Matching Items (21)

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Uncertainty of the Stock Market and its Effect on the U.S. Economy

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The purpose of this thesis is to educate the reader and share the relevant areas of the United States and its ever-so unpredictable stock and real estate market. It will

The purpose of this thesis is to educate the reader and share the relevant areas of the United States and its ever-so unpredictable stock and real estate market. It will further detail, how investing in stocks can be beneficial or negative to one’s financial portfolio. This article explains and dissects the areas of the U.S. market and possibly dependent economy. The foundational definition and the basics of buying, selling and trading in the stock market is a very intricate process. There are various causes and concerns about how the stock market affects the economy and vice versa, how the economy affects the financial markets. As a theoretical framework, this topic will take a deep dive into the 2008 recession and the devastating effects it had on the global economy and financial markets. Furthermore, I will explain what steps the government took, the key decisions and incentives placed to pull itself out and what strategies and laws were passed to ensure that such a drastic crash would not repeat.
The goal of this thesis is to further educate the reader about the realities of the U.S stock market. Whether that be the risks or the benefits, it is important for every young adult and those that have invested in the past, to have extensive knowledge about how our stock market. It is true that the stock market affects the overall economy, however, it can be said that the economy has a significant effect on the stock market as well. Investing in the stock market is not something that Americans are forced to learn about, and many millennials have the, “Why should I care about that?” mindset when it comes to learning about the pros and cons of the Financial markets. This trend is very alarming because when done right, investing in the stock market can truly pay dividends. A cultural shift towards learning financial nuances should be incorporated in all education and more of the next generation should be educated and given this awareness. This article will not address the newer entrants such as crypto-currency, because that is more of a fad rather than a largescale market that would affect the overall economy.
The second goal with this thesis is to explain how the stock market affects the overall economy, as it is one of many significant factors. This goal may be slightly more difficult as there are so many variables in the US economy, such as changes in the global economy. One can also argue that the stock market is a supplement of the current economy. Addressing the financial markets and behavior, this conclusion will eventually address different variables and focus on the markets and how they affect the United States economy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Arizona's Golf Industry Beats Par

Description

This thesis project provides a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the golf industry in Arizona. We begin by examining the economic, environmental, and social costs that the industry requires. One of

This thesis project provides a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the golf industry in Arizona. We begin by examining the economic, environmental, and social costs that the industry requires. One of the largest costs of the industry is water consumption. Golf courses in Arizona are currently finding ways to reduce water consumption through various methods, such as turf reduction and increasing the usage of drip irrigation. However, even at current levels of consumption, golf only consumes 1.9% of water in Arizona, compared to the 69% consumed by agriculture. Of the water consumed by the golf industry, 26.3% is wastewater, otherwise known as effluent water. Since the population in Arizona is projected to grow significantly over the next decade, the amount of effluent water produced will also increase. Due to this, we recommend that the golf industry move towards using as much effluent water as possible to conserve clean water sources. Additionally, we examine land allocation and agricultural tradeoffs to the state. Most golf courses are built in urban areas that would not be suitable for agriculture. The same land could be used to build a public park, but this would not provide as many economic benefits to the state. Many courses also act as floodplains which protect the communities surrounding them from flooding. These floodplains have proven to be crucial to protect from occasional flash floods by diverting the excess water away from homes. We also discuss golf's primary social cost in terms of its perception as being a sport played exclusively by privileged and wealthy people. This is proven to be false due to many non-profit organizations centered around the game, as well as municipal courses that provide affordable options for all citizens who want to play. We provide an in-depth analysis of the benefits that the industry provides to the state and its citizens primarily through business and tax revenue, employment, and property values. Including multiplier effects, the golf industry contributed 42,000 full- and part-time jobs, $3.9 billion in sales, $1.5 billion in labor income, and $2.1 billion value added in 2014. An estimated $72 million in state and local taxes were generated from golf facilities alone, without including taxes from indirectly impacted businesses. This tax revenue provides a great benefit to the public sector and increases Arizona's GDP. Also, much of this economic contribution is from the golf tourism industry, which brings new revenue into the state that would otherwise not exist. Golf courses also increase the surrounding real estate prices anywhere from 4.8% to 28%, providing a positive externality to community members in addition to scenic views. Finally, we provide a case study of the Waste Management Phoenix Open (WMO) to illustrate the impact of Arizona's single largest golf event each year. In 2017, the event brought an estimated $389 million into Arizona's economy in one week alone. Also, it regularly hosts massive crowds with a record-breaking 719,179 people attending the event in 2018. The WMO has also taken a "Zero Waste Challenge" to promote eco-friendly and sustainable practices by diverting all of the waste and materials produced by the tournament from landfills. The WMO has been dubbed both the "Greatest Show On Grass" and the "Greenest Show On Grass" due to the entertainment value provided as well as its effort to improve the environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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An Experimental Study of the Effect of Induction and Exhaust Systems on a Vehicle's Fuel Efficiency

Description

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the project was to take an unconventional approach by investigating potential methods of increasing fuel economy via change of these systems outside the engine, as finding substantial gains via this method negates the need to alter engine architectures, potentially saving manufacturers research and development costs. The ultimate goal was to determine the feasibility of modifying induction and exhaust systems to increase fuel efficiency via reduction of engine pumping losses and increase in volumetric efficiency, with the hope that this research can aid others researching engine design in both educational and commercial settings. The first step toward achieving this goal was purchasing a test vehicle and performing experimental fuel efficiency testing on the unmodified, properly serviced specimen. A test route was devised to provide for a well-rounded fuel efficiency measurement for each trial. After stock vehicle trials were completed, the vehicle was to be taken out of service for a turbocharger system installation; unfortunately, challenges arose that could not be rectified within the project timeframe, and this portion of the project was aborted, to be investigated in the future. This decision was made after numerous fitment and construction issues with prefabricated turbo conversion parts were found, including induction and exhaust pipe size problems and misalignments, kit component packaging issues such as intercooler dimensions being too large, as well as manufacturing oversights, like failure to machine flanges flat for sealing and specification of incorrect flange sizes for mating components. After returning the vehicle to stock condition by removing the partially installed turbocharger system, the next step in the project was then installation of high-flow induction and exhaust systems on the test vehicle, followed by fuel efficiency testing using the same procedure as during the first portion of the experiment. After analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data collected during this thesis project, several conclusions were made. First, the replacement of stock intake and exhaust systems with high-flow variants did make for a statistically significant increase in fuel efficiency, ranging between 10 and 20 percent on a 95% confidence interval. Average fuel efficiency of the test vehicle rose from 21.66 to 24.90 MPG, an impressive increase considering the relative simplicity of the modifications. The tradeoff made was in noise produced by the vehicle; while the high-flow induction system only resulted in increased noise under very high-load circumstances, the high-flow exhaust system created additional noise under numerous load conditions, limiting the market applicability for this system. The most ideal vehicle type for this type of setup is sports/enthusiast cars, as increased noise is often considered a desirable addition to the driving experience; light trucks also represent an excellent application opportunity for these systems, as noise is not a primary concern in production of these vehicles. Finally, it was found that investing in high-flow induction and exhaust systems may not be a wise investment at the consumer level due to the lengthy payoff period, but for manufacturers, these systems represent a lucrative opportunity to increase fuel efficiency, potentially boosting sales and profits, as well as allowing the company to more easily meet federal CAFE standards in America. After completion of this project, there are several further research directions that could be taken to expand upon what was learned. The fuel efficiency improvements realized by installing high-flow induction and exhaust systems together on a vehicle were experimentally measured during testing; determining the individual effects of each of these systems installed on a vehicle would be the next logical research step within the same vein. Noise, vibration, and harshness increases after installing these systems were also noticed during experimental trials, so another future research direction could be an investigation into reducing these unwanted effects of high-flow systems. Finally, turbocharging to increase a vehicle's fuel efficiency, the original topic of this thesis, is another very important, contemporary issue in the world of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, and with manufacturers consistently moving toward turbocharged platform development, is a prime research topic in this area of study. In conclusion, the results from this thesis project exhibit that high-flow induction and exhaust systems can substantially improve a vehicle's fuel efficiency without modifying any internal engine components. This idea of improving a vehicle's fuel economy from outside the engine will ideally be further researched, such as by investigating turbocharger systems and their ability to improve fuel efficiency, as well as be developed and implemented by others in their educational projects and commercial products.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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What is a “Good Economy”? Analysis of Economic Metrics & Their Political Impact on the United States

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The goal of this research paper is to analyze how we define economic success and how that affects large corporations and consumers. This paper asks the questions: What do we

The goal of this research paper is to analyze how we define economic success and how that affects large corporations and consumers. This paper asks the questions: What do we define as a good economy? What metrics are currently utilized? And how do perceptions of a good economy influence politics? Overall, the research seeks to identify common economic and financial fallacies held by the average citizen and offer alternative methods of how socio-economic information is presented to the consumers. Consumers play a major role in the market, and the information they receive has a considerable impact on their behaviors. Determining why the present economic analysis is used is the first step in finding ways to improve the system. Observing past political and economic trends and relating them to current issues is necessary for finding future solutions.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Throttling into Darkness - Financial Inequality in America

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The current state of financial inequality in America is showing multiple economic and social problems that harm the American dream and legacy. It is found that increasing inequality causes slower

The current state of financial inequality in America is showing multiple economic and social problems that harm the American dream and legacy. It is found that increasing inequality causes slower GDP growth, underinvestment in human capital, and disproportionate shifting of political power to the rich. Researches show that Average Americans do not realize how severe inequality has gotten over the past few decades, but one thing is clear: What they thought as ideal distribution of wealth is nowhere close to the reality. In this thesis, I examine the current state of inequality and how it has changed since the 1980s. Then, I present reasons why inequality has been on an increasing trend and identify what economic policies lead to rising inequality. With analysis of Reaganomics (trickle-down economics), I make an argument that reducing taxes on the rich might provide a short-term boost in the national economy, but such policy soon encounters side effects and is unsustainable. Fighting inequality is an imperative step to boost the American middle class and maintain sustainable and stable economic growth. In order to relieve inequality down closer to what Americans picked as the appropriate level, I present two recommendations that can be effective in fighting inequality. One is to reform the tax policies to make it more progressive especially towards the top 5% and shift the tax burden from the bottom to the top, while implementing stricter regulations regarding tax evasion. Next is to provide disadvantaged students with better access to higher education by subsidizing public universities more and lowering FAFSA rate. Realizing one's earning potential starts with education, and higher education today is more important than any other time in the past. Once these solutions prove effective and inequality is relieved, America will be able to regain her reputation as land of opportunity and enjoy faster economic growth.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Is the "Special Relationship" Still Special? The Politics and Role of Anglo-American Relations since 1980

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This research looks at the state of Anglo-American political relations since 1980. By examining the political partnerships between Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, Margaret Thatcher and George H.W. Bush, George

This research looks at the state of Anglo-American political relations since 1980. By examining the political partnerships between Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, Margaret Thatcher and George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush and Tony Blair, Barack Obama and Gordon Brown, and Barack Obama and David Cameron, it explores if the so called ‘special relationship’ remains so special today in a world of growing political animosity and challenges. The thesis argues that the success of the ‘special relationship’ between the United States and United Kingdom has not been just due to similar political ideologies or goals, but also personal friendships which often overcame national interests or immediate personal political gain. Furthermore, it is often the periods of disagreement between these sets of leaders that helped strengthen the relationship between America and Britain, evidenced by episodes like the Falklands War, policy towards the Soviet Union, the invasion of Grenada, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Ultimately, the thesis explores how current relations have deteriorated due to problems on both sides of the Atlantic under the Obama, Brown, and Cameron administrations, but the research concludes that the special relationship is, while damaged, alive and fixable.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Automation in a Progressive Economy: The Race between Humans and Technology

Description

For as long as humans have been working, they have been looking for ways to get that work done better, faster, and more efficient. Over the course of human history,

For as long as humans have been working, they have been looking for ways to get that work done better, faster, and more efficient. Over the course of human history, mankind has created innumerable spectacular inventions, all with the goal of making the economy and daily life more efficient. Today, innovations and technological advancements are happening at a pace like never seen before, and technology like automation and artificial intelligence are poised to once again fundamentally alter the way people live and work in society. Whether society is prepared or not, robots are coming to replace human labor, and they are coming fast. In many areas artificial intelligence has disrupted entire industries of the economy. As people continue to make advancements in artificial intelligence, more industries will be disturbed, more jobs will be lost, and entirely new industries and professions will be created in their wake. The future of the economy and society will be determined by how humans adapt to the rapid innovations that are taking place every single day. In this paper I will examine the extent to which automation will take the place of human labor in the future, project the potential effect of automation to future unemployment, and what individuals and society will need to do to adapt to keep pace with rapidly advancing technology. I will also look at the history of automation in the economy. For centuries humans have been advancing technology to make their everyday work more productive and efficient, and for centuries this has forced humans to adapt to the modern technology through things like training and education. The thesis will additionally examine the ways in which the U.S. education system will have to adapt to meet the demands of the advancing economy, and how job retraining programs must be modernized to prepare workers for the changing economy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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EFFECT OF A CASHLESS ECONOMY ON THE ROBBERY RATE

Description

A global trend towards cashlessness following the increase in technological advances in financial transactions lends way to a discussion of its various impacts on society. As part of this discussion,

A global trend towards cashlessness following the increase in technological advances in financial transactions lends way to a discussion of its various impacts on society. As part of this discussion, it is important to consider how this trend influences crime rates. The purpose of this project is to specifically investigate the relationship between a cashless society and the robbery rate. Using data collected from the World Bank’s Global Financial Inclusions Index and the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, we implemented a multilinear regression to observe this relationship across countries (n = 29). We aimed to do this by regressing the robbery rate on cashlessness and controlling for other related variables, such as gross domestic product and corruption. We found that as a country becomes more cashless, the robbery rate decreases (β = -677.8379, p = 0.071), thus providing an incentive for countries to join this global trend. We also conducted tests for heteroscedasticity and multicollinearity. Overall, our results indicate that a reduction in the amount of cash circulating within a country negatively impacts robbery rates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Albania’s Supply Chain & Economic Inefficiencies: Historical and Present-Day Implications

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This article serves to provide research and an analysis of the historical and present-day implications of inefficiencies within Albania’s supply chain and economic systems. Several challenges have resulted in a

This article serves to provide research and an analysis of the historical and present-day implications of inefficiencies within Albania’s supply chain and economic systems. Several challenges have resulted in a stagnant business environment within the nation despite ample natural resources, an ideal geographic location, and generally acceptable existing infrastructure. There are three major sectors in the Albanian economy that need substantial improvement, including global trade positioning, transport infrastructure, and the tourism sector. Focusing on strategic improvement within these areas will allow the nation to develop value-driving opportunities and should be investigated further to promote industrial growth and improve Albania’s global economic position.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Financial Literacy In Zimbabwe: The Vehicle To Economic Reform

Description

Zimbabwe's economic crisis has spun over decades since the late 90s. The ordeal began with hyperinflation between 1999 and 2008. During this time, the country was in debt and the

Zimbabwe's economic crisis has spun over decades since the late 90s. The ordeal began with hyperinflation between 1999 and 2008. During this time, the country was in debt and the government kept printing money to pay off the debt and take care of fiscal obligations. As a result, the economy has undergone some unstable phases which have made it difficult for citizens to comprehend how money works around the world. This project identifies the key events leading to Zimbabwe's economic struggles; describes the challenges of inadequate financial education; analyzes the role of financial literacy in alleviating Zimbabwe's economic crisis; acknowledges that financial literacy is a necessary foundation for creating financial independence amongst citizens, but is ineffective in the absence of financial inclusion; suggests blockchain technology as a sustainable means to mobilize both financial education and inclusion; provides recommendations for successful development of financial education and inclusion and introduces our plan to start an initiative that promotes financial independence amongst young Zimbabweans. It is without a doubt that public financial education and inclusion programs become a top priority for Zimbabweans in order to revive the economy. The conclusion is drawn from the idea that when individuals are empowered to be self-sufficient, they can intentionally or unintentionally contribute to economic growth by improving their standards of living and that of those around them.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05