Despite the safe and effective use of attenuated vaccines for over fifty years, measles virus (MV) remains an insidious threat to global health. Problematically, infants less than one year of age, who are the most prone to severe infection and death by measles, cannot be immunized using current MV vaccines. For this dissertation, I generated and performed preclinical evaluation of two novel MV vaccine candidates. Based on data from clinical trials that showed increasing the dosage of current MV vaccines improved antibody responses in six-month-old recipients, I hypothesized that increasing the relevant antigenic stimulus of a standard titer dose would allow safe and effective immunization at a younger age. I generated two modified MVs with increased expression of the hemagglutinin (H) protein, the most important viral antigen for inducing protective neutralizing immunity, in the background of a current vaccine-equivalent. One virus, MVvac2-H2, expressed higher levels of full-length H, resulting in a three-fold increase in H incorporation into virions, while the second, MVvac2-Hsol, expressed and secreted truncated, soluble H protein to its extracellular environment. The alteration to the virion envelope of MVvac2-H2 conferred upon that virus a measurable resistance to in vitro neutralization. In initial screening in adult mouse models of vaccination, both modified MVs proved more immunogenic than their parental strain in outbred mice, while MVvac2-H2 additionally proved more immunogenic in the gold standard MV-susceptible mouse model. Remarkably, MVvac2-H2 better induced protective immunity in the presence of low levels of artificially introduced passive immunity that mimic the passive maternal immunity that currently limits vaccination of young infants, and that strongly inhibited responses to the current vaccine-equivalent. Finally, I developed a more physiological infant-like mouse model for MV vaccine testing, in which MV-susceptible dams vaccinated with the current vaccine-equivalent transfer passive immunity to their pups. This model will allow additional preclinical evaluation of the performance of MVvac2-H2 in pups of immune dams. Altogether, in this dissertation I identify a promising candidate, MVvac2-H2, for a next generation measles vaccine.