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Plasmodium Cost of Resistance and Life Stage Development within the Mosquito Vector

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Hundreds of thousands of people die annually from malaria; a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium is responsible for this mortality. The Plasmodium parasite undergoes several life stages within the mosquito vector, the transition between which require passage across the lumen

Hundreds of thousands of people die annually from malaria; a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium is responsible for this mortality. The Plasmodium parasite undergoes several life stages within the mosquito vector, the transition between which require passage across the lumen of the mosquito midgut. It has been observed that in about 15% of parasites that develop ookinetes in the mosquito abdomen, sporozoites never develop in the salivary glands, indicating that passage across the midgut lumen is a significant barrier in parasite development (Gamage-Mendis et al., 1993). We aim to investigate a possible correlation between passage through the midgut lumen and drug-resistance trends in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. This study contains a total of 1024 Anopheles mosquitoes: 187 Anopheles gambiae and 837 Anopheles funestus samples collected in high malaria transmission areas of Mozambique between March and June of 2016. Sanger sequencing will be used to determine the prevalence of known resistance alleles for anti-malarial drugs: chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) gene, dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr). We compare prevalence of resistance between abdomen and head/thorax in order to determine whether drug resistant parasites are disproportionately hindered during their passage through the midgut lumen. A statistically significant difference between resistance alleles in the two studied body sections supports the efficacy of new anti-malarial gene surveillance strategies in areas of high malaria transmission.

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2021-05

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Raids, race, and lessons of fear and resistance: narratives and discourse in the immigration movement in Arizona

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Arizona has become infamous for its strong nativist and anti-immigrant climate, gaining national and international attention for legislation and policing practices that are in violation of civil and human rights. Despite the grave injustices perpetuated against migrants and communities of

Arizona has become infamous for its strong nativist and anti-immigrant climate, gaining national and international attention for legislation and policing practices that are in violation of civil and human rights. Despite the grave injustices perpetuated against migrants and communities of color, they exist in an environment of acceptance. Applying Critical Pedagogy, Critical Race Theory/ Latina(o) Critical Race Theory, and Chicana Feminist epistemologies, this study interrogates the polarized discourse that has intensified in Arizona, within the immigration movement and across its political spectrum, from 2006 to 2008. I present an auto-ethnographic account, including use of participant action research, narrative, and storytelling methods that explores ways in which resistance is manifested and the implications for creating sustainable social change. I argue that legislation, raids, and local immigration enforcement tactics reinforce the dominant group's fear of the "other," resulting in micro and macro aggressions that legitimize racial profiling and help safeguard and fortify White privilege through the fabrication of racialized identities. Simultaneously, organizing strategies and discourse of immigrant rights advocates reflect an entanglement of perceived identities and a struggle to negotiate, contest, and redefine boundaries of public space. The raids, coupled with protests and counter demonstrations, produced a public spectacle that reinforces anti-immigrant connections between race and crime. Lastly, I apply and introduce Border Crit, a new and emerging theory I propose to better address research in the borderlands.

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2013

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Student Activism in Ethnic Studies Classrooms

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Theories of resistance have been investigated by various researchers as an explanation for student empowerment, achievement, and activism. Similar research on youth empowerment has been conducted with Critical Race Theory and the development of culturally relevant curriculums in classrooms. Culturally

Theories of resistance have been investigated by various researchers as an explanation for student empowerment, achievement, and activism. Similar research on youth empowerment has been conducted with Critical Race Theory and the development of culturally relevant curriculums in classrooms. Culturally relevant pedagogy has been studied by many due to its ability to foster student empowerment and transform students into agents of social change within their communities, allowing them to pursue opportunities they hadn't considered otherwise. However, there is not much research that studies how culturally relevant pedagogy and culturally relevant school programs foster student activism. This study focuses on assessing how the culturally relevant curriculum fosters student activism within the Mexican American Studies program in Tucson, Arizona. Following the changes made after HB2281, which temporarily banned the program. It was reinstated and renamed Ethnic Studies following the court ruling, Arce v Douglas. Using theories of resistance and activism, data gathered from the Ethnic Studies course through student surveys and interviews was analyzed, in addition to a brief content analysis of the course reading lists. Though focusing on community engagement, political/social justice awareness, and concepts of identity, interview and survey data demonstrated significant levels of student resistance. Further research will confirm if this program fosters student activism.

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2017-05