Matching Items (103)

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Characterization of Lipid Transport Mutants that Overcome the Iron-Transport Defect in Escherichia coli

Description

When limited for iron, Escherichia coli secretes a siderophore, enterobactin, to solubilize and intake extracellular Fe3+ by a TonB-dependent high-affinity pathway. Consequently, E. coli tonB mutants grow poorly on a

When limited for iron, Escherichia coli secretes a siderophore, enterobactin, to solubilize and intake extracellular Fe3+ by a TonB-dependent high-affinity pathway. Consequently, E. coli tonB mutants grow poorly on a medium limited for iron. Upon longer incubation, however, faster growing colonies emerge and overcome this growth defect. The work presented in this paper reports and characterizes these faster growing colonies (revertants) in an attempt to dissect the mechanism by which they overcome the TonB deficiency. Genomic analysis revealed mutations in yejM, a putative inner-to-outer membrane cardiolipin transporter, which are responsible for the faster growth phenotype in a tonB mutant background. Further characterization of the revertants revealed that they display hypersensitivity to vancomycin, a large antibiotic that is normally precluded from entering E. coli cells, and leaked periplasmic proteins into the culture supernatant, indicating a compromised outer membrane permeability barrier. All phenotypes were reversed by supplying the wild type copy of yejM on a plasmid, suggesting that yejM mutations are solely responsible for the observed phenotypes. In the absence of wild type tonB, however, the deletion of all known of cardiolipin synthase genes (clsABC) did not produce the phenotype similar to mutations in the yejM gene, suggesting the absence of cardiolipin from the outer membrane per se is not responsible for the increased outer membrane permeability. These data show that a defect in lipid biogenesis and transport can compromise outer membrane permeability barrier to allow siderophore intake and that YejM may have additional roles other than transporting cardiolipin.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Stress and Biological Pathways of Schizophrenia: EGR3 Dependent HTR2A Expression in Response to Sleep Deprivation

Description

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia etiology, yet few studies have demonstrated how environmental stimuli impact genes associated with the disorder. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are of great interest

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia etiology, yet few studies have demonstrated how environmental stimuli impact genes associated with the disorder. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are of great interest to schizophrenia research because they are activated in response to physiological stress from the environment, and subsequently regulate the expression of downstream genes that are essential to neuropsychiatric function. An IEG, early growth response 3 (EGR3) has been identified as a main gene involved in a network of transcription factors implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility. The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) seems to play an important role in schizophrenia and the dysfunction of the 5-HT2AR encoding gene, HTR2A, within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to multiple psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia. EGR3's role as a transcription factor that is activated by environmental stimuli suggests it may regulate Htr2a transcription in response to physiological stress, thus affecting 5-HT2AR function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Egr3 activation and Htr2a expression after an environmental stimulus. Sleep deprivation is an acute physiological stressor that activates Egr3. Therefore to examine the relationship between Egr3 and Htr2a expression after an acute stress, wild type and Egr3 knockout mice that express EGFP under the control of the Htr2a promoter were sleep deprived for 8 hours. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the location and density of Htr2a-EGFP expression after sleep deprivation and found that Htr2a-EGFP expression was not affected by sex or subregions of the PFC. Additionally, Htr2a-EGFP expression was not affected by the loss of Egr3 or sleep deprivation within the PFC. The LPFC subregions, layers V and VI showed significantly more Htr2a-EGFP expression than layers I-III in all animals for both sleep deprivation and control conditions. Possible explanations for the lack of significant effects in this study may be the limited sample size or possible biological abnormalities in the Htr2a-EGFP mice. Nonetheless, we did successfully visualize the anatomical distribution of Htr2a in the prefrontal cortex via immunohistochemical staining. This study and future studies will provide insight into how Egr3 activation affects Htr2a expression in the PFC and how physiological stress from the environment can alter candidate schizophrenia gene function.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Nucleoporin Gle1: Crystallographic Analysis and the Future of Neuron Disease Pathology

Description

Gle1 is an mRNP export mediator with major activity localized to the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein's high preservation across vast phylogenetic distances allows us to approximate

Gle1 is an mRNP export mediator with major activity localized to the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein's high preservation across vast phylogenetic distances allows us to approximate research on the properties of yeast Gle1 (yGle1) with those of human Gle1 (hGle1). Research at Vanderbilt University in 2016, which provides the research basis of this thesis, suggests that the coiled-coil domain of yGle1 is best crystallized in dicationic aqueous conditions of pH ~8.0 and 10\u201420% PEG 8000. Further exploration of crystallizable microconditions revealed a favorability toward lower pH and lower PEG concentration. Following the discovery of the protein's native crystallography conditions, a comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific literature on Gle1 was conducted on the association of Gle1 mutations with neuron disease.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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An Analysis of the Benchmark Test lzbench for Open-Source Compressors

Description

With the rising data output and falling costs of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, research into data compression is crucial to maintaining storage efficiency and costs. High throughput sequencers such as

With the rising data output and falling costs of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, research into data compression is crucial to maintaining storage efficiency and costs. High throughput sequencers such as the HiSeqX Ten can produce up to 1.8 terabases of data per run, and such large storage demands are even more important to consider for institutions that rely on their own servers rather than large data centers (cloud storage)1. Compression algorithms aim to reduce the amount of space taken up by large genomic datasets by encoding the most frequently occurring symbols with the shortest bit codewords and by changing the order of the data to make it easier to encode. Depending on the probability distribution of the symbols in the dataset or the structure of the data, choosing the wrong algorithm could result in a compressed file larger than the original or a poorly compressed file that results in a waste of time and space2. To test efficiency among compression algorithms for each file type, 37 open-source compression algorithms were used to compress six types of genomic datasets (FASTA, VCF, BCF, GFF, GTF, and SAM) and evaluated on compression speed, decompression speed, compression ratio, and file size using the benchmark test lzbench. Compressors that outpreformed the popular bioinformatics compressor Gzip (zlib -6) were evaluated against one another by ratio and speed for each file type and across the geometric means of all file types. Compressors that exhibited fast compression and decompression speeds were also evaluated by transmission time through variable speed internet pipes in scenarios where the file was compressed only once or compressed multiple times.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Show Swine

Description

My project focuses on the show swine industry and the different aspects that are involved in the process of raising show swine to be eventually used for breeding or harvested

My project focuses on the show swine industry and the different aspects that are involved in the process of raising show swine to be eventually used for breeding or harvested and prepared for meals that end up on people's dinner tables. I address areas of production and give an explanation of: swine genetics, swine breeding, swine show preparation, swine shows and harvesting. For the creative element of my thesis, I created a website with stories in each area of the swine production process. Each story includes personal experiences from various sources, visuals and video packages. The website was created to be engaging and esthetically pleasing to its readers. The intention of this project was to highlight the different elements, processes and stories of people who are involved in the breeding, showing and harvesting of pigs. The website can be found at thatpiggirl.weebly.com Keywords: show swine, breeding, genetics, pigs, swine industry, artificial insemination, harvesting, pig showing

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Eugenics Movement: Humanity Chosen and Humanity Refined

Description

Genetic engineering has become an increasingly prevalent topic in the media today. It has raised bioethical concerns nationwide as philosophers and scientists alike realize the challenges behind where to draw

Genetic engineering has become an increasingly prevalent topic in the media today. It has raised bioethical concerns nationwide as philosophers and scientists alike realize the challenges behind where to draw the line in certain modifications. As an introduction to the topic, this paper discusses the history behind eugenics and its importance in modern society. There is a discussion on what gene alterations are and the many processes of its scientific background. This is followed by how certain procedures and the ethical issues they raise are not cut and dry. The basis of the arguments in this paper focus on two ethical approaches: Kantian and Utilitarian. These approaches exemplify the difficulty on the decision making process behind what sort of therapeutic or enhancement therapies should be legalized or denied. These approaches can be applied to the two types of gene alterations: somatic cell therapy and germline therapy. The concluding decisions made in regards to what should or should not be accepted could have an effect on future generations, altering our species subsequently, and leading to an advancement in medicine and science.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Adult Communication, Cognitive, and Reading Profile of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Description

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome who was undiagnosed until the age of 27 years old. To comprehensively describe the participant's profile, a series of assessment measures was administered in the speech, language, cognition, reading, and motor domains. Understanding how 22q11.2DS has impacted the life of a recently diagnosed adult will provide insight into how to best facilitate long-term language and educational support for this population and inform future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Genetics of Athletic Performance

Description

Abstract
Purpose—Use a framework of genetic knowledge to investigate the association between the genotypes of various genes with phenotypes, specifically the traits of elite athletes, in order to establish a

Abstract
Purpose—Use a framework of genetic knowledge to investigate the association between the genotypes of various genes with phenotypes, specifically the traits of elite athletes, in order to establish a personal opinion on their relevance to athletic performance.
Methods—Assemble and analyze selected published scientific studies on genotype and athletic performance and lastly to formulate a personal opinion on the value of genetic testing of athletes. ACTN3, ACE, MSTN, and apoE were the genes selected for analyses.
Results—Two genes, ACTN3 and ACE, showed a significant relationship of genotype to phenotypic traits related to athletic performance. ApoE did not demonstrate a phenotypic association with athletic performance, however it showed a correlation with injury susceptibility leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI). MSTN did not show a phenotypic association with athletic performance.
Conclusion—When considering the multifactorial nature of athletics, each sport must be investigated individually due to the different individual requirements. ACTN3 and ACE are the most widely studied genes, therefore, considerable data on their relevance to athletic performance was easily obtained and supported a relationship between genotype and athletic performance.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Assessing the Role of the Transcription Factor EGR3 in Activity-Induced DNA Damage Response

Description

Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly activated in response to an environmental stimulus, and most code for transcription factors that mediate processes of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. EGR3, an

Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly activated in response to an environmental stimulus, and most code for transcription factors that mediate processes of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. EGR3, an immediate early gene transcription factor, is a mediator of biological processes that are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). A microarray experiment conducted by our lab revealed that Egr3 also regulates genes involved in DNA damage response. A recent study revealed that physiological neuronal activity results in the formation of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in the promoters of IEGs. Additionally, they showed that these DSBs are essential for inducing the expression of IEGs, and failure to repair these DSBs results in the persistent expression of IEGs. We hypothesize that Egr3 plays a role in repairing activity- induced DNA DSBs, and mice lacking Egr3 should have an abnormal accumulation of these DSBs. Before proceeding with that experiment, we conducted a preliminary investigation to determine if electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is a reliable method of inducing activity- dependent DNA damage, and to measure this DNA damage in three subregions of the hippocampus: CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG). We asked the question, are levels of DNA DSBs different between these hippocampal subregions in animals at baseline and following electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS)? To answer this question, we quantified γ-H2AX, a biomarker of DNA DSBs, in the hippocampal subregions of wildtype mice. Due to technical errors and small sample size, we were unable to substantiate our preliminary findings. Despite these shortcomings, our experimental design can be modified in future studies that investigate the role of Egr3 in activity-induced DNA damage repair.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Assessing the Use of Electroconvulsive Stimulation to Induce DNA Damage in the Hippocampus

Description

Damage to DNA can affect the genes it encodes; if this damage is not repaired, abnormal proteins may be produced and cellular functions may be disturbed. DNA damage has been

Damage to DNA can affect the genes it encodes; if this damage is not repaired, abnormal proteins may be produced and cellular functions may be disturbed. DNA damage has been implicated in the initiation and progression of a variety of diseases. Conversely, DNA damage has also been discovered to contribute to beneficial biological processes. Madabhushi and colleagues (2015) determined that activity-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in the promoter region of immediate early genes (IEGs) induced their expression. EGR3 is an IEG transcription factor which regulates the expression of growth factors and synaptic plasticity-associated genes. In a previously conducted microarray experiment, it was revealed that EGR3 regulates the expression of genes associated with DNA repair such as Cenpa and Nr4a2. These findings inspired us to investigate if EGR3 affects DNA repair in vivo. Before conducting this experiment, we sought to standardize and optimize a method of inducing DNA damage in the hippocampus. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is utilized to induce neuronal activity. Since neuronal activity leads to the formation of DNA DSBs, we theorized that ECS could be used to induce DNA DSBs in the hippocampus. We predicted that mice that receive ECS would have more DNA DSBs than those that receive the sham treatment. Gamma H2AX, a biomarker for DNA damage, was utilized to quantify DNA DSBs. Gamma H2AX expression in the dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus was compared between mice that received the sham treatment and mice that received ECS. Mice that received ECS were sacrificed either 1 or 2 hours post-administration, constituting treatment conditions of 1 hr post-ECS and 2 hrs post-ECS. Our results suggest that ECS has a statistically significant effect exclusively in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. However, our analyses may have been limited due to sample size. A power analysis was conducted, and the results suggest that a sample size of n=4 mice will be sufficient to detect significant differences across treatments in all three regions of the hippocampus. Ultimately, future studies with an increased sample size will need to be conducted to conclusively assess the use of ECS to induce DNA damage within the hippocampus.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05