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Mixture-process variable design experiments with control and noise variables within a split-plot structure

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In mixture-process variable experiments, it is common that the number of runs is greater than in mixture-only or process-variable experiments. These experiments have to estimate the parameters from the mixture components, process variables, and interactions of both variables. In some

In mixture-process variable experiments, it is common that the number of runs is greater than in mixture-only or process-variable experiments. These experiments have to estimate the parameters from the mixture components, process variables, and interactions of both variables. In some of these experiments there are variables that are hard to change or cannot be controlled under normal operating conditions. These situations often prohibit a complete randomization for the experimental runs due to practical and economical considerations. Furthermore, the process variables can be categorized into two types: variables that are controllable and directly affect the response, and variables that are uncontrollable and primarily affect the variability of the response. These uncontrollable variables are called noise factors and assumed controllable in a laboratory environment for the purpose of conducting experiments. The model containing both noise variables and control factors can be used to determine factor settings for the control factor that makes the response "robust" to the variability transmitted from the noise factors. These types of experiments can be analyzed in a model for the mean response and a model for the slope of the response within a split-plot structure. When considering the experimental designs, low prediction variances for the mean and slope model are desirable. The methods for the mixture-process variable designs with noise variables considering a restricted randomization are demonstrated and some mixture-process variable designs that are robust to the coefficients of interaction with noise variables are evaluated using fraction design space plots with the respect to the prediction variance properties. Finally, the G-optimal design that minimizes the maximum prediction variance over the entire design region is created using a genetic algorithm.

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2010

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Accelerated life testing of electronic circuit boards with applications in lead-free design

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This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented

This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented in this research are generally applicable to circuit boards, but the data generated and their analysis is for high performance avionics. Avionics equipment typically requires 20 years expected life by aircraft equipment manufacturers and therefore ALT is the only practical way of performing life test estimates. Both thermal and vibration ALT induced failure are performed and analyzed to resolve industry questions relating to the introduction of lead-free solder product and processes into high reliability avionics. In chapter 2, thermal ALT using an industry standard failure machine implementing Interconnect Stress Test (IST) that simulates circuit board life data is compared to real production failure data by likelihood ratio tests to arrive at a mechanical theory. This mechanical theory results in a statistically equivalent energy bound such that failure distributions below a specific energy level are considered to be from the same distribution thus allowing testers to quantify parameter setting in IST prior to life testing. In chapter 3, vibration ALT comparing tin-lead and lead-free circuit board solder designs involves the use of the likelihood ratio (LR) test to assess both complete failure data and S-N curves to present methods for analyzing data. Failure data is analyzed using Regression and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and reconciled with the LR test results that indicating that a costly aging pre-process may be eliminated in certain cases. In chapter 4, vibration ALT for side-by-side tin-lead and lead-free solder black box designs are life tested. Commercial models from strain data do not exist at the low levels associated with life testing and need to be developed because testing performed and presented here indicate that both tin-lead and lead-free solders are similar. In addition, earlier failures due to vibration like connector failure modes will occur before solder interconnect failures.

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2012

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Bayesian D-optimal design issues and optimal design construction methods for generalized linear models with random blocks

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Optimal experimental design for generalized linear models is often done using a pseudo-Bayesian approach that integrates the design criterion across a prior distribution on the parameter values. This approach ignores the lack of utility of certain models contained in

Optimal experimental design for generalized linear models is often done using a pseudo-Bayesian approach that integrates the design criterion across a prior distribution on the parameter values. This approach ignores the lack of utility of certain models contained in the prior, and a case is demonstrated where the heavy focus on such hopeless models results in a design with poor performance and with wild swings in coverage probabilities for Wald-type confidence intervals. Design construction using a utility-based approach is shown to result in much more stable coverage probabilities in the area of greatest concern.

The pseudo-Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of optimal design construction under dependent observations. Often, correlation between observations exists due to restrictions on randomization. Several techniques for optimal design construction are proposed in the case of the conditional response distribution being a natural exponential family member but with a normally distributed block effect . The reviewed pseudo-Bayesian approach is compared to an approach based on substituting the marginal likelihood with the joint likelihood and an approach based on projections of the score function (often called quasi-likelihood). These approaches are compared for several models with normal, Poisson, and binomial conditional response distributions via the true determinant of the expected Fisher information matrix where the dispersion of the random blocks is considered a nuisance parameter. A case study using the developed methods is performed.

The joint and quasi-likelihood methods are then extended to address the case when the magnitude of random block dispersion is of concern. Again, a simulation study over several models is performed, followed by a case study when the conditional response distribution is a Poisson distribution.

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2015

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Optimal design of experiments for dual-response systems

Description

The majority of research in experimental design has, to date, been focused on designs when there is only one type of response variable under consideration. In a decision-making process, however, relying on only one objective or criterion can lead to

The majority of research in experimental design has, to date, been focused on designs when there is only one type of response variable under consideration. In a decision-making process, however, relying on only one objective or criterion can lead to oversimplified, sub-optimal decisions that ignore important considerations. Incorporating multiple, and likely competing, objectives is critical during the decision-making process in order to balance the tradeoffs of all potential solutions. Consequently, the problem of constructing a design for an experiment when multiple types of responses are of interest does not have a clear answer, particularly when the response variables have different distributions. Responses with different distributions have different requirements of the design.

Computer-generated optimal designs are popular design choices for less standard scenarios where classical designs are not ideal. This work presents a new approach to experimental designs for dual-response systems. The normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions are considered for the potential responses. Using the D-criterion for the linear model and the Bayesian D-criterion for the nonlinear models, a weighted criterion is implemented in a coordinate-exchange algorithm. The designs are evaluated and compared across different weights. The sensitivity of the designs to the priors supplied in the Bayesian D-criterion is explored in the third chapter of this work.

The final section of this work presents a method for a decision-making process involving multiple objectives. There are situations where a decision-maker is interested in several optimal solutions, not just one. These types of decision processes fall into one of two scenarios: 1) wanting to identify the best N solutions to accomplish a goal or specific task, or 2) evaluating a decision based on several primary quantitative objectives along with secondary qualitative priorities. Design of experiment selection often involves the second scenario where the goal is to identify several contending solutions using the primary quantitative objectives, and then use the secondary qualitative objectives to guide the final decision. Layered Pareto Fronts can help identify a richer class of contenders to examine more closely. The method is illustrated with a supersaturated screening design example.

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2016

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Categorical responses in mixture experiments

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Mixture experiments are useful when the interest is in determining how changes in the proportion of an experimental component affects the response. This research focuses on the modeling and design of mixture experiments when the response is categorical namely, binary

Mixture experiments are useful when the interest is in determining how changes in the proportion of an experimental component affects the response. This research focuses on the modeling and design of mixture experiments when the response is categorical namely, binary and ordinal. Data from mixture experiments is characterized by the perfect collinearity of the experimental components, resulting in model matrices that are singular and inestimable under likelihood estimation procedures. To alleviate problems with estimation, this research proposes the reparameterization of two nonlinear models for ordinal data -- the proportional-odds model with a logistic link and the stereotype model. A study involving subjective ordinal responses from a mixture experiment demonstrates that the stereotype model reveals useful information about the relationship between mixture components and the ordinality of the response, which the proportional-odds fails to detect.

The second half of this research deals with the construction of exact D-optimal designs for binary and ordinal responses. For both types, the base models fall under the class of Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) with a logistic link. First, the properties of the exact D-optimal mixture designs for binary responses are investigated. It will be shown that standard mixture designs and designs proposed for normal-theory responses are poor surrogates for the true D-optimal designs. In contrast with the D-optimal designs for normal-theory responses which locate support points at the boundaries of the mixture region, exact D-optimal designs for GLMs tend to locate support points at regions of uncertainties. Alternate D-optimal designs for binary responses with high D-efficiencies are proposed by utilizing information about these regions.

The Mixture Exchange Algorithm (MEA), a search heuristic tailored to the construction of efficient mixture designs with GLM-type responses, is proposed. MEA introduces a new and efficient updating formula that lessens the computational expense of calculating the D-criterion for multi-categorical response systems, such as ordinal response models. MEA computationally outperforms comparable search heuristics by several orders of magnitude. Further, its computational expense increases at a slower rate of growth with increasing problem size. Finally, local and robust D-optimal designs for ordinal-response mixture systems are constructed using MEA, investigated, and shown to have high D-efficiency performance.

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Date Created
2016

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Spatial Regression and Gaussian Process BART

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Spatial regression is one of the central topics in spatial statistics. Based on the goals, interpretation or prediction, spatial regression models can be classified into two categories, linear mixed regression models and nonlinear regression models. This dissertation explored these models

Spatial regression is one of the central topics in spatial statistics. Based on the goals, interpretation or prediction, spatial regression models can be classified into two categories, linear mixed regression models and nonlinear regression models. This dissertation explored these models and their real world applications. New methods and models were proposed to overcome the challenges in practice. There are three major parts in the dissertation.

In the first part, nonlinear regression models were embedded into a multistage workflow to predict the spatial abundance of reef fish species in the Gulf of Mexico. There were two challenges, zero-inflated data and out of sample prediction. The methods and models in the workflow could effectively handle the zero-inflated sampling data without strong assumptions. Three strategies were proposed to solve the out of sample prediction problem. The results and discussions showed that the nonlinear prediction had the advantages of high accuracy, low bias and well-performed in multi-resolution.

In the second part, a two-stage spatial regression model was proposed for analyzing soil carbon stock (SOC) data. In the first stage, there was a spatial linear mixed model that captured the linear and stationary effects. In the second stage, a generalized additive model was used to explain the nonlinear and nonstationary effects. The results illustrated that the two-stage model had good interpretability in understanding the effect of covariates, meanwhile, it kept high prediction accuracy which is competitive to the popular machine learning models, like, random forest, xgboost and support vector machine.

A new nonlinear regression model, Gaussian process BART (Bayesian additive regression tree), was proposed in the third part. Combining advantages in both BART and Gaussian process, the model could capture the nonlinear effects of both observed and latent covariates. To develop the model, first, the traditional BART was generalized to accommodate correlated errors. Then, the failure of likelihood based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) in parameter estimating was discussed. Based on the idea of analysis of variation, back comparing and tuning range, were proposed to tackle this failure. Finally, effectiveness of the new model was examined by experiments on both simulation and real data.

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2020