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Optimizing Recombinant Protein Production for Domain Antibodies: Proof-of-Concept

Description

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics is attractive for a number of reasons, yet, the production

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics is attractive for a number of reasons, yet, the production pipeline for high yield and consistent bioactive recombinant proteins remains a major obstacle. Previous studies for recombinant protein production has utilized gram-negative hosts such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to its well-established genetics and fast growth for recombinant protein production. However, using gram-negative hosts require lysis that calls for additional optimization and also introduces endotoxins and proteases that contribute to protein degradation. This project directly addressed this issue and evaluated the potential to use a gram-positive host such as Brevibacillus choshinensis (Brevi) which does not require lysis as the proteins are expressed directly into the supernatant. This host was utilized to produce variants of Stock 11 (S11) protein as a proof-of-concept towards this methodology. Variants of S11 were synthesized using different restriction enzymes which will alter the location of protein tags that may affect production or purification. Factors such as incubation time, incubation temperature, and media were optimized for each variant of S11 using a robust design of experiments. All variants of S11 were grown using optimized parameters prior to purification via affinity chromatography. Results showed the efficiency of using Brevi as a potential host for domain antibody production in the Stabenfeldt lab. Future aims will focus on troubleshooting the purification process to optimize the protein production pipeline.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Synthetic Platelets Reduce Neuroinflammation in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in many pathologies, one of which being coagulopathy. TBI can progress to hemorrhagic lesions and increased intercranial pressure leading to coagulopathy. The coagulopathy has been linked to poor clinical outcomes and occurs in 60%

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in many pathologies, one of which being coagulopathy. TBI can progress to hemorrhagic lesions and increased intercranial pressure leading to coagulopathy. The coagulopathy has been linked to poor clinical outcomes and occurs in 60% of severe TBI cases. To improve hemostasis, synthetic platelets (SPs) have been repurposed. SPs are composed of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic-acid) microgel, conjugated with a fibrin-specific antibody and are biomimetic in their ability to deform and collapse within a fibrin matrix. The objective of this study is to diminish coagulopathy with a single, intravenous injection of SPs, and subsequently decrease neuropathologies. TBI was modeled in animal cohorts using the well-established controlled cortical impact and SPs were injected 2-3 hours post-injury. Control cohorts received no injection. Brain tissue was harvested at acute (24h) and delayed (7 days) time points post-TBI, and fluorescently imaged to quantify reactive astrocytes (GFAP+), microglial morphology and presence (Iba1+), and tissue lesion spared. SP-treatment resulted in significant reduction of GFAP expression at 7 days post-TBI. Furthermore, SP-treatment significantly reduced the percent difference from 24h to 7 days in microglia/macrophage per field compared to the control. For microglial morphology, SP-treated cohorts observed a significant percent difference in endpoints per soma from 24h to 7 days compared to untreated cohorts. However, microglial branch length significantly decreased in percent difference from 24h to 7 days when compared to the control. Finally, tissue sparing did not significantly decrease between 24h and 7 day for SP-treated cohorts as was observed in untreated cohorts, implying inhibition of delayed necrosis. Overall, these results suggest decreased neuroinflammation by 7 days, supporting SPs as potentially therapeutic post-TBI.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Continuous Enzymatic Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

My main goal for my thesis is in conjunction with the research I started in the summer of 2010 regarding the creation of a TBI continuous-time sensor. Such goals include: characterizing the proteins in sensing targets while immobilized, while free in solution, and while in free solution in the blood.

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Date Created
2011-12

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MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS FOR WHOLE BLOOD DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

Description

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events such as traumatic brain injury. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a linear dynamic range of glutamate was detected with a slope of 36.604 z/ohm/[pg/mL], a lower detection limit at 12.417 pg/mL, correlation of 0.97, and an optimal binding frequency of 117.20 Hz. After running through a frequency sweep the binding frequency was determined based on the highest consistent reproducibility and slope. The sensor was found to be specific against literature researched non-targets glucose, albumin, and epinephrine and working in dilutions of whole blood up to a concentration of 25%. With the implementation of Nafion, the sensor had a 250% improvement in signal and 155% improvement in correlation in 90% whole blood, illustrating the promise of a working blood sensor. Future work includes longitudinal studies and utilizing mesoporous carbon as the immobilization platform and incorporating this as part of a continuous, multiplexed blood sensor with glucose oxidase.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Enhancing CXCR4 expression of hNPCs using Hyaluronic Acid - Laminin Hydrogel: A Potential Treatment for TBI

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success in pre-clinical models due to limitations in transplant survival rates.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success in pre-clinical models due to limitations in transplant survival rates. To address this issue, the use of tissue engineered scaffolds as a delivery mechanism has been explored to improve survival and engraftment rates. Previous work with hyaluronic acid \u2014 laminin (HA-Lm) gels found high viability and engraftment rates of mouse fetal derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) cultured on the gel. Furthermore, NPSCs exposed to the HA-Lm gels exhibit increased expression of CXCR4, a critical surface receptor that promotes cell migration. We hypothesized that culturing hNPCs on the HA-Lm gel would increase CXCR4 expression, and thus enhance their ability to migrate into sites of tissue damage. In order to test this hypothesis, we designed gel scaffolds with mechanical properties that were optimized to match that of the natural extracellular matrix. A live/dead assay showed that hNPCs preferred the gel with this optimized formulation, compared to a stiffer gel that was used in the CXCR4 expression experiment. We found that there may be increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs plated on the HA-Lm gel after 24 hours, indicating that HA-Lm gels may provide a valuable scaffold to support viability and migration of hNPCs to the injury site. Future studies aimed at verifying increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs cultured on HA-Lm gels are necessary to determine if HA-Lm gels can provide a beneficial scaffold for stem cell engraftment therapy for treating TBI.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Utilization of Nanoparticles for Identifying Fibrin Deposition in Neural Tissue

Description

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin have been produced and purified. DSPE-PEG micelles have been produced and the scFv has been conjugated to the surface of the micelles; this nanoparticle system will be used to overcome limitations in diagnosing TBI. The binding and imaging properties will be analyzed in the future to determine functionality of the nanoparticle system in vivo.

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Date Created
2014-05

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The Effect of VEGF-ECM Crosstalk on Neural Stem Cell Behavior

Description

The endogenous response of neural stem cell/progenitor (NPSC) recruitment to the brain injury environment following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently under heavy investigation. Mechanisms controlling NPSC proliferation and migration to the brain injury environment remain unclear; however, it

The endogenous response of neural stem cell/progenitor (NPSC) recruitment to the brain injury environment following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently under heavy investigation. Mechanisms controlling NPSC proliferation and migration to the brain injury environment remain unclear; however, it is thought that the vascular extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a role in mediating NPSC behavior through vasophillic interactions. This project attempts to uncover potential VEGF-ECM crosstalk in mediating migration and proliferation. To investigate migration, neurospheres were seeded on ECM-coated wells supplemented with VEGF and without VEGF, and neural outgrowth was measured at days 0, 1, 3, and 8 using differential interference contrast microscopy. Furthermore, single-cell NPSCs were seeded on ECM-coated Transwell membranes with VEGF supplemented media on one side and without VEGF to look at chemotactic migration. Migrated NPSCs were visualized with DAPI nuclear stain and imaged with an inverted fluorescent microscope. To investigate NPSC proliferation, NPSCs were seeded on ECM coated plates as in the radial migration assay and visualized with EdU on day 8. Total proliferation was measured by seeding NPSCs on ECM coated 96-well plates and incubating them with MTT on days 3 and 6. Proliferation was measured using a spectrophotometer at 630nm and 570nm wavelengths. It was found that VEGF-laminin crosstalk synergistically increased radial migration, but may not play a role in chemotactic migration. Understanding the mechanisms behind VEGF-laminin crosstalk in NPSC proliferation and migration may provide crucial information for the design of stem cell transplantation therapies in the future.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Evaluation of a Novel HDACi-Loaded Nanoparticle Therapy for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and are at an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and are at an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Despite this, robust therapies that treat TBI neuropathology are not available in the clinic. One emerging therapeutic approach is to target epigenetic mediators that modulate a variety of molecular regulatory events acutely following injury. Specifically, previous studies demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration following TBI reduced inflammation, enhanced functional outcomes, and was neuroprotective. Here, we evaluated a novel quisinostat-loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticle (QNP) therapy in treating TBI as modeled by a controlled cortical impact. We evaluated initial pharmacodynamics within the injured cortex via histone acetylation levels following QNP treatment. We observed that QNP administration acutely following injury increased histone acetylation specifically within the injury penumbra, as detected by Western blot analysis. Given this effect, we evaluated QNP therapeutic efficacy. We observed that QNP treatment dampened motor deficits as measured by increased rotarod latency to fall relative to blank nanoparticle- and saline-treated controls. Additionally, open field results show that QNP treatment altered locomotion following injury. These results suggest that HDACi therapies are a beneficial therapeutic strategy following neural injury and demonstrate the utility for nanoparticle formulations as a mode for HDACi delivery following TBI.

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Date Created
2019-05

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FIRMA: Force Impact Recognition Mouth Guard for Athletes, a Validation Study

Description

Concussions and traumatic brain injuries are mechanical events which can derive from no specific activity or event. However, these injuries occur often during athletic and sporting events but many athletes experiencing these symptoms go undiagnosed and continue playing without proper

Concussions and traumatic brain injuries are mechanical events which can derive from no specific activity or event. However, these injuries occur often during athletic and sporting events but many athletes experiencing these symptoms go undiagnosed and continue playing without proper medical attention. The current gold standard for diagnosing athletes with concussions is to have medical professionals on the sidelines of events to perform qualitative standardized assessments which may not be performed frequently enough and are not specialized for each athlete. The purpose of this report is to discuss a study sanctioned by Arizona State University's Project HoneyBee and additional affiliations to validate a third-party mouth guard device product to recognize and detect force impacts blown to an athlete's head during athletic activity. Current technology in health monitoring medical devices can allow users to apply this device as an additional safety mechanism for early concussion awareness and diagnosis. This report includes the materials and methods used for experimentation, the discussion of its results, and the complications which occurred and areas for improvement during the preliminary efforts of this project. Participants in the study were five non-varsity ASU Wrestling athletes who volunteered to wear a third-party mouth guard device during sparring contact at practice. Following a needed calibration period for the devices, results were recorded both through visual observation and with the mouth guard devices using an accelerometer and gyroscope. This study provided a sound understanding for the operation and functionality of the mouth guard devices. The mouth guard devices have the capability to provide fundamental avenues of research for future investigations.

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Date Created
2016-12