Matching Items (27)

Optimizing Recombinant Protein Production for Domain Antibodies: Proof-of-Concept

Description

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics

Recent studies in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found a temporal window where therapeutics on the nanometer scale can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma. Developing protein-based therapeutics is attractive for a number of reasons, yet, the production pipeline for high yield and consistent bioactive recombinant proteins remains a major obstacle. Previous studies for recombinant protein production has utilized gram-negative hosts such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to its well-established genetics and fast growth for recombinant protein production. However, using gram-negative hosts require lysis that calls for additional optimization and also introduces endotoxins and proteases that contribute to protein degradation. This project directly addressed this issue and evaluated the potential to use a gram-positive host such as Brevibacillus choshinensis (Brevi) which does not require lysis as the proteins are expressed directly into the supernatant. This host was utilized to produce variants of Stock 11 (S11) protein as a proof-of-concept towards this methodology. Variants of S11 were synthesized using different restriction enzymes which will alter the location of protein tags that may affect production or purification. Factors such as incubation time, incubation temperature, and media were optimized for each variant of S11 using a robust design of experiments. All variants of S11 were grown using optimized parameters prior to purification via affinity chromatography. Results showed the efficiency of using Brevi as a potential host for domain antibody production in the Stabenfeldt lab. Future aims will focus on troubleshooting the purification process to optimize the protein production pipeline.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

131112-Thumbnail Image.png

Peg Forest Rehabilitation Mitigates the Onset of Injury-Induced Cognitive Disability in Juvenile Rats

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)—sudden impact or acceleration trauma to the head—is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is particularly amplified in pediatric cases. TBI is the leading

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)—sudden impact or acceleration trauma to the head—is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is particularly amplified in pediatric cases. TBI is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adolescents. Adolescence is a critical time where the brain undergoes cognitive development and brain injury-induced disruptions to these processes can lead to life-long debilitating morbidities. The aim of this study was to determine if exercising spatial and contextual memory circuits using a novel rehabilitation strategy called Peg Forest Rehabilitation (PFR) could mitigate the onset of injury-induced cognitive deficits in juvenile rats subjected to diffuse TBI. The PFR aims to synthesize neuroplasticity-based enrichment to improve cognitive outcomes after TBI. We hypothesized that PFR treatment would mitigate the onset of brain injury-induced cognitive deficits and reduce neuroinflammation. Juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 35) were subjected to diffuse traumatic brain injury via midline fluid percussion injury or a control surgery. One-week post-injury, rats were exposed to PFR or cage control exploration (15 min/day). PFR allowed free navigation through random configuration of the peg-filled arena for 10 days over 2 weeks. Control rats remained in home cages in the center of the arena with the peg-board removed for 15 min/day/10 days. One-week post-rehabilitation (one-month post-injury), cognitive performance was assessed for short-term (novel object recognition; NOR), long-term (novel location recognition; NLR), and working (temporal order recognition; TOR) memory performance, calculated as a discrimination index between novel and familiar objects. Tissue was collected for immunohistochemistry and stained for ionized calcium binding proteins (Iba-1) to visualize microglia morphology, and somatostatin. PFR attenuated TBI-induced deficits on the NOR task, where the TBI-PFR treatment group spent significantly more time with the novel object compared with the familiar (*p=0.0046). Regardless of rehabilitation, brain-injured rats had hyper-ramified microglia in the hypothalamus indicated by longer branch lengths and more endpoints per cell compared with uninjured shams. Analysis of somatostatin data is ongoing. In this study, passive, intermittent PFR that involved dynamic, novel spatial navigation, prevented TBI-induced cognitive impairment in adolescent rats. Spatial navigation training may have clinical efficacy and should be further investigated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131138-Thumbnail Image.png

Remote ischemic conditioning reduces traumatic brain injury induced acute lung injury in an experimental mouse model

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of the primary mechanical forces to the head followed by secondary inflammatory cascades. This inflammatory cascade consists of neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation as the

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of the primary mechanical forces to the head followed by secondary inflammatory cascades. This inflammatory cascade consists of neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation as the first line of defense. Another component of secondary inflammation comprises of activation of peripheral immune cells that can infiltrate the compromised blood brain barrier and susceptible organs such as the lungs. Acute inflammatory processes in the lungs include a disruption of the epithelial barriers allowing infiltration of neutrophils, and edema build up in the alveoli. This is known as acute lung injury (ALI) and it dampens respiratory function in approximately 20-25% of TBI patients necessitating an intervention. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an intervention consisting of repeated intervals of cessation and reperfusion of blood flow to a distal limb and has treated ALI, myocardial infarction, and neurological injury. TBI was hypothesized to induce ALI through degradation of alveolar-capillary membrane and infiltration of peripheral leukocytes. Furthermore, RIC was hypothesized to protect the integrity of the alveolar-capillary membrane, reduce infiltration of peripheral immune cells, and reduce microglial activation in the brain through myokine recruitment. Male CD1 mice were subject to either midline fluid percussion or sham injury and further randomized into 4 groups: sham, sham RIC, TBI, TBI RIC. RIC was administered on proximal thigh for 4x5 minutes, with 5-minute reperfusion one hour prior to TBI. One-hour post-injury, brain, lung, BAL fluid, and blood were collected. Lung histopathology showed RIC reduced hydrostatic edema in the alveoli by protecting the alveolar capillary membrane. BAL findings revealed TBI mice had increased neutrophil counts, RIC lowered neutrophil counts. In the brain, RIC increased cortex microglial endpoints were observed with no other significant differences in microglial morphology as well as plasma myokine levels across all sham, sham RIC, TBI, and TBI RIC animals. While underlying mechanisms still have to be further studied, this current study provides evidence that RIC can be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate TBI-induce ALI.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

133594-Thumbnail Image.png

Neuroinflammation Following Experimental Diffuse Brain Injury in Pre-pubertal and Peri-pubertal Rats

Description

Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adolescents. Adolescence is a critical time in development where the body and brain undergoes puberty, which

Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adolescents. Adolescence is a critical time in development where the body and brain undergoes puberty, which not only includes reproductive maturation, but also adult social and cognitive development. Brain-injury-induced disruptions can cause secondary inflammation processes and as a result, pediatric TBI can lead to significant life-long and debilitating morbidities that continue long after initial injury. In this study, neuroinflammation following diffuse brain injury was explored in prepubertal and peripubertal rats using an adapted method of midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) for juvenile rats to further understand the relationship between pediatric TBI and puberty disruption due to endocrine dysfunction. We expect the adapted mFPI model to be effective in producing diffuse, moderate brain injury in juvenile rats and hypothesize that pre-pubertal rats (PND35) will have increased neuroinflammation compared to peri-pubertal rats (PND17) and shams because of the potential neuroprotective nature of sex steroids. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=90) were subjected to either a diffuse midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury at post-natal day (PND) 17 (pre-puberty) or PND35 (peri-puberty). Animals were sacrificed at different time points defined as days post injury (DPI) including 1DPI, 7DPI and 25DPI to represent both acute and chronic time points, allowing for comparisons within groups (injury vs. sham) and across groups (PND17 vs PND35). Body weight of the rats was measured postoperatively at various time points throughout the study to follow recovery. Tissue was collected and subjected to Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain to visualize histology and evaluate the application of diffuse mFPI to juvenile rats. In addition, tissue underwent immunohistochemical analysis using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to stain for ionized calcium binding proteins (Iba1) in order to assess injury-related neuroinflammation in the form of microglia activation. Diffuse brain injury using the mFPI model did not affect rat body weight or cause overt cell death, suggesting adaption of the adult mFPI model for juvenile rats is representative of moderate diffuse brain injury. In addition, diffuse TBI lead to morphological changes in microglia suggesting there is an increased inflammatory response following initial insult, which may directly contribute to improper activation of pubertal timing and progression in adolescent children affected. Since there is little literature on the full effects of puberty dysfunction following TBI in the pediatric population, there is a significant need to further assess this area in order to develop improved interventions and potential therapies for this affected population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133254-Thumbnail Image.png

Identifying Novel Nanobodies for Traumatic Brain Injury Therapeutics

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health problem around the world with few available treatments. TBI pathology can be divided into two phases: the primary insult and the secondary

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health problem around the world with few available treatments. TBI pathology can be divided into two phases: the primary insult and the secondary injury. The primary insult results from the bump or blow to the head that causes the initial injury. Secondary injury lasts from hours to months after the initial injury and worsens the primary insult, creating a greater area of tissue damage and cell death. Many current treatments focus on lessening the severity of secondary injury. Secondary injury results from the cyclical nature of tissue damage. Inflammatory pathways cause damage to tissue, which in turn reinforces inflammation. Since many inflammatory pathways are interconnected, targeting individual products within these pathways is impractical. A target at the beginning of the pathway, such as a receptor, must be chosen to break the cycle. This project aims to identify novel nanobodies that could temporarily inactivate the CD36 receptor, which is a receptor found on many immune and endothelial cells. CD36 initiates and perpetuates the immune system's inflammatory responses. By inactivating this receptor temporarily, inflammation and immune cell entry could be lessened, and therefore secondary injury could be attenuated. This project utilized phage display as a method of nanobody selection. The specific phage library utilized in this experiment consists of human heavy chain (V_H) segments, also known as domain antibodies (dAbs), displayed on M13 filamentous bacteriophage. Phage display mimics the process of immune selection. The target is bound to a well as a means of displaying it to the phage. The phage library is then incubated with the target to allow antibodies to bind. After, the well is washed thoroughly to detach any phage that are not strongly bound. The remaining phage are then amplified in bacteria and run again through the same assay to select for mutations that resulted in higher affinity binding. This process, called biopanning, was performed three times for this project. After biopanning, the library was sequenced using Next Generation sequencing (NGS). This platform enables the entire library to be sequenced, as opposed to traditional Sanger sequencing, which can only sequence single select clones at a time thereby limiting population sampling. This type of genetic sequencing allows trends in the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the domain antibody library to be analyzed, using bioinformatics programs such as RStudio, FastAptamer, and Swiss Model. Ultimately, two nanobody candidates were identified for the CD36 receptor.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

131304-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation of Current Helmet Technologies for Redesign of Cycling Helmets

Description

Traumatic brain injuries and the effects they can bring are becoming the main focus among researchers and physicians. Cycling is the leading sport with the most traumatic brain injuries, but

Traumatic brain injuries and the effects they can bring are becoming the main focus among researchers and physicians. Cycling is the leading sport with the most traumatic brain injuries, but the design of the cycling helmet has stayed the same for decades now. The technology of a bike is constantly getting developed and testing but the helmet is lagging behind. This project consists of designing and testing different cycling helmets through ANSYS simulations to determine the ideal geometry and features a cycling helmet must include, reducing the stress that the head experiences upon impact during a fall.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

137180-Thumbnail Image.png

Utilization of Nanoparticles for Identifying Fibrin Deposition in Neural Tissue

Description

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single

The main objective of this research is to develop and characterize a targeted contrast agent that will recognize acute neural injury pathology (i.e. fibrin) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Single chain fragment variable antibodies (scFv) that bind specifically to fibrin have been produced and purified. DSPE-PEG micelles have been produced and the scFv has been conjugated to the surface of the micelles; this nanoparticle system will be used to overcome limitations in diagnosing TBI. The binding and imaging properties will be analyzed in the future to determine functionality of the nanoparticle system in vivo.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

147979-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation of tSNE and FlowSOM unsupervised analysis in mouse blood flow cytometry data after an inflammatory challenge

Description

Traumatic brain injury involves a primary mechanical injury that is followed by a secondary<br/>inflammatory cascade. The inflammatory cascade in the CNS releases cytokines which are<br/>associated with leukocytosis and a systemic

Traumatic brain injury involves a primary mechanical injury that is followed by a secondary<br/>inflammatory cascade. The inflammatory cascade in the CNS releases cytokines which are<br/>associated with leukocytosis and a systemic immune response. Acute changes to peripheral<br/>immune cell populations post-TBI include a 4.5-fold increase of neutrophils 3 hours post-injury,<br/>and 2.7-fold or higher increase of monocytes 24 hours post-injury. Flow Cytometry is a<br/>technique that integrates fluidics, optics, and electronics to characterize cells based on their light<br/>scatter and antigen expression via monoclonal antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes. Flow<br/>cytometry is a valuable tool in cell characterization however the standard technique for data<br/>analysis, manual gating, is associated with inefficiency, subjectivity, and irreproducibility.<br/>Unsupervised analysis that uses algorithms packaged as plug-ins for flow cytometry analysis<br/>software has been discussed as a solution to the limits of manual gating and as an alternative<br/>method of data visualization and exploration. This investigation evaluated the use of tSNE<br/>(dimensionality reduction algorithm) and FlowSOM (population clustering algorithm)<br/>unsupervised flow cytometry analysis of immune cell population changes in female mice that<br/>have been exposed to a LPS-induced systemic inflammatory challenge, results were compared to<br/>those of manual gating. Flow cytometry data was obtained from blood samples taken prior to and<br/>24 hours after LPS injection. Unsupervised analysis was able to identify populations of<br/>neutrophils and pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory monocytes, it also identified several more<br/>populations however further inquiry with a more specific fluorescent panel would be required to<br/>establish the specificity and validity of these populations. Unsupervised analysis with tSNE and<br/>FlowSOM demonstrated the efficient and intuitive nature of the technique, however it also<br/>illustrated the importance of the investigator in preparing data and modulating plug-in settings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

135506-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135738-Thumbnail Image.png

MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS FOR WHOLE BLOOD DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

Description

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events such as traumatic brain injury. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a linear dynamic range of glutamate was detected with a slope of 36.604 z/ohm/[pg/mL], a lower detection limit at 12.417 pg/mL, correlation of 0.97, and an optimal binding frequency of 117.20 Hz. After running through a frequency sweep the binding frequency was determined based on the highest consistent reproducibility and slope. The sensor was found to be specific against literature researched non-targets glucose, albumin, and epinephrine and working in dilutions of whole blood up to a concentration of 25%. With the implementation of Nafion, the sensor had a 250% improvement in signal and 155% improvement in correlation in 90% whole blood, illustrating the promise of a working blood sensor. Future work includes longitudinal studies and utilizing mesoporous carbon as the immobilization platform and incorporating this as part of a continuous, multiplexed blood sensor with glucose oxidase.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05