Matching Items (9)

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Utilizing Programmable Metallization Cells to Create Smart Interposers

Description

Interposers have been used in the system packaging industry for years. They have advanced from basic devices used for connection to providing new opportunities for System-in-Package and System-on-Chip architectures. Currently

Interposers have been used in the system packaging industry for years. They have advanced from basic devices used for connection to providing new opportunities for System-in-Package and System-on-Chip architectures. Currently interposers cannot be reconfigured. Systems may implement extra input-output connections for hard reconfiguration. However, programmable metallization cells (PMC) offer the opportunity to change this. PMCs offer reliable and fast switching that has the potential to be used as resistive memory cells as well. PMCs operate by growing a metal filament from the device cathode to its anode through a solid electrolyte by applying a voltage. By reversing the voltage bias, the filament will retract. The PMC’s electrolyte can also be made from a range of materials being chalcogen or oxide based, allowing for integration in a variety of systems. By utilizing PMCs in an interposer to create a “smart interposer,” it would be possible to create easily reconfigurable systems. This project investigated how PMCs function in a lab setting. By using a probe station, the current-voltage characteristics were generated for a variety of limiting current values. The PMC on and off state resistances were extrapolated for further understanding of its switch function. In addition, works-like prototypes were developed to show the function a smart interposer. In these prototypes, transistors or relays were used as the switching mechanism in place of the PMCs. The final works-like prototype demonstrated how a smart interposer might function by using a switching mechanism to swap between half adder and full adder outputs for the same inputs.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Lateral Programmable Metallization Cells: Materials, Devices and Mechanisms

Description

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long electrodeposit channel in a coplanar arrangement. The ability to transport large amount of metallic mass across the channel makes these devices attractive for various More-Than-Moore applications. Existing literature lacks a comprehensive study of electrodeposit growth kinetics in lateral PMCs. Moreover, the morphology of electrodeposit growth in larger, planar devices is also not understood. Despite the variety of applications, lateral PMCs are not embraced by the semiconductor industry due to incompatible materials and high operating voltages needed for such devices. In this work, a numerical model based on the basic processes in PMCs – cation drift and redox reactions – is proposed, and the effect of various materials parameters on the electrodeposit growth kinetics is reported. The morphology of the electrodeposit growth and kinetics of the electrodeposition process are also studied in devices based on Ag-Ge30Se70 materials system. It was observed that the electrodeposition process mainly consists of two regimes of growth – cation drift limited regime and mixed regime. The electrodeposition starts in cation drift limited regime at low electric fields and transitions into mixed regime as the field increases. The onset of mixed regime can be controlled by applied voltage which also affects the morphology of electrodeposit growth. The numerical model was then used to successfully predict the device kinetics and onset of mixed regime. The problem of materials incompatibility with semiconductor manufacturing was solved by proposing a novel device structure. A bilayer structure using semiconductor foundry friendly materials was suggested as a candidate for solid electrolyte. The bilayer structure consists of a low resistivity oxide shunt layer on top of a high resistivity ion carrying oxide layer. Devices using Cu2O as the low resistivity shunt on top of Cu doped WO3 oxide were fabricated. The bilayer devices provided orders of magnitude improvement in device performance in the context of operating voltage and switching time. Electrical and materials characterization revealed the structure of bilayers and the mechanism of electrodeposition in these devices.

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Date Created
  • 2020

Simulation models for programmable metallization cells

Description

Advances in software and applications continue to demand advances in memory. The ideal memory would be non-volatile and have maximal capacity, speed, retention time, endurance, and radiation hardness while also

Advances in software and applications continue to demand advances in memory. The ideal memory would be non-volatile and have maximal capacity, speed, retention time, endurance, and radiation hardness while also having minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost. The programmable metallization cell (PMC) is an emerging memory technology that is likely to surpass flash memory in all the listed ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to fully understand PMC operation and aid in design optimization. With the intent of advancing the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents two simulation models for the PMC. The first model is a finite element model based on Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Limitations of the software are identified that make this model inconsistent with the operating mechanism of the PMC. The second model is a physics-based numerical model developed for the PMC. This model is successful in matching data measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. Matched operating characteristics observable in the current and resistance vs. voltage data include the OFF/ON resistances and write/erase and electrodeposition voltage thresholds. Multilevel programming is also explained and demonstrated with the numerical model. The numerical model has already proven useful by revealing some information presented about the operation and characteristics of the PMC.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Static behavior of chalcogenide based programmable metallization cells

Description

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization.

To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior.

The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of ChG-based resistive switching memory.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Cu-Silica Based Programmable Metallization Cell: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications

Description

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one being inert (Pt or W), an insulating film (silica) acts as solid electrolyte for ion transport is sandwiched between these two electrodes. PMC’s resistance can be altered by an external electrical stimulus. The change of resistance is attributed to the formation or dissolution of Cu metal filament(s) within the silica layer which is associated with electrochemical redox reactions and ion transportation. In this dissertation, a comprehensive study of microfabrication method and its impacts on performance of PMC device is demonstrated, gamma-ray total ionizing dose (TID) impacts on device reliability is investigated, and the materials properties of doped/undoped silica switching layers are illuminated by impedance spectroscopy (IS). Due to the inherent CMOS compatibility, Cu-silica PMCs have great potential to be adopted in many emerging technologies, such as non-volatile storage cells and selector cells in ultra-dense 3D crosspoint memories, as well as electronic synapses in brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. Cu-silica PMC device performance for these applications is also assessed in this dissertation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Analysis and Modeling of Foundry Compatible Programmable Metallization Cell Materials

Description

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) devices are, in essence, redox-based

solid-state resistive switching devices that rely on ion transport through a solid electrolyte (SE) layer from anode to cathode. Analysis and modeling

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) devices are, in essence, redox-based

solid-state resistive switching devices that rely on ion transport through a solid electrolyte (SE) layer from anode to cathode. Analysis and modeling of the effect of different fabrication and processing parameter/conditions on PMC devices are crucial for future electronics. Furthermore, this work is even more significant for devices utilizing back-end- of-line (BEOL) compatible materials such as Cu, W, their oxides and SiOx as these devices offer cost effectiveness thanks to their inherent foundry-ready nature. In this dissertation, effect of annealing conditions and cathode material on the performance of Cu-SiOx vertical devices is investigated which shows that W-based devices have much lower forming voltage and initial resistance values. Also, higher annealing temperatures first lead to an increase in forming voltage from 400 °C to 500 °C, then a drastic decrease at 550 °C due to Cu island formation at the Cu/SiOx interface. Next, the characterization and modeling of the bilayer Cu2O/Cu-WO3 obtained by annealing the deposited Cu/WO3 stacks in air at BEOL-compatible temperatures is presented that display unique characteristics for lateral PMC devices. First, thin film oxidation kinetics of Cu is studied which show a parabolic relationship with annealing time and an activation energy of 0.70 eV. Grown Cu2O shows a cauliflower-like morphology where feature size on the surface increase with annealing time and temperature. Then, diffusion kinetics of Cu in WO3 is examined where the activation energy of diffusion of Cu into WO3 is calculated to be 0.74 eV. Cu was found to form clusters in the WO3 host which was revealed by imaging. Moreover, using the oxidation and diffusion analyses, a Matlab model is established for modeling the bilayer for process and annealing-condition optimization. The model is built to produce the resulting Cu2O thickness and Cu concentration in Cu-WO3. Additionally, material characterization, preliminary electrical results along with modeling of lateral PMC devices utilizing the bilayer is also demonstrated. By tuning the process parameters such as deposited Cu thickness and annealing conditions, a low-resistive Cu2O layer was achieved which dramatically enhanced the electrodeposition growth rate for lateral PMC devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Fractal properties and applications of dendritic filaments in programmable metallization cells

Description

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology employs the mechanisms of metal ion transport in solid electrolytes (SE) and electrochemical redox reactions in order to form metallic electrodeposits. When a positive bias

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology employs the mechanisms of metal ion transport in solid electrolytes (SE) and electrochemical redox reactions in order to form metallic electrodeposits. When a positive bias is applied to an anode opposite to a cathode, atoms at the anode are oxidized to ions and dissolve into the SE. Under the influence of the electric field, the ions move to the cathode and become reduced to form the electrodeposits. These electrodeposits are filamentary in nature and persistent, and since they are metallic can alter the physical characteristics of the material on which they are formed. PMCs can be used as next generation memories, radio frequency (RF) switches and physical unclonable functions (PUFs).

The morphology of the filaments is impacted by the biasing conditions. Under a relatively high applied electric field, they form as dendritic elements with a low fractal dimension (FD), whereas a low electric field leads to high FD features. Ion depletion effects in the SE due to low ion diffusivity/mobility also influences the morphology by limiting the ion supply into the growing electrodeposit.

Ion transport in SE is due to hopping transitions driven by drift and diffusion force. A physical model of ion hopping with Brownian motion has been proposed, in which the ion transitions are random when time window is larger than characteristic time. The random growth process of filaments in PMC adds entropy to the electrodeposition, which leads to random features in the dendritic patterns. Such patterns has extremely high information capacity due to the fractal nature of the electrodeposits.

In this project, lateral-growth PMCs were fabricated, whose LRS resistance is less than 10Ω, which can be used as RF switches. Also, an array of radial-growth PMCs was fabricated, on which multiple dendrites, all with different shapes, could be grown simultaneously. Those patterns can be used as secure keys in PUFs and authentication can be performed by optical scanning.

A kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model is developed to simulate the ion transportation in SE under electric field. The simulation results matched experimental data well that validated the ion hopping model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Lateral Ag Electrodeposits in Chalcogenide Glass for Physical Unclonable Function Application

Description

Counterfeiting of goods is a widespread epidemic that is affecting the world economy. The conventional labeling techniques are proving inadequate to thwart determined counterfeiters equipped with sophisticated technologies. There is

Counterfeiting of goods is a widespread epidemic that is affecting the world economy. The conventional labeling techniques are proving inadequate to thwart determined counterfeiters equipped with sophisticated technologies. There is a growing need of a secure labeling that is easy to manufacture and analyze but extremely difficult to copy. Programmable metallization cell technology operates on a principle of controllable reduction of a metal ions to an electrodeposit in a solid electrolyte by application of bias. The nature of metallic electrodeposit is unique for each instance of growth, moreover it has a treelike, bifurcating fractal structure with high information capacity. These qualities of the electrodeposit can be exploited to use it as a physical unclonable function. The secure labels made from the electrodeposits grown in radial structure can provide enhanced authentication and protection from counterfeiting and tampering.

So far only microscale radial structures and electrodeposits have been fabricated which limits their use to labeling only high value items due to high cost associated with their fabrication and analysis. Therefore, there is a need for a simple recipe for fabrication of macroscale structure that does not need sophisticated lithography tools and cleanroom environment. Moreover, the growth kinetics and material characteristics of such macroscale electrodeposits need to be investigated. In this thesis, a recipe for fabrication of centimeter scale radial structure for growing Ag electrodeposits using simple fabrication techniques was proposed. Fractal analysis of an electrodeposit suggested information capacity of 1.27 x 1019. The kinetics of growth were investigated by electrical characterization of the full cell and only solid electrolyte at different temperatures. It was found that mass transport of ions is the rate limiting process in the growth. Materials and optical characterization techniques revealed that the subtle relief like structure and consequently distinct optical response of the electrodeposit provides an added layer of security. Thus, the enormous information capacity, ease of fabrication and simplicity of analysis make macroscale fractal electrodeposits grown in radial programmable metallization cells excellent candidates for application as physical unclonable functions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Retention of programmable metallization cells during ionizing radiation exposure

Description

Non-volatile memory (NVM) has become a staple in the everyday life of consumers. NVM manifests inside cell phones, laptops, and most recently, wearable tech such as smart watches. NAND Flash

Non-volatile memory (NVM) has become a staple in the everyday life of consumers. NVM manifests inside cell phones, laptops, and most recently, wearable tech such as smart watches. NAND Flash has been an excellent solution to conditions requiring fast, compact NVM. Current technology nodes are nearing the physical limits of scaling, preventing flash from improving. To combat the limitations of flash and to appease consumer demand for progressively faster and denser NVM, new technologies are needed. One possible candidate for the replacement of NAND Flash is programmable metallization cells (PMC). PMC are a type of resistive memory, meaning that they do not rely on charge storage to maintain a logic state. Depending on their application, it is possible that devices containing NVM will be exposed to harsh radiation environments. As part of the process for developing a novel memory technology, it is important to characterize the effects irradiation has on the functionality of the devices.

This thesis characterizes the effects that ionizing γ-ray irradiation has on the retention of the programmed resistive state of a PMC. The PMC devices tested used Ge30Se70 doped with Ag as the solid electrolyte layer and were fabricated by the thesis author in a Class 100 clean room. Individual device tiles were wire bonded into ceramic packages and tested in a biased and floating contact scenario.

The first scenario presented shows that PMC devices are capable of retaining their programmed state up to the maximum exposed total ionizing dose (TID) of 3.1 Mrad(Si). In this first scenario, the contacts of the PMC devices were left floating during exposure. The second scenario tested shows that the PMC devices are capable of retaining their state until the maximum TID of 10.1 Mrad(Si) was reached. The contacts in the second scenario were biased, with a 50 mV read voltage applied to the anode contact. Analysis of the results show that Ge30Se70 PMC are ionizing radiation tolerant and can retain a programmed state to a higher TID than NAND Flash memory.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015