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Outlier-Aware Applications in High-Dimensional Industrial Systems

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High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are

High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are commonly used for dealing with such data. In addition, outliers typically exist in such data, which may be of direct or indirect interest given the nature of the problem that is being solved. Current research does not address the interdependent nature of dimensionality reduction and outliers. Some works ignore the existence of outliers altogether—which discredits the robustness of these methods in real life—while others provide suboptimal, often band-aid solutions. In this dissertation, I propose novel methods to achieve outlier-awareness in various dimensionality reduction methods. The problem is considered from many different angles depend- ing on the dimensionality reduction technique used (e.g., deep autoencoder, tensors), the nature of the application (e.g., manufacturing, transportation) and the outlier structure (e.g., sparse point anomalies, novelties).

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2021

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New statistical transfer learning models for health care applications

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Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to develop a better model for the target domain than a model using the data of the target domain alone. While transfer learning is a promising approach in various application domains, my dissertation research focuses on the particular application in health care, including telemonitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and radiomics for glioblastoma.

The first topic is a Mixed Effects Transfer Learning (METL) model that can flexibly incorporate mixed effects and a general-form covariance matrix to better account for similarity and heterogeneity across subjects. I further develop computationally efficient procedures to handle unknown parameters and large covariance structures. Domain relations, such as domain similarity and domain covariance structure, are automatically quantified in the estimation steps. I demonstrate METL in an application of smartphone-based telemonitoring of PD.

The second topic focuses on an MRI-based transfer learning algorithm for non-invasive surgical guidance of glioblastoma patients. Limited biopsy samples per patient create a challenge to build a patient-specific model for glioblastoma. A transfer learning framework helps to leverage other patient’s knowledge for building a better predictive model. When modeling a target patient, not every patient’s information is helpful. Deciding the subset of other patients from which to transfer information to the modeling of the target patient is an important task to build an accurate predictive model. I define the subset of “transferrable” patients as those who have a positive rCBV-cell density correlation, because a positive correlation is confirmed by imaging theory and the its respective literature.

The last topic is a Privacy-Preserving Positive Transfer Learning (P3TL) model. Although negative transfer has been recognized as an important issue by the transfer learning research community, there is a lack of theoretical studies in evaluating the risk of negative transfer for a transfer learning method and identifying what causes the negative transfer. My work addresses this issue. Driven by the theoretical insights, I extend Bayesian Parameter Transfer (BPT) to a new method, i.e., P3TL. The unique features of P3TL include intelligent selection of patients to transfer in order to avoid negative transfer and maintain patient privacy. These features make P3TL an excellent model for telemonitoring of PD using an At-Home Testing Device.

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2018

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Building energy modeling: a data-driven approach

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Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting,

Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting, while most of work have focused on developing dedicated modeling approach for generic buildings. In this study, an integrated computationally efficient and high-fidelity building energy modeling framework is proposed, with the concentration on developing a generalized modeling approach for various types of buildings. First, a number of data-driven simulation models are reviewed and assessed on various types of computationally expensive simulation problems. Motivated by the conclusion that no model outperforms others if amortized over diverse problems, a meta-learning based recommendation system for data-driven simulation modeling is proposed. To test the feasibility of the proposed framework on the building energy system, an extended application of the recommendation system for short-term building energy forecasting is deployed on various buildings. Finally, Kalman filter-based data fusion technique is incorporated into the building recommendation system for on-line energy forecasting. Data fusion enables model calibration to update the state estimation in real-time, which filters out the noise and renders more accurate energy forecast. The framework is composed of two modules: off-line model recommendation module and on-line model calibration module. Specifically, the off-line model recommendation module includes 6 widely used data-driven simulation models, which are ranked by meta-learning recommendation system for off-line energy modeling on a given building scenario. Only a selective set of building physical and operational characteristic features is needed to complete the recommendation task. The on-line calibration module effectively addresses system uncertainties, where data fusion on off-line model is applied based on system identification and Kalman filtering methods. The developed data-driven modeling framework is validated on various genres of buildings, and the experimental results demonstrate desired performance on building energy forecasting in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The framework could be easily implemented into building energy model predictive control (MPC), demand response (DR) analysis and real-time operation decision support systems.

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2016

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Embedded Feature Selection for Model-based Clustering

Description

Model-based clustering is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. The mixture models use the probability to describe the degree of the data point belonging to the cluster, and the probability is updated iteratively during the clustering. While mixture

Model-based clustering is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. The mixture models use the probability to describe the degree of the data point belonging to the cluster, and the probability is updated iteratively during the clustering. While mixture models have demonstrated the superior performance in handling noisy data in many fields, there exist some challenges for high dimensional dataset. It is noted that among a large number of features, some may not indeed contribute to delineate the cluster profiles. The inclusion of these “noisy” features will confuse the model to identify the real structure of the clusters and cost more computational time. Recognizing the issue, in this dissertation, I propose a new feature selection algorithm for continuous dataset first and then extend to mixed datatype. Finally, I conduct uncertainty quantification for the feature selection results as the third topic.

The first topic is an embedded feature selection algorithm termed Expectation-Selection-Maximization (ESM) model that can automatically select features while optimizing the parameters for Gaussian Mixture Model. I introduce a relevancy index (RI) revealing the contribution of the feature in the clustering process to assist feature selection. I demonstrate the efficacy of the ESM by studying two synthetic datasets, four benchmark datasets, and an Alzheimer’s Disease dataset.

The second topic focuses on extending the application of ESM algorithm to handle mixed datatypes. The Gaussian mixture model is generalized to Generalized Model of Mixture (GMoM), which can not only handle continuous features, but also binary and nominal features.

The last topic is about Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) of the feature selection. A new algorithm termed ESOM is proposed, which takes the variance information into consideration while conducting feature selection. Also, a set of outliers are generated in the feature selection process to infer the uncertainty in the input data. Finally, the selected features and detected outlier instances are evaluated by visualization comparison.

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Date Created
2020

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A Study on Optimization Measurement Policies for Quality Control Improvements in Gene Therapy Manufacturing

Description

With the increased demand for genetically modified T-cells in treating hematological malignancies, the need for an optimized measurement policy within the current good manufacturing practices for better quality control has grown greatly. There are several steps involved in manufacturing gene

With the increased demand for genetically modified T-cells in treating hematological malignancies, the need for an optimized measurement policy within the current good manufacturing practices for better quality control has grown greatly. There are several steps involved in manufacturing gene therapy. These steps are for the autologous-type gene therapy, in chronological order, are harvesting T-cells from the patient, activation of the cells (thawing the cryogenically frozen cells after transport to manufacturing center), viral vector transduction, Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) attachment during T-cell expansion, then infusion into patient. The need for improved measurement heuristics within the transduction and expansion portions of the manufacturing process has reached an all-time high because of the costly nature of manufacturing the product, the high cycle time (approximately 14-28 days from activation to infusion), and the risk for external contamination during manufacturing that negatively impacts patients post infusion (such as illness and death).

The main objective of this work is to investigate and improve measurement policies on the basis of quality control in the transduction/expansion bio-manufacturing processes. More specifically, this study addresses the issue of measuring yield within the transduction/expansion phases of gene therapy. To do so, it was decided to model the process as a Markov Decision Process where the decisions being made are optimally chosen to create an overall optimal measurement policy; for a set of predefined parameters.

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Date Created
2020

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Spatial Regression and Gaussian Process BART

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Spatial regression is one of the central topics in spatial statistics. Based on the goals, interpretation or prediction, spatial regression models can be classified into two categories, linear mixed regression models and nonlinear regression models. This dissertation explored these models

Spatial regression is one of the central topics in spatial statistics. Based on the goals, interpretation or prediction, spatial regression models can be classified into two categories, linear mixed regression models and nonlinear regression models. This dissertation explored these models and their real world applications. New methods and models were proposed to overcome the challenges in practice. There are three major parts in the dissertation.

In the first part, nonlinear regression models were embedded into a multistage workflow to predict the spatial abundance of reef fish species in the Gulf of Mexico. There were two challenges, zero-inflated data and out of sample prediction. The methods and models in the workflow could effectively handle the zero-inflated sampling data without strong assumptions. Three strategies were proposed to solve the out of sample prediction problem. The results and discussions showed that the nonlinear prediction had the advantages of high accuracy, low bias and well-performed in multi-resolution.

In the second part, a two-stage spatial regression model was proposed for analyzing soil carbon stock (SOC) data. In the first stage, there was a spatial linear mixed model that captured the linear and stationary effects. In the second stage, a generalized additive model was used to explain the nonlinear and nonstationary effects. The results illustrated that the two-stage model had good interpretability in understanding the effect of covariates, meanwhile, it kept high prediction accuracy which is competitive to the popular machine learning models, like, random forest, xgboost and support vector machine.

A new nonlinear regression model, Gaussian process BART (Bayesian additive regression tree), was proposed in the third part. Combining advantages in both BART and Gaussian process, the model could capture the nonlinear effects of both observed and latent covariates. To develop the model, first, the traditional BART was generalized to accommodate correlated errors. Then, the failure of likelihood based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) in parameter estimating was discussed. Based on the idea of analysis of variation, back comparing and tuning range, were proposed to tackle this failure. Finally, effectiveness of the new model was examined by experiments on both simulation and real data.

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2020