Matching Items (36)

##### Filtering by

- All Subjects: Statistics
- Genre: Academic theses
- Creators: Reiser, Mark R.

Description

Many longitudinal studies, especially in clinical trials, suffer from missing data issues. Most estimation procedures assume that the missing values are ignorable or missing at random (MAR). However, this assumption leads to unrealistic simplification and is implausible for many cases. For example, an investigator is examining the effect of treatment…

Many longitudinal studies, especially in clinical trials, suffer from missing data issues. Most estimation procedures assume that the missing values are ignorable or missing at random (MAR). However, this assumption leads to unrealistic simplification and is implausible for many cases. For example, an investigator is examining the effect of treatment on depression. Subjects are scheduled with doctors on a regular basis and asked questions about recent emotional situations. Patients who are experiencing severe depression are more likely to miss an appointment and leave the data missing for that particular visit. Data that are not missing at random may produce bias in results if the missing mechanism is not taken into account. In other words, the missing mechanism is related to the unobserved responses. Data are said to be non-ignorable missing if the probabilities of missingness depend on quantities that might not be included in the model. Classical pattern-mixture models for non-ignorable missing values are widely used for longitudinal data analysis because they do not require explicit specification of the missing mechanism, with the data stratified according to a variety of missing patterns and a model specified for each stratum. However, this usually results in under-identifiability, because of the need to estimate many stratum-specific parameters even though the eventual interest is usually on the marginal parameters. Pattern mixture models have the drawback that a large sample is usually required. In this thesis, two studies are presented. The first study is motivated by an open problem from pattern mixture models. Simulation studies from this part show that information in the missing data indicators can be well summarized by a simple continuous latent structure, indicating that a large number of missing data patterns may be accounted by a simple latent factor. Simulation findings that are obtained in the first study lead to a novel model, a continuous latent factor model (CLFM). The second study develops CLFM which is utilized for modeling the joint distribution of missing values and longitudinal outcomes. The proposed CLFM model is feasible even for small sample size applications. The detailed estimation theory, including estimating techniques from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives is presented. Model performance and evaluation are studied through designed simulations and three applications. Simulation and application settings change from correctly-specified missing data mechanism to mis-specified mechanism and include different sample sizes from longitudinal studies. Among three applications, an AIDS study includes non-ignorable missing values; the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test data have no indication on missing data mechanism and it will be applied to a sensitivity analysis; the Growth of Language and Early Literacy Skills in Preschoolers with Developmental Speech and Language Impairment study, however, has full complete data and will be used to conduct a robust analysis. The CLFM model is shown to provide more precise estimators, specifically on intercept and slope related parameters, compared with Roy's latent class model and the classic linear mixed model. This advantage will be more obvious when a small sample size is the case, where Roy's model experiences challenges on estimation convergence. The proposed CLFM model is also robust when missing data are ignorable as demonstrated through a study on Growth of Language and Early Literacy Skills in Preschoolers.

ContributorsZhang, Jun (Author) / Reiser, Mark R. (Thesis advisor) / Barber, Jarrett (Thesis advisor) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Wilson, Jeffrey (Committee member) / St Louis, Robert D. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2013

Description

This work presents two complementary studies that propose heuristic methods to capture characteristics of data using the ensemble learning method of random forest. The first study is motivated by the problem in education of determining teacher effectiveness in student achievement. Value-added models (VAMs), constructed as linear mixed models, use students’…

This work presents two complementary studies that propose heuristic methods to capture characteristics of data using the ensemble learning method of random forest. The first study is motivated by the problem in education of determining teacher effectiveness in student achievement. Value-added models (VAMs), constructed as linear mixed models, use students’ test scores as outcome variables and teachers’ contributions as random effects to ascribe changes in student performance to the teachers who have taught them. The VAMs teacher score is the empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP). This approach is limited by the adequacy of the assumed model specification with respect to the unknown underlying model. In that regard, this study proposes alternative ways to rank teacher effects that are not dependent on a given model by introducing two variable importance measures (VIMs), the node-proportion and the covariate-proportion. These VIMs are novel because they take into account the final configuration of the terminal nodes in the constitutive trees in a random forest. In a simulation study, under a variety of conditions, true rankings of teacher effects are compared with estimated rankings obtained using three sources: the newly proposed VIMs, existing VIMs, and EBLUPs from the assumed linear model specification. The newly proposed VIMs outperform all others in various scenarios where the model was misspecified. The second study develops two novel interaction measures. These measures could be used within but are not restricted to the VAM framework. The distribution-based measure is constructed to identify interactions in a general setting where a model specification is not assumed in advance. In turn, the mean-based measure is built to estimate interactions when the model specification is assumed to be linear. Both measures are unique in their construction; they take into account not only the outcome values, but also the internal structure of the trees in a random forest. In a separate simulation study, under a variety of conditions, the proposed measures are found to identify and estimate second-order interactions.

ContributorsValdivia, Arturo (Author) / Eubank, Randall (Thesis advisor) / Young, Dennis (Committee member) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Broatch, Jennifer (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2013

Description

Parallel Monte Carlo applications require the pseudorandom numbers used on each processor to be independent in a probabilistic sense. The TestU01 software package is the standard testing suite for detecting stream dependence and other properties that make certain pseudorandom generators ineffective in parallel (as well as serial) settings. TestU01 employs…

Parallel Monte Carlo applications require the pseudorandom numbers used on each processor to be independent in a probabilistic sense. The TestU01 software package is the standard testing suite for detecting stream dependence and other properties that make certain pseudorandom generators ineffective in parallel (as well as serial) settings. TestU01 employs two basic schemes for testing parallel generated streams. The first applies serial tests to the individual streams and then tests the resulting P-values for uniformity. The second turns all the parallel generated streams into one long vector and then applies serial tests to the resulting concatenated stream. Various forms of stream dependence can be missed by each approach because neither one fully addresses the multivariate nature of the accumulated data when generators are run in parallel. This dissertation identifies these potential faults in the parallel testing methodologies of TestU01 and investigates two different methods to better detect inter-stream dependencies: correlation motivated multivariate tests and vector time series based tests. These methods have been implemented in an extension to TestU01 built in C++ and the unique aspects of this extension are discussed. A variety of different generation scenarios are then examined using the TestU01 suite in concert with the extension. This enhanced software package is found to better detect certain forms of inter-stream dependencies than the original TestU01 suites of tests.

ContributorsIsmay, Chester (Author) / Eubank, Randall (Thesis advisor) / Young, Dennis (Committee member) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Lanchier, Nicolas (Committee member) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2013

Description

Obtaining high-quality experimental designs to optimize statistical efficiency and data quality is quite challenging for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The primary fMRI design issue is on the selection of the best sequence of stimuli based on a statistically meaningful optimality criterion. Some previous studies have provided some guidance and…

Obtaining high-quality experimental designs to optimize statistical efficiency and data quality is quite challenging for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The primary fMRI design issue is on the selection of the best sequence of stimuli based on a statistically meaningful optimality criterion. Some previous studies have provided some guidance and powerful computational tools for obtaining good fMRI designs. However, these results are mainly for basic experimental settings with simple statistical models. In this work, a type of modern fMRI experiments is considered, in which the design matrix of the statistical model depends not only on the selected design, but also on the experimental subject's probabilistic behavior during the experiment. The design matrix is thus uncertain at the design stage, making it diffcult to select good designs. By taking this uncertainty into account, a very efficient approach for obtaining high-quality fMRI designs is developed in this study. The proposed approach is built upon an analytical result, and an efficient computer algorithm. It is shown through case studies that the proposed approach can outperform an existing method in terms of computing time, and the quality of the obtained designs.

ContributorsZhou, Lin (Author) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Thesis advisor) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Stufken, John (Committee member) / Welfert, Bruno (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2014

Description

In this era of fast computational machines and new optimization algorithms, there have been great advances in Experimental Designs. We focus our research on design issues in generalized linear models (GLMs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI). The first part of our research is on tackling the challenging problem of constructing

…

…

In this era of fast computational machines and new optimization algorithms, there have been great advances in Experimental Designs. We focus our research on design issues in generalized linear models (GLMs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI). The first part of our research is on tackling the challenging problem of constructing

exact designs for GLMs, that are robust against parameter, link and model

uncertainties by improving an existing algorithm and providing a new one, based on using a continuous particle swarm optimization (PSO) and spectral clustering. The proposed algorithm is sufficiently versatile to accomodate most popular design selection criteria, and we concentrate on providing robust designs for GLMs, using the D and A optimality criterion. The second part of our research is on providing an algorithm

that is a faster alternative to a recently proposed genetic algorithm (GA) to construct optimal designs for fMRI studies. Our algorithm is built upon a discrete version of the PSO.

exact designs for GLMs, that are robust against parameter, link and model

uncertainties by improving an existing algorithm and providing a new one, based on using a continuous particle swarm optimization (PSO) and spectral clustering. The proposed algorithm is sufficiently versatile to accomodate most popular design selection criteria, and we concentrate on providing robust designs for GLMs, using the D and A optimality criterion. The second part of our research is on providing an algorithm

that is a faster alternative to a recently proposed genetic algorithm (GA) to construct optimal designs for fMRI studies. Our algorithm is built upon a discrete version of the PSO.

ContributorsTemkit, M'Hamed (Author) / Kao, Jason (Thesis advisor) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Barber, Jarrett (Committee member) / Montgomery, Douglas C. (Committee member) / Pan, Rong (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2014

Description

It is common in the analysis of data to provide a goodness-of-fit test to assess the performance of a model. In the analysis of contingency tables, goodness-of-fit statistics are frequently employed when modeling social science, educational or psychological data where the interest is often directed at investigating the association among…

It is common in the analysis of data to provide a goodness-of-fit test to assess the performance of a model. In the analysis of contingency tables, goodness-of-fit statistics are frequently employed when modeling social science, educational or psychological data where the interest is often directed at investigating the association among multi-categorical variables. Pearson's chi-squared statistic is well-known in goodness-of-fit testing, but it is sometimes considered to produce an omnibus test as it gives little guidance to the source of poor fit once the null hypothesis is rejected. However, its components can provide powerful directional tests. In this dissertation, orthogonal components are used to develop goodness-of-fit tests for models fit to the counts obtained from the cross-classification of multi-category dependent variables. Ordinal categories are assumed. Orthogonal components defined on marginals are obtained when analyzing multi-dimensional contingency tables through the use of the QR decomposition. A subset of these orthogonal components can be used to construct limited-information tests that allow one to identify the source of lack-of-fit and provide an increase in power compared to Pearson's test. These tests can address the adverse effects presented when data are sparse. The tests rely on the set of first- and second-order marginals jointly, the set of second-order marginals only, and the random forest method, a popular algorithm for modeling large complex data sets. The performance of these tests is compared to the likelihood ratio test as well as to tests based on orthogonal polynomial components. The derived goodness-of-fit tests are evaluated with studies for detecting two- and three-way associations that are not accounted for by a categorical variable factor model with a single latent variable. In addition the tests are used to investigate the case when the model misspecification involves parameter constraints for large and sparse contingency tables. The methodology proposed here is applied to data from the 38th round of the State Survey conducted by the Institute for Public Policy and Michigan State University Social Research (2005) . The results illustrate the use of the proposed techniques in the context of a sparse data set.

ContributorsMilovanovic, Jelena (Author) / Young, Dennis (Thesis advisor) / Reiser, Mark R. (Thesis advisor) / Wilson, Jeffrey (Committee member) / Eubank, Randall (Committee member) / Yang, Yan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2011

Description

By the von Neumann min-max theorem, a two person zero sum game with finitely many pure strategies has a unique value for each player (summing to zero) and each player has a non-empty set of optimal mixed strategies. If the payoffs are independent, identically distributed (iid) uniform (0,1) random…

By the von Neumann min-max theorem, a two person zero sum game with finitely many pure strategies has a unique value for each player (summing to zero) and each player has a non-empty set of optimal mixed strategies. If the payoffs are independent, identically distributed (iid) uniform (0,1) random variables, then with probability one, both players have unique optimal mixed strategies utilizing the same number of pure strategies with positive probability (Jonasson 2004). The pure strategies with positive probability in the unique optimal mixed strategies are called saddle squares. In 1957, Goldman evaluated the probability of a saddle point (a 1 by 1 saddle square), which was rediscovered by many authors including Thorp (1979). Thorp gave two proofs of the probability of a saddle point, one using combinatorics and one using a beta integral. In 1965, Falk and Thrall investigated the integrals required for the probabilities of a 2 by 2 saddle square for 2 × n and m × 2 games with iid uniform (0,1) payoffs, but they were not able to evaluate the integrals. This dissertation generalizes Thorp's beta integral proof of Goldman's probability of a saddle point, establishing an integral formula for the probability that a m × n game with iid uniform (0,1) payoffs has a k by k saddle square (k ≤ m,n). Additionally, the probabilities of a 2 by 2 and a 3 by 3 saddle square for a 3 × 3 game with iid uniform(0,1) payoffs are found. For these, the 14 integrals observed by Falk and Thrall are dissected into 38 disjoint domains, and the integrals are evaluated using the basic properties of the dilogarithm function. The final results for the probabilities of a 2 by 2 and a 3 by 3 saddle square in a 3 × 3 game are linear combinations of 1, π2, and ln(2) with rational coefficients.

ContributorsManley, Michael (Author) / Kadell, Kevin W. J. (Thesis advisor) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Lanchier, Nicolas (Committee member) / Lohr, Sharon (Committee member) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2011

Description

Coarsely grouped counts or frequencies are commonly used in the behavioral sciences. Grouped count and grouped frequency (GCGF) that are used as outcome variables often violate the assumptions of linear regression as well as models designed for categorical outcomes; there is no analytic model that is designed specifically to accommodate…

Coarsely grouped counts or frequencies are commonly used in the behavioral sciences. Grouped count and grouped frequency (GCGF) that are used as outcome variables often violate the assumptions of linear regression as well as models designed for categorical outcomes; there is no analytic model that is designed specifically to accommodate GCGF outcomes. The purpose of this dissertation was to compare the statistical performance of four regression models (linear regression, Poisson regression, ordinal logistic regression, and beta regression) that can be used when the outcome is a GCGF variable. A simulation study was used to determine the power, type I error, and confidence interval (CI) coverage rates for these models under different conditions. Mean structure, variance structure, effect size, continuous or binary predictor, and sample size were included in the factorial design. Mean structures reflected either a linear relationship or an exponential relationship between the predictor and the outcome. Variance structures reflected homoscedastic (as in linear regression), heteroscedastic (monotonically increasing) or heteroscedastic (increasing then decreasing) variance. Small to medium, large, and very large effect sizes were examined. Sample sizes were 100, 200, 500, and 1000. Results of the simulation study showed that ordinal logistic regression produced type I error, statistical power, and CI coverage rates that were consistently within acceptable limits. Linear regression produced type I error and statistical power that were within acceptable limits, but CI coverage was too low for several conditions important to the analysis of counts and frequencies. Poisson regression and beta regression displayed inflated type I error, low statistical power, and low CI coverage rates for nearly all conditions. All models produced unbiased estimates of the regression coefficient. Based on the statistical performance of the four models, ordinal logistic regression seems to be the preferred method for analyzing GCGF outcomes. Linear regression also performed well, but CI coverage was too low for conditions with an exponential mean structure and/or heteroscedastic variance. Some aspects of model prediction, such as model fit, were not assessed here; more research is necessary to determine which statistical model best captures the unique properties of GCGF outcomes.

ContributorsCoxe, Stefany (Author) / Aiken, Leona S. (Thesis advisor) / West, Stephen G. (Thesis advisor) / Mackinnon, David P (Committee member) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2012

Description

When analyzing longitudinal data it is essential to account both for the correlation inherent from the repeated measures of the responses as well as the correlation realized on account of the feedback created between the responses at a particular time and the predictors at other times. A generalized method of…

When analyzing longitudinal data it is essential to account both for the correlation inherent from the repeated measures of the responses as well as the correlation realized on account of the feedback created between the responses at a particular time and the predictors at other times. A generalized method of moments (GMM) for estimating the coefficients in longitudinal data is presented. The appropriate and valid estimating equations associated with the time-dependent covariates are identified, thus providing substantial gains in efficiency over generalized estimating equations (GEE) with the independent working correlation. Identifying the estimating equations for computation is of utmost importance. This paper provides a technique for identifying the relevant estimating equations through a general method of moments. I develop an approach that makes use of all the valid estimating equations necessary with each time-dependent and time-independent covariate. Moreover, my approach does not assume that feedback is always present over time, or present at the same degree. I fit the GMM correlated logistic regression model in SAS with PROC IML. I examine two datasets for illustrative purposes. I look at rehospitalization in a Medicare database. I revisit data regarding the relationship between the body mass index and future morbidity among children in the Philippines. These datasets allow us to compare my results with some earlier methods of analyses.

ContributorsYin, Jianqiong (Author) / Wilson, Jeffrey Wilson (Thesis advisor) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2012

Description

A least total area of triangle method was proposed by Teissier (1948) for fitting a straight line to data from a pair of variables without treating either variable as the dependent variable while allowing each of the variables to have measurement errors. This method is commonly called Reduced Major Axis…

A least total area of triangle method was proposed by Teissier (1948) for fitting a straight line to data from a pair of variables without treating either variable as the dependent variable while allowing each of the variables to have measurement errors. This method is commonly called Reduced Major Axis (RMA) regression and is often used instead of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression. Results for confidence intervals, hypothesis testing and asymptotic distributions of coefficient estimates in the bivariate case are reviewed. A generalization of RMA to more than two variables for fitting a plane to data is obtained by minimizing the sum of a function of the volumes obtained by drawing, from each data point, lines parallel to each coordinate axis to the fitted plane (Draper and Yang 1997; Goodman and Tofallis 2003). Generalized RMA results for the multivariate case obtained by Draper and Yang (1997) are reviewed and some investigations of multivariate RMA are given. A linear model is proposed that does not specify a dependent variable and allows for errors in the measurement of each variable. Coefficients in the model are estimated by minimization of the function of the volumes previously mentioned. Methods for obtaining coefficient estimates are discussed and simulations are used to investigate the distribution of coefficient estimates. The effects of sample size, sampling error and correlation among variables on the estimates are studied. Bootstrap methods are used to obtain confidence intervals for model coefficients. Residual analysis is considered for assessing model assumptions. Outlier and influential case diagnostics are developed and a forward selection method is proposed for subset selection of model variables. A real data example is provided that uses the methods developed. Topics for further research are discussed.

ContributorsLi, Jingjin (Author) / Young, Dennis (Thesis advisor) / Eubank, Randall (Thesis advisor) / Reiser, Mark R. (Committee member) / Kao, Ming-Hung (Committee member) / Yang, Yan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)

Created2012