Matching Items (11)

A Historiographical Analysis: The Piast and Jagiellonian Dynasties and their Impact on Medieval Poland

Description

Poland's early history defines the geo-political and religious aspects of Medieval Eastern Europe. This historiographical essay analyzes various scholars' input on what certain aspects of Polish history, regarding the Piast

Poland's early history defines the geo-political and religious aspects of Medieval Eastern Europe. This historiographical essay analyzes various scholars' input on what certain aspects of Polish history, regarding the Piast and Jagiellonian Dynasties, had the most impressive impact. By analyzing the importance of religion and conversion in the early Piast realm, we are able to interpret Poland's involvement in the Holy Wars and consequential wars against the Infidel. According to various scholars, Poland's involvement may have been purely political and scarce at most. It is also crucial to look at how each of the most influential Kings ran their kingdom. From politics, to expansion, to regulations on social estates each kind chose a different way to make their mark on the Kingdom of Poland. The Anjou and Jagiellonian Dynasties produced the first female king of Poland. Queen Jadwiga is just one impressive aspect of Polish history. Scholars analyze the important of language and dialects when assuming Polish "citizenship". This criterial is fluid and changes throughout history. Scholars can agree, however, that "Polishness" is one's loyalty and obedience to the King or local Duke and their ability to speak the native tongue. However, even this statement is controversial, as an established local tongue did not occur until much later in time. At this time, Latin, Polish, Lithuanian, Prussian, and other Polish dialects would form into what is now known as modern Polish. This historiographical essay provides insight to the past of what Poland was before it was "Poland". With this information in mind, we can begin to understand why and how history evolves over time.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Picked at Last: A Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Game

Description

This project uses the format of a web-based choose-your-own-adventure game to integrate allusions, themes, and symbolism presented throughout Hellenic and Medieval literature. The research draws upon translations of The Aeneid

This project uses the format of a web-based choose-your-own-adventure game to integrate allusions, themes, and symbolism presented throughout Hellenic and Medieval literature. The research draws upon translations of The Aeneid by Virgil, Perceval by Chrétien de Troyes, Physica by Hildegard of Bingen, The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight as well as various Celtic, Germanic, and Greco-Roman myths and figures. The game itself draws on writing theory as exemplified in The Writer's Journey by Christopher Vogler, which sets the archetype of what constitutes a Hero and the stages a character must undergo to become that Hero. Hosted on an online game creation program called Inklewriter, the game presents a scenario, starting with a knight, waking up in a tree with no previous recollection of getting there, and the reader is given clickable options to choose in response to the situation.

The ultimate purpose of this project is to serve as an educational resource, wherein links to the alluded material and analyses of symbolism can help students find source material based on their interests, serve as a guide for critical analysis of literature, and exemplify how writing theory can be implemented into a narrative. Though this project is presently incomplete, the link to the game contains the introductory scenes and the following analysis exemplifies the writing process, explains the choice and integration of alluded material and symbolism, and describes several scenes that are to be completed in the future.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Fairy Mothers, Enchanting Lovers, and Evil Sorceresses: Magical Women in Medieval Arthurian Literature

Description

Medieval Arthurian stories typically feature noble knights as their main characters, and follow these knights on various quests as they work to fulfill their destiny. Although women do not get

Medieval Arthurian stories typically feature noble knights as their main characters, and follow these knights on various quests as they work to fulfill their destiny. Although women do not get to appear as the central characters in these stories, they are oftentimes afforded magical abilities that provide them with a great deal of power and influence. This thesis investigates the role of magical women, including fairies and sorceresses, in medieval Arthurian literature. I explore the conditions under which medieval authors permitted women characters to have power, magical or otherwise; for each of five different magical women appearing in Arthurian stories written between the 12th and 15th centuries, I discuss their different abilities, motivations, and major actions. Even when these fairies are fairly powerful and autonomous in their choices, their motivations are typically related to the interests of the male man character. Their relationship to the heroes of their respective stories determines their characterization. I argue that there are three major tropes that these characters fulfill: fairy caretakers, fairy lovers, or evil sorceresses.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Heroism in the Integration of Masculinity and Femininity: A Study of Medieval Femininity in the Lives of Empress Matilda, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Margaret Beaufort Compared to Modern Femininity in Western Culture

Description

Between 1100-1500 A.D. England was defining its political and economic power in Europe and as a country. The social expectations of women were based on the general beliefs of femininity

Between 1100-1500 A.D. England was defining its political and economic power in Europe and as a country. The social expectations of women were based on the general beliefs of femininity that stemmed from physiological characteristics and the religious demands of the church. Three women of considerable social and political power changed the dynamics of English monarchy and the position of women in power for the rest of history. Empress Matilda, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Margaret Beaufort each defined their positions at the time, changing the pre-conceived notions of femininity by acting in what their contemporaries deemed a masculine way. Matilda, Eleanor, and Margaret did not only thrive in their positions of power under the stereotypes developed in the medieval era regarding femininity, but also in the study of their histories they bring to light how women in modern social and political positions of power are still faced with the same medieval notions of femininity. Women today face the same stereotypes and cultural expectations regarding femininity and when those expectations are not met, or when the stereotype is breached, a wave of popular rhetoric in the form of slander and criticism towards them is accepted. Today, modern women criticized in their positions of authority face the difficulty of riding the fence between being perceived as feminine or masculine. The journey of a heroine involves the integration of both masculine and feminine.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Queen Margaret of Anjou: A Vilified ""She-Wolf""

Description

Queen Margaret of Anjou has been vilified throughout history and was even defamed by Shakespeare as a "she-wolf" in his history of Henry VI part III. This revisionist biographical study

Queen Margaret of Anjou has been vilified throughout history and was even defamed by Shakespeare as a "she-wolf" in his history of Henry VI part III. This revisionist biographical study begins by redefining a "she-wolf's" connote from that of rapacious predator to a protector as seen in original myth for Rome's foundation. By studying her childhood and reign it analyzes her identity as a "she-wolf" and regent sovereign on behalf of her mentally ill husband, Henry VI and their young son, Edward of Westminster. Contrary to previous historiography, this analysis emphasizes how Margaret was apprenticed by the she-wolves of her grandmother and mother during their regent sovereignty in the absence of a husband or son. It then continues to analyze events such as her intercessory role in the Jack Cade's Rebellion of 1450, her eighty-two letters and other forms of de facto rule that Margaret implemented. Despite her imminent loss in a hyper-masculinized, political culture during the War of the Roses this accredits the successes of Margaret's tenure as queen overlooked by historians. Furthermore, this study addresses the attacks from Margaret's contemporary sources and how her historiography has evolved with the continuation of such attacks. This influence has even spilled into literature and film as the success of Game of Thrones has popularized Margaret's defamed archetype in the fictional character Cersei Lannister. The purpose of this study is to address not only the faults of Margaret's narrative, but to address the importance for historians to create women as the protagonist of their own story and not their male counterparts. This concludes then with a greater question of how to study the nature of regency in a medieval government with the concern of queens as regents.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Usury, Monarchy, and Expulsion: The Rise and Fall of Jews in Medieval England

Description

The Norman invasion and conquest of England in 1066, led by Duke William "the Conqueror," is well-known in British history; less well-known is the fact that the conquest caused a

The Norman invasion and conquest of England in 1066, led by Duke William "the Conqueror," is well-known in British history; less well-known is the fact that the conquest caused a group of Norman Jews to immigrate to England. These immigrants were the first significant population of Jews to ever reside in England, and by about 1100, distinct communities of Jews had established themselves in several cities throughout the country. However, Jewish life in England came to an abrupt end less than two-hundred and thirty years after its beginning when King Edward I expelled the entire Jewish population from England in 1290. The edict of expulsion was approved by the English parliament on June 18, 1290, and there are no surviving records of what happened in that meeting or why Edward decided to banish the Jews. Accordingly, there are a host of questions that need answering if one is to propose a explanation. For example, what could compel Edward I, who struggled financially and was deeply in debt for the duration of his reign, to expel the people who had been the crown's greatest asset for two centuries? Why did the king break the charter which specifically placed the Jews under the monarchy's protection? Why was the aristocracy so intent on getting rid of the Jews who, on several occasions, kept the baronies financially afloat through generous loans? My goal in writing this thesis is threefold: first, to provide a concise but clear account of this extraordinarily specific section of history; second, to present the information in such a way that those who read it might be convinced that the Expulsion was, in fact, primarily motivated by financial factors; and third, to identify several structural and institutional factors which were critical to the Jews' experiences in medieval England.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Female Agency in the Canterbury Tales and Telling Tales

Description

My thesis, titled Female Agency in the Canterbury Tales and Telling Tales, compares Geoffrey Chaucer’s fourteenth century work and Patience Agbabi’s modern adaptation in regards to their portrayal of female

My thesis, titled Female Agency in the Canterbury Tales and Telling Tales, compares Geoffrey Chaucer’s fourteenth century work and Patience Agbabi’s modern adaptation in regards to their portrayal of female agency. While each work contained a whole selection of tales, I focus on four tales, which were The Miller’s Tale, The Clerk’s Tale, The Physician’s Tale, and The Wife of Bath’s Tale. I also include relevant historical information to support and assist in the analysis of the literary texts, and secondary sources were also used supplementarily to enhance the analysis. I argue that female agency is irrationally believed to be dangerous, and the consequent attempts at protection manifest as limitations, which are themselves damaging. The paper is divided into two main sections, which are themselves separated into three smaller categories. The first of the two main sections concerns what actions and options are available to women influenced by a distinction of gender; this section is divided into female gender ideals, marriage, and occupation. The second of the two main sections addresses the entities or individuals enacting the limitations upon female agency, and its three subsections are society, men, and women. I ultimately conclude that not only is it irrational to believe that female agency is dangerous, but also that making gender-based judgment on the capacity of a group of people or an individual is inherently flawed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Royal Bastards of Medieval and Renaissance England: A Literary Analysis of Illegitimacy in Le Morte d'Arthur, King Lear, and Game of Thrones

Description

The relationship between a fictional character and its reader is one built on sympathy. Likable characters who combat personal adversity or who possess culturally acceptable and praised characteristics at the

The relationship between a fictional character and its reader is one built on sympathy. Likable characters who combat personal adversity or who possess culturally acceptable and praised characteristics at the time of the fictional work's publication garner compassion from its audience. Does the same kind of reader reaction occur when characters of an unfavorable social status begin to transgress specified cultural attitudes to better themselves? In this paper, I examine the role of three literary characters of illegitimate birth: Mordred in Sir Malory's Le Morte d' Arthur, Edmund in William Shakespeare's King Lear and Jon Snow in George R.R. Martin's A Game of Thrones. I question how negative cultural attitudes at the time of each work's publication affect the way each character conducts himself whether as an agent of assumed social chaos or an autonomous bastard whose actions strive to transcend his undesirable birth rank. Each of these three characters represents specific types of bastards. Both Mordred and Edmund are bastard villains. Mordred's actions are pure unforgiving evil, and his destruction is self-indulgent and justified, to the audience, due to his illegitimate birth. Edmund is more complex, as he emotionally manipulates both the reader and other characters in the play, vacillating between a victimized bastard and a power hungry political player. Jon Snow is least like Mordred and Edmund. He endures the typical Renaissance era social and familial ostracism, and works to separate himself wholly from his illegitimate reputation while subconsciously seeking to prove himself worthy of legitimate respect.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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American medievalism: medieval reenactment as historical interpretation in the United States

Description

This thesis will examine how the Middle Ages are historically interpreted and portrayed in the United States. In order to keep this study within reasonable bounds, the research will exclude

This thesis will examine how the Middle Ages are historically interpreted and portrayed in the United States. In order to keep this study within reasonable bounds, the research will exclude films, television, novels, and other forms of media that rely on the Pre-Modern period of European history for entertainment purposes. This thesis will narrow its focus on museums, non-profit organizations, and other institutions, examining their methods of research and interpretation, the levels of historical accuracy or authenticity they hold themselves to, and their levels of success. This thesis ultimately hopes to prove that the medieval period offers the same level of public interest as popular periods of American history.

This focus on reenactment serves to illustrate the need for an American audience to form a simulated connection to a historical period for which they inherently lack geographic or cultural memory. The utilization of hyperreality as described by Umberto Eco lends itself readily to this historic period, and plays to the American desire for total mimetic immersion and escapism. After examining the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s exhibition of medieval history as high art and culture, the thesis focuses on historical reenactment, as it offers a greater level of visitor interaction, first by analyzing R.G. Collingwood’s definition of “reenactment” and it’s relation to the modern application in order to establish it as a veritable academic practice.

The focus of the thesis then turns to the historical interpretation/reenactment program identified here as historical performance, which uses trained actors in controlled museum conditions to present historically accurate demonstrations meant to bring the artifacts on display to simulated life. Beginning with the template first established by the Royal Armories Museum in the United Kingdom, a comparative study utilizing research and interviews highlights the interpretative methods of the Frazier History Museum, and those of the Higgins Armory Museum. By comparing both museum’s methods, a possible template for successfully educating the American public about the European Middle Ages; while a closer examination of the Frazier Museum’s survival compared to the Higgins Armory’s termination may illustrate what future institutions must do or avoid to thrive.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Signs, signs, everywhere a sign: an annotated translation and study of the Scripture on the cycles of heaven and earth

Description

Sacred apocalyptic texts claim to foretell coming events, warning the faithful of some terrible fate that lies beyond the present. Such texts often derive their power from successfully recasting past

Sacred apocalyptic texts claim to foretell coming events, warning the faithful of some terrible fate that lies beyond the present. Such texts often derive their power from successfully recasting past events in such a way as they appear to be "predicted" by the text and thus take on additional meanings beyond the superficial. This ex eventu status allows apocalyptic texts to increase the credibility of their future predictions and connect emotionally with the reader by playing on present fears. The fifth-century Daoist apocalyptic text, the Scripture on the Cycles of Heaven and Earth (Tiandi yundu jing, 天地運度經), is no exception. This thesis examines the apocalyptic markers in the poetic sections of the text, attempting to develop a strategy for separating the generic imagery (both to Chinese texts and the apocalyptic literary genre as a whole) from the more significant recoverable references to contemporary events such as the fall of the Jin dynasty and the subsequent founding of the Liu-Song dynasty.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011