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A statistical approach to solar photovoltaic module lifetime prediction

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The main objective of this research is to develop an approach to PV module lifetime prediction. In doing so, the aim is to move from empirical generalizations to a formal predictive science based on data-driven case studies of the crystalline

The main objective of this research is to develop an approach to PV module lifetime prediction. In doing so, the aim is to move from empirical generalizations to a formal predictive science based on data-driven case studies of the crystalline silicon PV systems. The evaluation of PV systems aged 5 to 30 years old that results in systematic predictive capability that is absent today. The warranty period provided by the manufacturers typically range from 20 to 25 years for crystalline silicon modules. The end of lifetime (for example, the time-to-degrade by 20% from rated power) of PV modules is usually calculated using a simple linear extrapolation based on the annual field degradation rate (say, 0.8% drop in power output per year). It has been 26 years since systematic studies on solar PV module lifetime prediction were undertaken as part of the 11-year flat-plate solar array (FSA) project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by DOE. Since then, PV modules have gone through significant changes in construction materials and design; making most of the field data obsolete, though the effect field stressors on the old designs/materials is valuable to be understood. Efforts have been made to adapt some of the techniques developed to the current technologies, but they are too often limited in scope and too reliant on empirical generalizations of previous results. Some systematic approaches have been proposed based on accelerated testing, but no or little experimental studies have followed. Consequently, the industry does not exactly know today how to test modules for a 20 - 30 years lifetime.

This research study focuses on the behavior of crystalline silicon PV module technology in the dry and hot climatic condition of Tempe/Phoenix, Arizona. A three-phase approach was developed: (1) A quantitative failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) was developed for prioritizing failure modes or mechanisms in a given environment; (2) A time-series approach was used to model environmental stress variables involved and prioritize their effect on the power output drop; and (3) A procedure for developing a prediction model was proposed for the climatic specific condition based on accelerated degradation testing

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2014

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Applied meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability

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This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal test and vibration test are discussed. The main cause of

This thesis presents a meta-analysis of lead-free solder reliability. The qualitative analyses of the failure modes of lead- free solder under different stress tests including drop test, bend test, thermal test and vibration test are discussed. The main cause of failure of lead- free solder is fatigue crack, and the speed of propagation of the initial crack could differ from different test conditions and different solder materials. A quantitative analysis about the fatigue behavior of SAC lead-free solder under thermal preconditioning process is conducted. This thesis presents a method of making prediction of failure life of solder alloy by building a Weibull regression model. The failure life of solder on circuit board is assumed Weibull distributed. Different materials and test conditions could affect the distribution by changing the shape and scale parameters of Weibull distribution. The method is to model the regression of parameters with different test conditions as predictors based on Bayesian inference concepts. In the process of building regression models, prior distributions are generated according to the previous studies, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used under WinBUGS environment.

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2014

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Outlier-Aware Applications in High-Dimensional Industrial Systems

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High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are

High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are commonly used for dealing with such data. In addition, outliers typically exist in such data, which may be of direct or indirect interest given the nature of the problem that is being solved. Current research does not address the interdependent nature of dimensionality reduction and outliers. Some works ignore the existence of outliers altogether—which discredits the robustness of these methods in real life—while others provide suboptimal, often band-aid solutions. In this dissertation, I propose novel methods to achieve outlier-awareness in various dimensionality reduction methods. The problem is considered from many different angles depend- ing on the dimensionality reduction technique used (e.g., deep autoencoder, tensors), the nature of the application (e.g., manufacturing, transportation) and the outlier structure (e.g., sparse point anomalies, novelties).

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2021

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A Disease Progression Modeling Framework for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Using Multiparametric Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Elastography

Description

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of Nonalcoholic fatty liverdisease, that is caused due to excessive calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle and in the
absence of severe alcohol consumption. It is widely prevalent in the United States
and in many

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of Nonalcoholic fatty liverdisease, that is caused due to excessive calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle and in the
absence of severe alcohol consumption. It is widely prevalent in the United States
and in many other developed countries, affecting up to 25 percent of the population.
Due to being asymptotic, it usually goes unnoticed and may lead to liver failure if
not treated at the right time.
Currently, liver biopsy is the gold standard to diagnose NASH, but being an
invasive procedure, it comes with it's own complications along with the inconvenience
of sampling repeated measurements over a period of time. Hence, noninvasive
procedures to assess NASH are urgently required. Magnetic Resonance Elastography
(MRE) based Shear Stiffness and Loss Modulus along with Magnetic Resonance
Imaging based proton density fat fraction have been successfully combined to predict
NASH stages However, their role in the prediction of disease progression still remains
to be investigated.
This thesis thus looks into combining features from serial MRE observations to
develop statistical models to predict NASH progression. It utilizes data from an experiment
conducted on male mice to develop progressive and regressive NASH and
trains ordinal models, ordered probit regression and ordinal forest on labels generated
from a logistic regression model. The models are assessed on histological data collected
at the end point of the experiment. The models developed provide a framework
to utilize a non-invasive tool to predict NASH disease progression.

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2021

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New statistical transfer learning models for health care applications

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Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to develop a better model for the target domain than a model using the data of the target domain alone. While transfer learning is a promising approach in various application domains, my dissertation research focuses on the particular application in health care, including telemonitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and radiomics for glioblastoma.

The first topic is a Mixed Effects Transfer Learning (METL) model that can flexibly incorporate mixed effects and a general-form covariance matrix to better account for similarity and heterogeneity across subjects. I further develop computationally efficient procedures to handle unknown parameters and large covariance structures. Domain relations, such as domain similarity and domain covariance structure, are automatically quantified in the estimation steps. I demonstrate METL in an application of smartphone-based telemonitoring of PD.

The second topic focuses on an MRI-based transfer learning algorithm for non-invasive surgical guidance of glioblastoma patients. Limited biopsy samples per patient create a challenge to build a patient-specific model for glioblastoma. A transfer learning framework helps to leverage other patient’s knowledge for building a better predictive model. When modeling a target patient, not every patient’s information is helpful. Deciding the subset of other patients from which to transfer information to the modeling of the target patient is an important task to build an accurate predictive model. I define the subset of “transferrable” patients as those who have a positive rCBV-cell density correlation, because a positive correlation is confirmed by imaging theory and the its respective literature.

The last topic is a Privacy-Preserving Positive Transfer Learning (P3TL) model. Although negative transfer has been recognized as an important issue by the transfer learning research community, there is a lack of theoretical studies in evaluating the risk of negative transfer for a transfer learning method and identifying what causes the negative transfer. My work addresses this issue. Driven by the theoretical insights, I extend Bayesian Parameter Transfer (BPT) to a new method, i.e., P3TL. The unique features of P3TL include intelligent selection of patients to transfer in order to avoid negative transfer and maintain patient privacy. These features make P3TL an excellent model for telemonitoring of PD using an At-Home Testing Device.

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2018

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Anomaly detection in categorical datasets with artificial contrasts

Description

Anomaly is a deviation from the normal behavior of the system and anomaly detection techniques try to identify unusual instances based on deviation from the normal data. In this work, I propose a machine-learning algorithm, referred to as Artificial Contrasts,

Anomaly is a deviation from the normal behavior of the system and anomaly detection techniques try to identify unusual instances based on deviation from the normal data. In this work, I propose a machine-learning algorithm, referred to as Artificial Contrasts, for anomaly detection in categorical data in which neither the dimension, the specific attributes involved, nor the form of the pattern is known a priori. I use RandomForest (RF) technique as an effective learner for artificial contrast. RF is a powerful algorithm that can handle relations of attributes in high dimensional data and detect anomalies while providing probability estimates for risk decisions.

I apply the model to two simulated data sets and one real data set. The model was able to detect anomalies with a very high accuracy. Finally, by comparing the proposed model with other models in the literature, I demonstrate superior performance of the proposed model.

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2016

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Unit commitment with uncertainty

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This dissertation carries out an inter-disciplinary research of operations research, statistics, power system engineering, and economics. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a special power system scheduling problem, a unit commitment problem with uncertainty. This scheduling problem is a two-stage decision

This dissertation carries out an inter-disciplinary research of operations research, statistics, power system engineering, and economics. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a special power system scheduling problem, a unit commitment problem with uncertainty. This scheduling problem is a two-stage decision problem. In the first stage, system operator determines the binary commitment status (on or off) of generators in advance. In the second stage, after the realization of uncertainty, the system operator determines generation levels of the generators. The goal of this dissertation is to develop computationally-tractable methodologies and algorithms to solve large-scale unit commitment problems with uncertainty.

In the first part of this dissertation, two-stage models are studied to solve the problem. Two solution methods are studied and improved: stochastic programming and robust optimization. A scenario-based progressive hedging decomposition algorithm is applied. Several new hedging mechanisms and parameter selections rules are proposed and tested. A data-driven uncertainty set is proposed to improve the performance of robust optimization.

In the second part of this dissertation, a framework to reduce the two-stage stochastic program to a single-stage deterministic formulation is proposed. Most computation of the proposed approach can be done by offline studies. With the assistance of offline analysis, simulation, and data mining, the unit commitment problems with uncertainty can be solved efficiently.

Finally, the impacts of uncertainty on energy market prices are studied. A new component of locational marginal price, a marginal security component, which is the weighted shadow prices of the proposed security constraints, is proposed to better represent energy prices.

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2016

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A Data Mining Approach to Modeling Customer Preference: A Case Study of Intel Corporation

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Understanding customer preference is crucial for new product planning and marketing decisions. This thesis explores how historical data can be leveraged to understand and predict customer preference. This thesis presents a decision support framework that provides a holistic view on

Understanding customer preference is crucial for new product planning and marketing decisions. This thesis explores how historical data can be leveraged to understand and predict customer preference. This thesis presents a decision support framework that provides a holistic view on customer preference by following a two-phase procedure. Phase-1 uses cluster analysis to create product profiles based on which customer profiles are derived. Phase-2 then delves deep into each of the customer profiles and investigates causality behind their preference using Bayesian networks. This thesis illustrates the working of the framework using the case of Intel Corporation, world’s largest semiconductor manufacturing company.

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2017

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Building energy modeling: a data-driven approach

Description

Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting,

Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting, while most of work have focused on developing dedicated modeling approach for generic buildings. In this study, an integrated computationally efficient and high-fidelity building energy modeling framework is proposed, with the concentration on developing a generalized modeling approach for various types of buildings. First, a number of data-driven simulation models are reviewed and assessed on various types of computationally expensive simulation problems. Motivated by the conclusion that no model outperforms others if amortized over diverse problems, a meta-learning based recommendation system for data-driven simulation modeling is proposed. To test the feasibility of the proposed framework on the building energy system, an extended application of the recommendation system for short-term building energy forecasting is deployed on various buildings. Finally, Kalman filter-based data fusion technique is incorporated into the building recommendation system for on-line energy forecasting. Data fusion enables model calibration to update the state estimation in real-time, which filters out the noise and renders more accurate energy forecast. The framework is composed of two modules: off-line model recommendation module and on-line model calibration module. Specifically, the off-line model recommendation module includes 6 widely used data-driven simulation models, which are ranked by meta-learning recommendation system for off-line energy modeling on a given building scenario. Only a selective set of building physical and operational characteristic features is needed to complete the recommendation task. The on-line calibration module effectively addresses system uncertainties, where data fusion on off-line model is applied based on system identification and Kalman filtering methods. The developed data-driven modeling framework is validated on various genres of buildings, and the experimental results demonstrate desired performance on building energy forecasting in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The framework could be easily implemented into building energy model predictive control (MPC), demand response (DR) analysis and real-time operation decision support systems.

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2016

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Photovoltaic systems: forecasting for demand response management and environmental modelling to design accelerated aging tests

Description

Distributed Renewable energy generators are now contributing a significant amount of energy into the energy grid. Consequently, reliability adequacy of such energy generators will depend on making accurate forecasts of energy produced by them. Power outputs of Solar PV systems

Distributed Renewable energy generators are now contributing a significant amount of energy into the energy grid. Consequently, reliability adequacy of such energy generators will depend on making accurate forecasts of energy produced by them. Power outputs of Solar PV systems depend on the stochastic variation of environmental factors (solar irradiance, ambient temperature & wind speed) and random mechanical failures/repairs. Monte Carlo Simulation which is typically used to model such problems becomes too computationally intensive leading to simplifying state-space assumptions. Multi-state models for power system reliability offer a higher flexibility in providing a description of system state evolution and an accurate representation of probability. In this study, Universal Generating Functions (UGF) were used to solve such combinatorial problems. 8 grid connected Solar PV systems were analyzed with a combined capacity of about 5MW located in a hot-dry climate (Arizona) and accuracy of 98% was achieved when validated with real-time data. An analytics framework is provided to grid operators and utilities to effectively forecast energy produced by distributed energy assets and in turn, develop strategies for effective Demand Response in times of increased share of renewable distributed energy assets in the grid. Second part of this thesis extends the environmental modelling approach to develop an aging test to be run in conjunction with an accelerated test of Solar PV modules. Accelerated Lifetime Testing procedures in the industry are used to determine the dominant failure modes which the product undergoes in the field, as well as predict the lifetime of the product. UV stressor is one of the ten stressors which a PV module undergoes in the field. UV exposure causes browning of modules leading to drop in Short Circuit Current. This thesis presents an environmental modelling approach for the hot-dry climate and extends it to develop an aging test methodology. This along with the accelerated tests would help achieve the goal of correlating field failures with accelerated tests and obtain acceleration factor. This knowledge would help predict PV module degradation in the field within 30% of the actual value and help in knowing the PV module lifetime accurately.

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2017