Matching Items (30)

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Mechanical Design for TolTEC Optics

Description

The following paper discusses the validation of the TolTEC optical design along with a progress report regarding the design of the optical mounting system. Solidworks and Zemax were used in

The following paper discusses the validation of the TolTEC optical design along with a progress report regarding the design of the optical mounting system. Solidworks and Zemax were used in conjunction to model the proposed optics designs. The final optical design was selected through extensive CAD modeling and testing within the Large Millimeter Telescope receiver room. The TolTEC optics can be divided into two arrays, one comprised of the warm mirrors and the second, cryogenically-operated cold mirrors. To ensure structural stability and optical performance, the mechanical design of these systems places a heavy emphasis on rigidity. This is done using a variety of design techniques that restrict motion along the necessary degrees of freedom and maximize moment of inertia while minimizing weight. Work will resume on this project in the Fall 2017 semester.

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  • 2017-05

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Computational Electrodynamics: Adapting the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer to Dispersive Media

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Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML is to terminate the virtual grid of scattering simulations by absorbing all outgoing radiation. In this thesis, we exposit the method of simulation, establish the Perfectly-Matched Layer as a domain which houses a spatial-coordinate transform to the complex plane, construct the CPML in vacuum, adapt the CPML to the Drude medium, and conclude with tests of the adapted CPML for two different scattering geometries.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Spectral Effects in an Interferometer for Off-Axis Sources

Description

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers are used to determine surface composition of celestial bodies such as asteroids or planets by collection of infrared spectral data. However, degraded performance for shorter

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers are used to determine surface composition of celestial bodies such as asteroids or planets by collection of infrared spectral data. However, degraded performance for shorter wavelengths may exist when the target does not fill the field of view and may be off-axis. Further study of the optical implications of such use cases would inform future design. This research project aims to develop a systematic method of rapid prototyping in order to progressively simulate optical conditions to characterize the off-axis implications in FTIR spectrometers regarding effects on spectral data measured. With such findings, FTIR spectrometers may be developed to effectively accommodate a larger field of view beyond the current state-of-the-art without increasing the corresponding package size of aft optics such as interferometer assemblies. Throughput may be further increased than current limitations or smaller aft optics systems may be designed with the same throughput. Specific use cases which would otherwise result in degradation of spectral data could potentially be accommodated, all effectively increasing capability of the current technology. With this intent, a preliminary test setup has been developed and initial results were collected.

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  • 2020-05

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Optics Plate Assembly for Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST)

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Balloon-borne telescopes are an economic alternative to scientists seeking to study light compared to other ground- and space-based alternatives, such as the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. One

Balloon-borne telescopes are an economic alternative to scientists seeking to study light compared to other ground- and space-based alternatives, such as the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. One such balloon-borne telescope is the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope, or simply BLAST. Arizona State University was tasked with assembling one of the primary optics plates for the telescope's next mission. This plate, detailed in the following paragraphs, is designed to detect and capture submillimeter wavelength light. This will help scientists understand the formation and early life of stars. Due to its highly sensitive nature detecting light, the optics plate had to be carefully assembled following a strict assembly and testing procedure. Initially, error tolerances for the mirrors and plate were developed using a computer model, later to be compared to measured values. The engineering decisions made throughout the process pertained to every aspect of the plate, from ensuring the compliance of the engineering drawings to the polishing of the mirrors for testing. The assembly procedure itself was verified at the conclusion using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to analyze whether or not the plate was within defined error tolerances mentioned above. This data was further visualized within the document to show that the assembly procedure of the BLAST optics plate was successful. The largest error margins seen were approximately one order of magnitude lower than their tolerated limits, reflecting good engineering judgement and care applied to the manufacturing process. The plate has since been shipped offsite to continue testing and the assembly team is confident it will perform well within expected parameters.

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  • 2016-05

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Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Medium through the use of a Michelson Interferometer

Description

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern through the use of a Michelson interferometer. The slide was placed in the path of one of the beams. The slide could then be rotated through a series of angles, and, from the resulting changes in the interference pattern, the index of refraction of the slide could be extracted. The index of refraction was found to be 1.5±0.02.

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  • 2014-05

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Time-Lapse Visualization of Microglia Cell Processes using Fluorescent Miniature (Miniscope) Imaging

Description

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting in local or diffuse cell death in the brain. Then a secondary injury occurs through neuroinflammation from immune cells in response to primary injury. Microglia, the resident immune cell of the central nervous system, play a critical role in neuroinflammation following TBI. Microglia make up 10% of all cells in the nervous system and are the fastest moving cells in the brain, scanning the entire parenchyma every several hours. Microglia have roles in both the healthy and injured brain. In the healthy brain, microglia can produce neuroprotective factors, clear cellular debris, and organize neurorestorative processes to recover from TBI. However, microglia mediated neuroinflammation during secondary injury produces pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators contributing to neuronal dysfunction, inhibition of CNS repair, and cell death. Furthermore, neuroinflammation is a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease, of which include overactive microglia function. Microglia cell morphology, activation, and response to TBI is poorly understood. Currently, imaging microglia can only be performed while the animal is stationary and under anesthesia. The Miniscope technology allows for real-time visualization of microglia in awake behaving animals. The Miniscope is a miniature fluorescent microscope that can be implanted over a craniectomy to image microglia. Currently, the goals of Miniscope imaging are to improve image quality and develop time-lapse imaging capabilities. There were five main sub-projects that focused on these goals including surgical nose cone design, surgical holder design, improved GRIN lens setup, improved magnification through achromatic lenses, and time-lapse imaging hardware development. Completing these goals would allow for the visualization of microglia function in the healthy and injured brain, elucidating important immune functions that could provide new strategies for treating brain diseases.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Rotating live mammalian cells free in media using spatial light modulator (SLM)-generated optical tweezers

Description

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live cell 3D imaging technology is one of the most useful ways of providing spatial and morphological details inside living single cells. It provides a window to uncover the mysteries of protein structure and folding, as well as genetic expression over time, which will tremendously improve the state of the fields of biophysics and biomedical research. This thesis project specifically demonstrates a method for live single cell rotation required to image them in the single live cell CT imaging platform. The method of rotation proposed in this thesis uses dynamic optical traps generated by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) to exert torque on a single mammalian cell. Laser patterns carrying the holographic information of the traps are delivered from the SLM through a transformation telescope into the objective lens and onto its focal plane to produce the desired optical trap "image". The phase information in the laser patterns being delivered are continuously altered by the SLM such that the structure of the wavefront produces two foci at opposite edges of the cell of interest that each moves along the circumference of the cell in opposite axial directions. Momentum generated by the motion of the foci exerts a torque on the cell, causing it to rotate. The viability of this method was demonstrated experimentally. Software was written using LabVIEW to control the display panel of the SLM.

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  • 2013

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Application of effective medium modeling to plasmonic nanosphere waveguides

Description

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired resolution. It has been proposed that the extraordinarily slow propagation experienced by light guided along plasmon resonant structures is a viable approach to obtaining these short wavelengths. To assess the feasibility of such a system, an effective medium model of a chain of Noble metal plasmonic nanospheres is developed, leading to a straightforward calculation of the waveguiding properties. Evaluation of other models for such structures that have appeared in the literature, including an eigenvalue problem nearest neighbor approximation, a multi- neighbor approximation with retardation, and a method-of-moments method for a finite chain, show conflicting expectations of such a structure. In particular, recent publications suggest the possibility of regions of invalidity for eigenvalue problem solutions that are considered far below the onset of guidance, and for solutions that assume the loss is low enough to justify perturbation approximations. Even the published method-of-moments approach suffers from an unjustified assumption in the original interpretation, leading to overly optimistic estimations of the attenuation of the plasmon guided wave. In this work it is shown that the method of moments approach solution was dominated by the radiation from the source dipole, and not the waveguiding behavior claimed. If this dipolar radiation is removed the remaining fields ought to contain the desired guided wave information. Using a Prony's-method-based algorithm the dispersion properties of the chain of spheres are assessed at two frequencies, and shown to be dramatically different from the optimistic expectations in much of the literature. A reliable alternative to these models is to replace the chain of spheres with an effective medium model, thus mapping the chain problem into the well-known problem of the dielectric rod. The solution of the Green function problem for excitation of the symmetric longitudinal mode (TM01) is performed by numerical integration. Using this method the frequency ranges over which the rod guides and the associated attenuation are clearly seen. The effective medium model readily allows for variation of the sphere size and separation, and can be taken to the limit where instead of a chain of spheres we have a solid Noble metal rod. This latter case turns out to be the optimal for minimizing the attenuation of the guided wave. Future work is proposed to simulate the chain of photonic nanospheres and the nanowire using finite-difference time-domain to verify observed guided behavior in the Green's function method devised in this thesis and to simulate the proposed nanosensing devices.

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  • 2013

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

Description

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Bulk laser material modification: towards a kerfless laser wafering process

Description

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists.

The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties of band-gapped materials to achieve bulk (subsurface) morphological changes in matter using highly focused laser light. A method and tool was designed and developed to form controlled damage regions in the bulk of a crystalline sapphire wafer leaving the surfaces unaltered. The controllability of the subsurface damage geometry was investigated, and the effect of numerical aperture of the focusing optic, energy per pulse, wavelength, and number of pulses was characterized for a nanosecond pulse length variable wavelength Nd:YAG OPO laser.

A novel model was developed to describe the geometry of laser induced morphological changes in the bulk of semiconducting materials for nanosecond pulse lengths. The beam propagation aspect of the model was based on ray-optics, and the full Keldysh multiphoton photoionization theory in conjuncture with Thornber's and Drude's models for impact ionization were used to describe high fluence laser light absorption and carrier generation ultimately resulting in permanent material modification though strong electron-plasma absorption and plasma melting. Although the electron-plasma description of laser damage formation is usually reserved for extremely short laser pulses (<20 ps), this work shows that it can be adapted for longer pulses of up to tens of nanoseconds.

In addition to a model describing damage formation of sub-band gap energy laser light in semiconducting and transparent crystalline dielectrics, a novel nanosecond laser process was successfully realized to generate a thin plane of damage in the bulk of sapphire wafers. This was accomplished using high numerical aperture optics, a variable wavelength nanosecond laser source, and three-dimensional motorized precision stage control.

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Date Created
  • 2015