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Optimal experimental design for accelerated life testing and design evaluation

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Nowadays product reliability becomes the top concern of the manufacturers and customers always prefer the products with good performances under long period. In order to estimate the lifetime of the product, accelerated life testing (ALT) is introduced because most of

Nowadays product reliability becomes the top concern of the manufacturers and customers always prefer the products with good performances under long period. In order to estimate the lifetime of the product, accelerated life testing (ALT) is introduced because most of the products can last years even decades. Much research has been done in the ALT area and optimal design for ALT is a major topic. This dissertation consists of three main studies. First, a methodology of finding optimal design for ALT with right censoring and interval censoring have been developed and it employs the proportional hazard (PH) model and generalized linear model (GLM) to simplify the computational process. A sensitivity study is also given to show the effects brought by parameters to the designs. Second, an extended version of I-optimal design for ALT is discussed and then a dual-objective design criterion is defined and showed with several examples. Also in order to evaluate different candidate designs, several graphical tools are developed. Finally, when there are more than one models available, different model checking designs are discussed.

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2013

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Holistic learning for multi-target and network monitoring problems

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Technological advances have enabled the generation and collection of various data from complex systems, thus, creating ample opportunity to integrate knowledge in many decision making applications. This dissertation introduces holistic learning as the integration of a comprehensive set of relationships

Technological advances have enabled the generation and collection of various data from complex systems, thus, creating ample opportunity to integrate knowledge in many decision making applications. This dissertation introduces holistic learning as the integration of a comprehensive set of relationships that are used towards the learning objective. The holistic view of the problem allows for richer learning from data and, thereby, improves decision making.

The first topic of this dissertation is the prediction of several target attributes using a common set of predictor attributes. In a holistic learning approach, the relationships between target attributes are embedded into the learning algorithm created in this dissertation. Specifically, a novel tree based ensemble that leverages the relationships between target attributes towards constructing a diverse, yet strong, model is proposed. The method is justified through its connection to existing methods and experimental evaluations on synthetic and real data.

The second topic pertains to monitoring complex systems that are modeled as networks. Such systems present a rich set of attributes and relationships for which holistic learning is important. In social networks, for example, in addition to friendship ties, various attributes concerning the users' gender, age, topic of messages, time of messages, etc. are collected. A restricted form of monitoring fails to take the relationships of multiple attributes into account, whereas the holistic view embeds such relationships in the monitoring methods. The focus is on the difficult task to detect a change that might only impact a small subset of the network and only occur in a sub-region of the high-dimensional space of the network attributes. One contribution is a monitoring algorithm based on a network statistical model. Another contribution is a transactional model that transforms the task into an expedient structure for machine learning, along with a generalizable algorithm to monitor the attributed network. A learning step in this algorithm adapts to changes that may only be local to sub-regions (with a broader potential for other learning tasks). Diagnostic tools to interpret the change are provided. This robust, generalizable, holistic monitoring method is elaborated on synthetic and real networks.

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2014

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Learning from asymmetric models and matched pairs

Description

With the increase in computing power and availability of data, there has never been a greater need to understand data and make decisions from it. Traditional statistical techniques may not be adequate to handle the size of today's data or

With the increase in computing power and availability of data, there has never been a greater need to understand data and make decisions from it. Traditional statistical techniques may not be adequate to handle the size of today's data or the complexities of the information hidden within the data. Thus knowledge discovery by machine learning techniques is necessary if we want to better understand information from data. In this dissertation, we explore the topics of asymmetric loss and asymmetric data in machine learning and propose new algorithms as solutions to some of the problems in these topics. We also studied variable selection of matched data sets and proposed a solution when there is non-linearity in the matched data. The research is divided into three parts. The first part addresses the problem of asymmetric loss. A proposed asymmetric support vector machine (aSVM) is used to predict specific classes with high accuracy. aSVM was shown to produce higher precision than a regular SVM. The second part addresses asymmetric data sets where variables are only predictive for a subset of the predictor classes. Asymmetric Random Forest (ARF) was proposed to detect these kinds of variables. The third part explores variable selection for matched data sets. Matched Random Forest (MRF) was proposed to find variables that are able to distinguish case and control without the restrictions that exists in linear models. MRF detects variables that are able to distinguish case and control even in the presence of interaction and qualitative variables.

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2013

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Semiconductor yield modeling using generalized linear models

Description

Yield is a key process performance characteristic in the capital-intensive semiconductor fabrication process. In an industry where machines cost millions of dollars and cycle times are a number of months, predicting and optimizing yield are critical to process improvement,

Yield is a key process performance characteristic in the capital-intensive semiconductor fabrication process. In an industry where machines cost millions of dollars and cycle times are a number of months, predicting and optimizing yield are critical to process improvement, customer satisfaction, and financial success. Semiconductor yield modeling is essential to identifying processing issues, improving quality, and meeting customer demand in the industry. However, the complicated fabrication process, the massive amount of data collected, and the number of models available make yield modeling a complex and challenging task. This work presents modeling strategies to forecast yield using generalized linear models (GLMs) based on defect metrology data. The research is divided into three main parts. First, the data integration and aggregation necessary for model building are described, and GLMs are constructed for yield forecasting. This technique yields results at both the die and the wafer levels, outperforms existing models found in the literature based on prediction errors, and identifies significant factors that can drive process improvement. This method also allows the nested structure of the process to be considered in the model, improving predictive capabilities and violating fewer assumptions. To account for the random sampling typically used in fabrication, the work is extended by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) and a larger dataset to show the differences between batch-specific and population-averaged models in this application and how they compare to GLMs. These results show some additional improvements in forecasting abilities under certain conditions and show the differences between the significant effects identified in the GLM and GLMM models. The effects of link functions and sample size are also examined at the die and wafer levels. The third part of this research describes a methodology for integrating classification and regression trees (CART) with GLMs. This technique uses the terminal nodes identified in the classification tree to add predictors to a GLM. This method enables the model to consider important interaction terms in a simpler way than with the GLM alone, and provides valuable insight into the fabrication process through the combination of the tree structure and the statistical analysis of the GLM.

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2011

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Accelerated life testing of electronic circuit boards with applications in lead-free design

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This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented

This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented in this research are generally applicable to circuit boards, but the data generated and their analysis is for high performance avionics. Avionics equipment typically requires 20 years expected life by aircraft equipment manufacturers and therefore ALT is the only practical way of performing life test estimates. Both thermal and vibration ALT induced failure are performed and analyzed to resolve industry questions relating to the introduction of lead-free solder product and processes into high reliability avionics. In chapter 2, thermal ALT using an industry standard failure machine implementing Interconnect Stress Test (IST) that simulates circuit board life data is compared to real production failure data by likelihood ratio tests to arrive at a mechanical theory. This mechanical theory results in a statistically equivalent energy bound such that failure distributions below a specific energy level are considered to be from the same distribution thus allowing testers to quantify parameter setting in IST prior to life testing. In chapter 3, vibration ALT comparing tin-lead and lead-free circuit board solder designs involves the use of the likelihood ratio (LR) test to assess both complete failure data and S-N curves to present methods for analyzing data. Failure data is analyzed using Regression and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and reconciled with the LR test results that indicating that a costly aging pre-process may be eliminated in certain cases. In chapter 4, vibration ALT for side-by-side tin-lead and lead-free solder black box designs are life tested. Commercial models from strain data do not exist at the low levels associated with life testing and need to be developed because testing performed and presented here indicate that both tin-lead and lead-free solders are similar. In addition, earlier failures due to vibration like connector failure modes will occur before solder interconnect failures.

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2012

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A statistical approach to solar photovoltaic module lifetime prediction

Description

The main objective of this research is to develop an approach to PV module lifetime prediction. In doing so, the aim is to move from empirical generalizations to a formal predictive science based on data-driven case studies of the crystalline

The main objective of this research is to develop an approach to PV module lifetime prediction. In doing so, the aim is to move from empirical generalizations to a formal predictive science based on data-driven case studies of the crystalline silicon PV systems. The evaluation of PV systems aged 5 to 30 years old that results in systematic predictive capability that is absent today. The warranty period provided by the manufacturers typically range from 20 to 25 years for crystalline silicon modules. The end of lifetime (for example, the time-to-degrade by 20% from rated power) of PV modules is usually calculated using a simple linear extrapolation based on the annual field degradation rate (say, 0.8% drop in power output per year). It has been 26 years since systematic studies on solar PV module lifetime prediction were undertaken as part of the 11-year flat-plate solar array (FSA) project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by DOE. Since then, PV modules have gone through significant changes in construction materials and design; making most of the field data obsolete, though the effect field stressors on the old designs/materials is valuable to be understood. Efforts have been made to adapt some of the techniques developed to the current technologies, but they are too often limited in scope and too reliant on empirical generalizations of previous results. Some systematic approaches have been proposed based on accelerated testing, but no or little experimental studies have followed. Consequently, the industry does not exactly know today how to test modules for a 20 - 30 years lifetime.

This research study focuses on the behavior of crystalline silicon PV module technology in the dry and hot climatic condition of Tempe/Phoenix, Arizona. A three-phase approach was developed: (1) A quantitative failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) was developed for prioritizing failure modes or mechanisms in a given environment; (2) A time-series approach was used to model environmental stress variables involved and prioritize their effect on the power output drop; and (3) A procedure for developing a prediction model was proposed for the climatic specific condition based on accelerated degradation testing

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2014

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Modeling time series data for supervised learning

Description

Temporal data are increasingly prevalent and important in analytics. Time series (TS) data are chronological sequences of observations and an important class of temporal data. Fields such as medicine, finance, learning science and multimedia naturally generate TS data. Each series

Temporal data are increasingly prevalent and important in analytics. Time series (TS) data are chronological sequences of observations and an important class of temporal data. Fields such as medicine, finance, learning science and multimedia naturally generate TS data. Each series provide a high-dimensional data vector that challenges the learning of the relevant patterns This dissertation proposes TS representations and methods for supervised TS analysis. The approaches combine new representations that handle translations and dilations of patterns with bag-of-features strategies and tree-based ensemble learning. This provides flexibility in handling time-warped patterns in a computationally efficient way. The ensemble learners provide a classification framework that can handle high-dimensional feature spaces, multiple classes and interaction between features. The proposed representations are useful for classification and interpretation of the TS data of varying complexity. The first contribution handles the problem of time warping with a feature-based approach. An interval selection and local feature extraction strategy is proposed to learn a bag-of-features representation. This is distinctly different from common similarity-based time warping. This allows for additional features (such as pattern location) to be easily integrated into the models. The learners have the capability to account for the temporal information through the recursive partitioning method. The second contribution focuses on the comprehensibility of the models. A new representation is integrated with local feature importance measures from tree-based ensembles, to diagnose and interpret time intervals that are important to the model. Multivariate time series (MTS) are especially challenging because the input consists of a collection of TS and both features within TS and interactions between TS can be important to models. Another contribution uses a different representation to produce computationally efficient strategies that learn a symbolic representation for MTS. Relationships between the multiple TS, nominal and missing values are handled with tree-based learners. Applications such as speech recognition, medical diagnosis and gesture recognition are used to illustrate the methods. Experimental results show that the TS representations and methods provide better results than competitive methods on a comprehensive collection of benchmark datasets. Moreover, the proposed approaches naturally provide solutions to similarity analysis, predictive pattern discovery and feature selection.

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2012

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Experimental designs for generalized linear models and functional magnetic resonance imaging

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In this era of fast computational machines and new optimization algorithms, there have been great advances in Experimental Designs. We focus our research on design issues in generalized linear models (GLMs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI). The first part of

In this era of fast computational machines and new optimization algorithms, there have been great advances in Experimental Designs. We focus our research on design issues in generalized linear models (GLMs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI). The first part of our research is on tackling the challenging problem of constructing

exact designs for GLMs, that are robust against parameter, link and model

uncertainties by improving an existing algorithm and providing a new one, based on using a continuous particle swarm optimization (PSO) and spectral clustering. The proposed algorithm is sufficiently versatile to accomodate most popular design selection criteria, and we concentrate on providing robust designs for GLMs, using the D and A optimality criterion. The second part of our research is on providing an algorithm

that is a faster alternative to a recently proposed genetic algorithm (GA) to construct optimal designs for fMRI studies. Our algorithm is built upon a discrete version of the PSO.

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2014

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Applied meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability

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This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal test and vibration test are discussed. The main cause of

This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal test and vibration test are discussed. The main cause of failure of lead- free solder is fatigue crack, and the speed of propagation of the initial crack could differ from different test conditions and different solder materials. A quantitative analysis about the fatigue behavior of SAC lead-free solder under thermal preconditioning process is conducted. This thesis presents a method of making prediction of failure life of solder alloy by building a Weibull regression model. The failure life of solder on circuit board is assumed Weibull distributed. Different materials and test conditions could affect the distribution by changing the shape and scale parameters of Weibull distribution. The method is to model the regression of parameters with different test conditions as predictors based on Bayesian inference concepts. In the process of building regression models, prior distributions are generated according to the previous studies, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used under WinBUGS environment.

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2014

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Bayesian D-optimal design issues and optimal design construction methods for generalized linear models with random blocks

Description

Optimal experimental design for generalized linear models is often done using a pseudo-Bayesian approach that integrates the design criterion across a prior distribution on the parameter values. This approach ignores the lack of utility of certain models contained in

Optimal experimental design for generalized linear models is often done using a pseudo-Bayesian approach that integrates the design criterion across a prior distribution on the parameter values. This approach ignores the lack of utility of certain models contained in the prior, and a case is demonstrated where the heavy focus on such hopeless models results in a design with poor performance and with wild swings in coverage probabilities for Wald-type confidence intervals. Design construction using a utility-based approach is shown to result in much more stable coverage probabilities in the area of greatest concern.

The pseudo-Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of optimal design construction under dependent observations. Often, correlation between observations exists due to restrictions on randomization. Several techniques for optimal design construction are proposed in the case of the conditional response distribution being a natural exponential family member but with a normally distributed block effect . The reviewed pseudo-Bayesian approach is compared to an approach based on substituting the marginal likelihood with the joint likelihood and an approach based on projections of the score function (often called quasi-likelihood). These approaches are compared for several models with normal, Poisson, and binomial conditional response distributions via the true determinant of the expected Fisher information matrix where the dispersion of the random blocks is considered a nuisance parameter. A case study using the developed methods is performed.

The joint and quasi-likelihood methods are then extended to address the case when the magnitude of random block dispersion is of concern. Again, a simulation study over several models is performed, followed by a case study when the conditional response distribution is a Poisson distribution.

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2015