Matching Items (2)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

157001-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparison of Encapsulant Degradation between Glass/Backsheet and Glass/Glass Field-aged Photovoltaic Modules

Description

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is the most commonly used encapsulant in photovoltaic modules. However, EVA degrades over time and causes performance losses in PV system. Therefore, EVA degradation is a

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is the most commonly used encapsulant in photovoltaic modules. However, EVA degrades over time and causes performance losses in PV system. Therefore, EVA degradation is a matter of concern from a durability point of view.

This work compares EVA encapsulant degradation in glass/backsheet and glass/glass field-aged PV modules. EVA was extracted from three field-aged modules (two glass/backsheet and one glass/glass modules) from three different manufacturers from various regions (cell edges, cell centers, and non-cell region) from each module based on their visual and UV Fluorescence images. Characterization techniques such as I-V measurements, Colorimetry, Different Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy were performed on EVA samples.

The intensity of EVA discoloration was quantified using colorimetric measurements. Module performance parameters like Isc and Pmax degradation rates were calculated from I-V measurements. Properties such as degree of crystallinity, vinyl acetate content and degree of crosslinking were calculated from DSC, TGA, and Raman measurements, respectively. Polyenes responsible for EVA browning were identified in FTIR spectra.

The results from the characterization techniques confirmed that when EVA undergoes degradation, crosslinking in EVA increases beyond 90% causing a decrease in the degree of crystallinity and an increase in vinyl acetate content of EVA. Presence of polyenes in FTIR spectra of degraded EVA confirmed the occurrence of Norrish II reaction. However, photobleaching occurred in glass/backsheet modules due to the breathable backsheet whereas no photobleaching occurred in glass/glass modules because they were hermetically sealed. Hence, the yellowness index along with the Isc and Pmax degradation rates of EVA in glass/glass module is higher than that in glass/backsheet modules.

The results implied that more acetic acid was produced in the non-cell region due to its double layer of EVA compared to the front EVA from cell region. But, since glass/glass module is hermetically sealed, acetic acid gets entrapped inside the module further accelerating EVA degradation whereas it diffuses out through backsheet in glass/backsheet modules. Hence, it can be said that EVA might be a good encapsulant for glass/backsheet modules, but the same cannot be said for glass/glass modules.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

156142-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and Gas Transport Properties of Graphene Oxide Membranes

Description

Graphene oxide membranes have shown promising gas separation characteristics specially for hydrogen that make them of interest for industrial applications. However, the gas transport mechanism for these membranes is unclear

Graphene oxide membranes have shown promising gas separation characteristics specially for hydrogen that make them of interest for industrial applications. However, the gas transport mechanism for these membranes is unclear due to inconsistent permeation and separation results reported in literature. Graphene oxide membranes made by filtration, the most common synthesis method, contain wrinkles affecting their gas separation characteristics and the method itself is difficult to scale up. Moreover, the production of graphene oxide membranes with fine-tuned interlayer spacing for improved molecular separation is still a challenge. These unsolved issues will affect their potential impact on industrial gas separation applications.

In this study, high quality graphene oxide membranes are synthesized on polyester track etch substrates by different deposition methods and characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM as well as single gas permeation and binary (H2/CO2) separation experiments. Membranes are made from large graphene oxide sheets of different sizes (33 and 17 micron) using vacuum filtration to shed more light on their transport mechanism. Membranes are made from dilute graphene oxide suspension by easily scalable spray coating technique to minimize extrinsic wrinkle formation. Finally, Brodie’s derived graphene oxide sheets were used to prepare membranes with narrow interlayer spacing to improve their (H2/CO2) separation performance.

An inter-sheet and inner-sheet two-pathway model is proposed to explain the permeation and separation results of graphene oxide membranes obtained in this study. At room temperature, large gas molecules (CH4, N2, and CO2) permeate through inter-sheet pathway of the membranes, exhibiting Knudsen like diffusion characteristics, with the permeance for the small sheet membrane about twice that for the large sheet membrane. The small gases (H2 and He) exhibit much higher permeance, showing significant flow through an inner-sheet pathway, in addition to the flow through the inter-sheet pathway. Membranes prepared by spray coating offer gas characteristics similar to those made by filtration, however using dilute graphene oxide suspension in spray coating will help reduce the formation of extrinsic wrinkles which result in reduction in the porosity of the inter-sheet pathway where the transport of large gas molecules dominates. Brodie’s derived graphene oxide membranes showed overall low permeability and significant improvement in in H2/CO2 selectivity compared to membranes made using Hummers’ derived sheets due to smaller interlayer space height of Brodie’s sheets (~3 Å).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018