised approach is proposed which is assessed first on the static, symmetric response of the beam to a uniform load. A very good to excellent matching between full finite element and ROM predicted responses validates the new identification procedure and motivates its application to the dynamic response of the beam which exhibits both symmetric and antisymmetric motions. While not quite as accurate as in the static case, the reduced order model predictions match well their full Nastran counterparts and support the reduced order model development strategy.
While much effort in Stirling engine development is placed on making the high-temperature region of the Stirling engine warmer, this research explores methods to lower the temperature of the cold region by improving heat transfer in the cooler. This paper presents heat transfer coefficients obtained for a Stirling engine heat exchanger with oscillatory flow. The effects of oscillating frequency and input heat rate on the heat transfer coefficients are evaluated and details on the design and development of the heat exchanger test apparatus are also explained. Featured results include the relationship between overall heat transfer coefficients and oscillation frequency which increase from 21.5 to 46.1 Wm-2K-1 as the oscillation frequency increases from 6.0 to 19.3 Hz. A correlation for the Nusselt number on the inside of the heat exchange tubes in oscillatory flow is presented in a concise, dimensionless form in terms of the kinetic Reynolds number as a result of a statistical analysis. The test apparatus design is proven to be successful throughout its implementation due to the usefulness of data and clear trends observed. The author is not aware of any other publicly-available research on a Stirling engine cooler to the extent presented in this paper. Therefore, the present results are analyzed on a part-by-part basis and compared to segments of other research; however, strong correlations with data from other studies are not expected. The data presented in this paper are part of a continuing effort to better understand heat transfer properties in Stirling engines as well as other oscillating flow applications.
Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are extensively used in thermal management applications especially in the microelectronics industry. With the advancement in microprocessors design and speed, the thermal management is becoming more complex. With these advancements in microelectronics, there have been parallel advancements in thermal interface materials. Given the vast number of available TIM types, selection of the material for each specific application is crucial. Most of the metrologies currently available on the market are designed to qualify TIMs between two perfectly flat surfaces, mimicking an ideal scenario. However, in realistic applications parallel surfaces may not be the case. In this study, a unique characterization method is proposed to address the need for TIMs characterization between non-parallel surfaces. Two different metrologies are custom-designed and built to measure the impact of tilt angle on the performance of TIMs. The first metrology, Angular TIM Tester, is based on the ASTM D5470 standard with flexibility to perform characterization of the sample under induced tilt angle of the rods. The second metrology, Bare Die Tilting Metrology, is designed to validate the performance of TIM under induced tilt angle between the bare die and the cooling solution in an "in-situ" package testing format. Several types of off-the-shelf thermal interface materials were tested and the results are outlined in the study. Data were collected using both metrologies for all selected materials. It was found that small tilt angles, up to 0.6°, have an impact on thermal resistance of all materials especially for in-situ testing. In addition, resistance change between 0° and the selected tilt angle was found to be in close agreement between the two metrologies for paste-based materials and phase-change material. However, a clear difference in the thermal performance of the tested materials was observed between the two metrologies for the gap filler materials.
The focus of this research is to investigate methods for material substitution for the purpose of re-engineering legacy systems that involves incomplete information about form, fit and function of replacement parts. The primary motive is to extract as much useful information about a failed legacy part as possible and use fuzzy logic rules for identifying the unknown parameter values. Machine elements can fail by any number of failure modes but the most probable failure modes based on the service condition are considered critical failure modes. Three main parameters are of key interest in identifying the critical failure mode of the part. Critical failure modes are then directly mapped to material properties. Target material property values are calculated from material property values obtained from the originally used material and from the design goals. The material database is searched for new candidate materials that satisfy the goals and constraints in manufacturing and raw stock availability. Uncertainty in the extracted data is modeled using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy member functions model the imprecise nature of data in each available parameter and rule sets characterize the imprecise dependencies between the parameters and makes decisions in identifying the unknown parameter value based on the incompleteness. A final confidence level for each material in a pool of candidate material is a direct indication of uncertainty. All the candidates satisfy the goals and constraints to varying degrees and the final selection is left to the designer's discretion. The process is automated by software that inputs incomplete data; uses fuzzy logic to extract more information and queries the material database with a constrained search for finding candidate alternatives.
The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loads with the available solar power. Recently, researchers have started serious discussions of using adsorptive processes for refrigeration and heat pumps. There is some success for the >100 ton adsorption systems but none exists in the <10 ton size range required for residential air conditioning. There are myriad reasons for the lack of small-scale systems such as low Coefficient of Performance (COP), high capital cost, scalability, and limited performance data. A numerical model to simulate an adsorption system was developed and its performance was compared with similar thermal-powered systems. Results showed that both the adsorption and absorption systems provide equal cooling capacity for a driving temperature range of 70-120 ºC, but the adsorption system is the only system to deliver cooling at temperatures below 65 ºC. Additionally, the absorption and desiccant systems provide better COP at low temperatures, but the COP's of the three systems converge at higher regeneration temperatures. To further investigate the viability of solar-powered heat pump systems, an hourly building load simulation was developed for a single-family house in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Thermal as well as economic performance comparison was conducted for adsorption, absorption, and solar photovoltaic (PV) powered vapor compression systems for a range of solar collector area and storage capacity. The results showed that for a small collector area, solar PV is more cost-effective whereas adsorption is better than absorption for larger collector area. The optimum solar collector area and the storage size were determined for each type of solar system. As part of this dissertation work, a small-scale proof-of-concept prototype of the adsorption system was assembled using some novel heat transfer enhancement strategies. Activated carbon and butane was chosen as the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. It was found that a COP of 0.12 and a cooling capacity of 89.6 W can be achieved.