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Protection of Flash Memory in the Space Environment

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This is a test plan document for Team Aegis' capstone project that has the goal of mitigating single event upsets in NAND flash memory caused by space radiation.

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2021-05

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Utilizing Programmable Metallization Cells to Create Smart Interposers

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Interposers have been used in the system packaging industry for years. They have advanced from basic devices used for connection to providing new opportunities for System-in-Package and System-on-Chip architectures. Currently interposers cannot be reconfigured. Systems may implement extra input-output connections

Interposers have been used in the system packaging industry for years. They have advanced from basic devices used for connection to providing new opportunities for System-in-Package and System-on-Chip architectures. Currently interposers cannot be reconfigured. Systems may implement extra input-output connections for hard reconfiguration. However, programmable metallization cells (PMC) offer the opportunity to change this. PMCs offer reliable and fast switching that has the potential to be used as resistive memory cells as well. PMCs operate by growing a metal filament from the device cathode to its anode through a solid electrolyte by applying a voltage. By reversing the voltage bias, the filament will retract. The PMC’s electrolyte can also be made from a range of materials being chalcogen or oxide based, allowing for integration in a variety of systems. By utilizing PMCs in an interposer to create a “smart interposer,” it would be possible to create easily reconfigurable systems. This project investigated how PMCs function in a lab setting. By using a probe station, the current-voltage characteristics were generated for a variety of limiting current values. The PMC on and off state resistances were extrapolated for further understanding of its switch function. In addition, works-like prototypes were developed to show the function a smart interposer. In these prototypes, transistors or relays were used as the switching mechanism in place of the PMCs. The final works-like prototype demonstrated how a smart interposer might function by using a switching mechanism to swap between half adder and full adder outputs for the same inputs.

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2020-05

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Lateral programmable metallization cell devices and applications

Description

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag nanoparticles into fractal structures and result in three significant effects, resonance red-shift, resonance broadening and resonance enhancement, on surface plasmon resonance for light trapping simultaneously, which can potentially enhance thin film solar cells' performance at longer wavelengths.

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Date Created
2011

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Static behavior of chalcogenide based programmable metallization cells

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Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization.

To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior.

The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of ChG-based resistive switching memory.

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2014