Matching Items (40)

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Time-Lapse Visualization of Microglia Cell Processes using Fluorescent Miniature (Miniscope) Imaging

Description

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting in local or diffuse cell death in the brain. Then

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting in local or diffuse cell death in the brain. Then a secondary injury occurs through neuroinflammation from immune cells in response to primary injury. Microglia, the resident immune cell of the central nervous system, play a critical role in neuroinflammation following TBI. Microglia make up 10% of all cells in the nervous system and are the fastest moving cells in the brain, scanning the entire parenchyma every several hours. Microglia have roles in both the healthy and injured brain. In the healthy brain, microglia can produce neuroprotective factors, clear cellular debris, and organize neurorestorative processes to recover from TBI. However, microglia mediated neuroinflammation during secondary injury produces pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators contributing to neuronal dysfunction, inhibition of CNS repair, and cell death. Furthermore, neuroinflammation is a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease, of which include overactive microglia function. Microglia cell morphology, activation, and response to TBI is poorly understood. Currently, imaging microglia can only be performed while the animal is stationary and under anesthesia. The Miniscope technology allows for real-time visualization of microglia in awake behaving animals. The Miniscope is a miniature fluorescent microscope that can be implanted over a craniectomy to image microglia. Currently, the goals of Miniscope imaging are to improve image quality and develop time-lapse imaging capabilities. There were five main sub-projects that focused on these goals including surgical nose cone design, surgical holder design, improved GRIN lens setup, improved magnification through achromatic lenses, and time-lapse imaging hardware development. Completing these goals would allow for the visualization of microglia function in the healthy and injured brain, elucidating important immune functions that could provide new strategies for treating brain diseases.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Mechanical Design for TolTEC Optics

Description

The following paper discusses the validation of the TolTEC optical design along with a progress report regarding the design of the optical mounting system. Solidworks and Zemax were used in conjunction to model the proposed optics designs. The final optical

The following paper discusses the validation of the TolTEC optical design along with a progress report regarding the design of the optical mounting system. Solidworks and Zemax were used in conjunction to model the proposed optics designs. The final optical design was selected through extensive CAD modeling and testing within the Large Millimeter Telescope receiver room. The TolTEC optics can be divided into two arrays, one comprised of the warm mirrors and the second, cryogenically-operated cold mirrors. To ensure structural stability and optical performance, the mechanical design of these systems places a heavy emphasis on rigidity. This is done using a variety of design techniques that restrict motion along the necessary degrees of freedom and maximize moment of inertia while minimizing weight. Work will resume on this project in the Fall 2017 semester.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Computational Electrodynamics: Adapting the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer to Dispersive Media

Description

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML is to terminate the virtual grid of scattering simulations by absorbing all outgoing radiation. In this thesis, we exposit the method of simulation, establish the Perfectly-Matched Layer as a domain which houses a spatial-coordinate transform to the complex plane, construct the CPML in vacuum, adapt the CPML to the Drude medium, and conclude with tests of the adapted CPML for two different scattering geometries.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Optics Plate Assembly for Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST)

Description

Balloon-borne telescopes are an economic alternative to scientists seeking to study light compared to other ground- and space-based alternatives, such as the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. One such balloon-borne telescope is the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope,

Balloon-borne telescopes are an economic alternative to scientists seeking to study light compared to other ground- and space-based alternatives, such as the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. One such balloon-borne telescope is the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope, or simply BLAST. Arizona State University was tasked with assembling one of the primary optics plates for the telescope's next mission. This plate, detailed in the following paragraphs, is designed to detect and capture submillimeter wavelength light. This will help scientists understand the formation and early life of stars. Due to its highly sensitive nature detecting light, the optics plate had to be carefully assembled following a strict assembly and testing procedure. Initially, error tolerances for the mirrors and plate were developed using a computer model, later to be compared to measured values. The engineering decisions made throughout the process pertained to every aspect of the plate, from ensuring the compliance of the engineering drawings to the polishing of the mirrors for testing. The assembly procedure itself was verified at the conclusion using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to analyze whether or not the plate was within defined error tolerances mentioned above. This data was further visualized within the document to show that the assembly procedure of the BLAST optics plate was successful. The largest error margins seen were approximately one order of magnitude lower than their tolerated limits, reflecting good engineering judgement and care applied to the manufacturing process. The plate has since been shipped offsite to continue testing and the assembly team is confident it will perform well within expected parameters.

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2016-05

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Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Medium through the use of a Michelson Interferometer

Description

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern through the use of a Michelson interferometer. The slide was placed in the path of one of the beams. The slide could then be rotated through a series of angles, and, from the resulting changes in the interference pattern, the index of refraction of the slide could be extracted. The index of refraction was found to be 1.5±0.02.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Spectral Effects in an Interferometer for Off-Axis Sources

Description

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers are used to determine surface composition of celestial bodies such as asteroids or planets by collection of infrared spectral data. However, degraded performance for shorter wavelengths may exist when the target does not fill the

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometers are used to determine surface composition of celestial bodies such as asteroids or planets by collection of infrared spectral data. However, degraded performance for shorter wavelengths may exist when the target does not fill the field of view and may be off-axis. Further study of the optical implications of such use cases would inform future design. This research project aims to develop a systematic method of rapid prototyping in order to progressively simulate optical conditions to characterize the off-axis implications in FTIR spectrometers regarding effects on spectral data measured. With such findings, FTIR spectrometers may be developed to effectively accommodate a larger field of view beyond the current state-of-the-art without increasing the corresponding package size of aft optics such as interferometer assemblies. Throughput may be further increased than current limitations or smaller aft optics systems may be designed with the same throughput. Specific use cases which would otherwise result in degradation of spectral data could potentially be accommodated, all effectively increasing capability of the current technology. With this intent, a preliminary test setup has been developed and initial results were collected.

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Date Created
2020-05

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High-modulation-speed LEDs based on III-nitride

Description

III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal

III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal polarization-related fields, leading to a reduced radiative recombination rate and device efficiency, which limits the performance of InGaN LEDs in high-speed communication applications. To circumvent these negative effects, non-trivial-cavity designs such as flip-chip LEDs, metallic grating coated LEDs are proposed. This oral defense will show the works on the high-modulation-speed LEDs from basic ideas to applications. Fundamental principles such as rate equations for LEDs/laser diodes (LDs), plasmonic effects, Purcell effects will be briefly introduced. For applications, the modal properties of flip-chip LEDs are solved by implementing finite difference method in order to study the modulation response. The emission properties of highly polarized InGaN LEDs coated by metallic gratings are also investigated by finite difference time domain method.

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Date Created
2016

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Synthesis and characterization of erbium compound nanowires as high gain optical materials

Description

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in typical Er-doped materials is less than 1 x 1020 cm-3, thus limiting the maximum optical gain to a few dB/cm, too small to be useful for integrated photonics applications. Er compounds could potentially solve this problem since they contain much higher Er density. So far the existing Er compounds suffer from short lifetime and strong upconversion effects, mainly due to poor quality of crystals produced by various methods of thin film growth and deposition. This dissertation explores a new Er compound: erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3(SiO4)2Cl ) in the nanowire form, which facilitates the growth of high quality single crystals. Growth methods for such single crystal ECS nanowires have been established. Various structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The high crystal quality of ECS material leads to a long lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ ions up to 1 ms at Er density higher than 1022 cm-3. This Er lifetime-density product was found to be the largest among all Er containing materials. A unique integrating sphere method was developed to measure the absorption cross section of ECS nanowires from 440 to 1580 nm. Pump-probe experiments demonstrated a 644 dB/cm signal enhancement from a single ECS wire. It was estimated that such large signal enhancement can overcome the absorption to result in a net material gain, but not sufficient to compensate waveguide propagation loss. In order to suppress the upconversion process in ECS, Ytterbium (Yb) and Yttrium (Y) ions are introduced as substituent ions of Er in the ECS crystal structure to reduce Er density. While the addition of Yb ions only partially succeeded, erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) with controllable Er density was synthesized successfully. EYCS with 30 at. % Er was found to be the best. It shows the strongest PL emission at 1.5 μm, and thus can be potentially used as a high gain material.

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Date Created
2013

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Dual-wavelength internal-optically-pumped semiconductor laser diodes

Description

Dual-wavelength laser sources have various existing and potential applications in wavelength division multiplexing, differential techniques in spectroscopy for chemical sensing, multiple-wavelength interferometry, terahertz-wave generation, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. In the drive for ever smaller and increasingly mobile electronic

Dual-wavelength laser sources have various existing and potential applications in wavelength division multiplexing, differential techniques in spectroscopy for chemical sensing, multiple-wavelength interferometry, terahertz-wave generation, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. In the drive for ever smaller and increasingly mobile electronic devices, dual-wavelength coherent light output from a single semiconductor laser diode would enable further advances and deployment of these technologies. The output of conventional laser diodes is however limited to a single wavelength band with a few subsequent lasing modes depending on the device design. This thesis investigates a novel semiconductor laser device design with a single cavity waveguide capable of dual-wavelength laser output with large spectral separation. The novel dual-wavelength semiconductor laser diode uses two shorter- and longer-wavelength active regions that have separate electron and hole quasi-Fermi energy levels and carrier distributions. The shorter-wavelength active region is based on electrical injection as in conventional laser diodes, and the longer-wavelength active region is then pumped optically by the internal optical field of the shorter-wavelength laser mode, resulting in stable dual-wavelength laser emission at two different wavelengths quite far apart. Different designs of the device are studied using a theoretical model developed in this work to describe the internal optical pumping scheme. The carrier transport and separation of the quasi-Fermi distributions are then modeled using a software package that solves Poisson's equation and the continuity equations to simulate semiconductor devices. Three different designs are grown using molecular beam epitaxy, and broad-area-contact laser diodes are processed using conventional methods. The modeling and experimental results of the first generation design indicate that the optical confinement factor of the longer-wavelength active region is a critical element in realizing dual-wavelength laser output. The modeling predicts lower laser thresholds for the second and third generation designs; however, the experimental results of the second and third generation devices confirm challenges related to the epitaxial growth of the structures in eventually demonstrating dual-wavelength laser output.

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Date Created
2011

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Repurposing technology: an innovative low cost two-dimensional noncontact measurement tool

Description

Two-dimensional vision-based measurement is an ideal choice for measuring small or fragile parts that could be damaged using conventional contact measurement methods. Two-dimensional vision-based measurement systems can be quite expensive putting the technology out of reach of inventors and others.

Two-dimensional vision-based measurement is an ideal choice for measuring small or fragile parts that could be damaged using conventional contact measurement methods. Two-dimensional vision-based measurement systems can be quite expensive putting the technology out of reach of inventors and others. The vision-based measurement tool design developed in this thesis is a low cost alternative that can be made for less than $500US from off-the-shelf parts and free software. The design is based on the USB microscope. The USB microscope was once considered a toy, similar to the telescopes and microscopes of the 17th century, but has recently started finding applications in industry, laboratories, and schools. In order to convert the USB microscope into a measurement tool, research in the following areas was necessary: currently available vision-based measurement systems, machine vision technologies, microscope design, photographic methods, digital imaging, illumination, edge detection, and computer aided drafting applications. The result of the research was a two-dimensional vision-based measurement system that is extremely versatile, easy to use, and, best of all, inexpensive.

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Date Created
2011