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A Case Study: Speech recognition ability in noise for a U.S. military veteran with traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Description

The increase of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) cases in recent war history has increased the urgency of research regarding how veterans are affected by TBIs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TBI on speech recognition

The increase of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) cases in recent war history has increased the urgency of research regarding how veterans are affected by TBIs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TBI on speech recognition in noise. The AzBio Sentence Test was completed for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) from -10 dB to +15 dB for a control group of ten participants and one US military veteran with history of service-connected TBI. All participants had normal hearing sensitivity defined as thresholds of 20 dB or better at frequencies from 250-8000 Hz in addition to having tympanograms within normal limits. Comparison of the data collected on the control group versus the veteran suggested that the veteran performed worse than the majority of the control group on the AzBio Sentence Test. Further research with more participants would be beneficial to our understanding of how veterans with TBI perform on speech recognition tests in the presence of background noise.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Emotion recognition and traumatic brain injury

Description

Emotion recognition through facial expression plays a critical role in communication. Review of studies investigating individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and emotion recognition indicates significantly poorer performance compared to controls. The purpose of the study was to determine the

Emotion recognition through facial expression plays a critical role in communication. Review of studies investigating individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and emotion recognition indicates significantly poorer performance compared to controls. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of different media presentation on emotion recognition in individuals with TBI, and if results differ depending on severity of TBI. Adults with and without TBI participated in the study and were assessed using the The Awareness of Social Inferences Test: Emotion Evaluation Test (TASIT:EET) and the Facial Expressions of Emotion-Stimuli and Tests (FEEST) The Ekman 60 Faces Test (E-60-FT). Results indicated that individuals with TBI perform significantly more poorly on emotion recognition tasks compared to age and education matched controls. Additionally, emotion recognition abilities greatly differ between mild and severe TBI groups, and TBI participants performed better with the static presentation compared to dynamic presentation.

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Date Created
2011

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Targeting astrogliosis: isolation and characterization of astrocyte specific single chain antibody fragments

Description

Specificity and affinity towards a given ligand/epitope limit target-specific delivery. Companies can spend between $500 million to $2 billion attempting to discover a new drug or therapy; a significant portion of this expense funds high-throughput screening to find the most

Specificity and affinity towards a given ligand/epitope limit target-specific delivery. Companies can spend between $500 million to $2 billion attempting to discover a new drug or therapy; a significant portion of this expense funds high-throughput screening to find the most successful target-specific compound available. A more recent addition to discovering highly specific targets is the application of phage display utilizing single chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv). The aim of this research was to employ phage display to identify pathologies related to traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly astrogliosis. A unique biopanning method against viable astrocyte cultures activated with TGF-β achieved this aim. Four scFv clones of interest showed varying relative affinities toward astrocytes. One of those four showed the ability to identify reactive astroctyes over basal astrocytes through max signal readings, while another showed a statistical significance in max signal reading toward basal astrocytes. Future studies will include further affinity characterization assays. This work contributes to the development of targeting therapeutics and diagnostics for TBI.

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Date Created
2013

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Toxic Oligomeric Variants of TDP-43 May Contribute to Cognitive Deficits Secondary to Diffuse Experimental TBI

Description

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects approximately two million people on an annual basis and increases the frequency and onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other related dementias (ADRDs). Mechanical damage and shearing of neuronal axons are thought to be responsible

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects approximately two million people on an annual basis and increases the frequency and onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other related dementias (ADRDs). Mechanical damage and shearing of neuronal axons are thought to be responsible for producing toxic variants of proteins that contribute to disease pathology. Specifically, the tau, beta amyloid, alpha-synuclein, and TAR-binding DNA Protein-43 (TDP-43) variants contribute to the heterogenous pathology mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. The Sierks lab at Arizona State University has aimed to study how these protein variants collectively interact to contribute to pathologies characteristic of AD/ADRDs. This study focuses on the accumulation of toxic oligomeric variants of TDP-43 secondary to TBI. The first aim of this study was to identify the protein variant fingerprint as a function time following experimental diffuse TBI. The second aim was to investigate if toxic variants of TDP-43 were associated with cognitive and motor functional deficits. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a single or repetitive diffuse TBI via midline fluid percussion injury or a control surgery (sham). Post-injury, mice were evaluated for cognitive performance, sensorimotor function, and depressive-like behavior at 7-, 14-, and 28-days post-injury. Tissue was collected for immunohistochemistry and stained for ADTDP-3, a single chain antibody variable fragment (ScFv) which binds to toxic variants of TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and AD tissue. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare staining intensity across various brain regions. Subsequently, a Pearson correlation was performed to compare behavioral task performance to staining intensity by brain region for each injury group. There were significantly elevated levels of ADTDP3 binding in all regions except for the hippocampus, and there was a significant correlation between the cortex staining intensity vs the cognitive behavior test at 7 days post-injury. There was also a significant correlation between the thalamus staining intensity and sensorimotor test at 7 days post-injury. These findings support the hypothesis that the accumulation of toxic variants of TDP-43 can contribute to neurodegenerative pathology and loss of function. These variants also may contribute to behavioral deficits secondary to diffuse TBI.

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Date Created
2021

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Cognitive-communication Abilities in Bilinguals with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Mild TBI (mTBI) has been associated with subtle executive function (EF) and

cognitive-communication deficits. In bilinguals, there are unique cognitive demands required to control and process two languages effectively. Surprisingly, little is known about the impact of mTBI on EF, communication,

Mild TBI (mTBI) has been associated with subtle executive function (EF) and

cognitive-communication deficits. In bilinguals, there are unique cognitive demands required to control and process two languages effectively. Surprisingly, little is known about the impact of mTBI on EF, communication, and language control in bilinguals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the cognitive-communication abilities in bilinguals with a history of mTBI, identify any language control impairments, and explore the relationship between these language control impairments and domain-general cognitive control abilities. To this end, three-hundred and twenty-seven monolingual and bilingual college students with and without mTBI history participated in two experiments. In these experiments, EF, communication, and language control were examined using experimental and clinical tasks as well as self-rating scales. In Experiment 1, there was an interaction between mTBI history and language group (monolinguals vs. bilinguals) in how participants performed on a clinical measure of EF and a verbal fluency task. That is, only bilinguals with mTBI scored significantly lower on these tasks. In addition, there was a significant correlation between errors on a language switching task and performance on non-verbal EF tasks. In Experiment 2, a subgroup of bilinguals with persistent cognitive and behavioral symptoms reported greater everyday communication challenges in their first and second languages. Also, unbalanced bilinguals reported greater EF difficulties than monolinguals and balanced bilinguals regardless of mTBI history. In conclusion, bilinguals may face unique cognitive-communication challenges after mTBI. Factors related to the bilingual experience (e.g., language balance, daily language use) should be

considered in clinical evaluation and future research.

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Date Created
2020