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Music training is associated with measurable physiologic changes in the auditory pathway. Benefits of music training have also been demonstrated in the areas of working memory, auditory attention, and speech perception in noise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term auditory experience secondary to music

Music training is associated with measurable physiologic changes in the auditory pathway. Benefits of music training have also been demonstrated in the areas of working memory, auditory attention, and speech perception in noise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term auditory experience secondary to music training enhances the ability to detect, learn, and recall new words.

Participants consisted of 20 young adult musicians and 20 age-matched non-musicians. In addition to completing word recognition and non-word detection tasks, each participant learned 10 nonsense words in a rapid word-learning task. All tasks were completed in quiet and in multi-talker babble. Next-day retention of the learned words was examined in isolation and in context. Cortical auditory evoked responses to vowel stimuli were recorded to obtain latencies and amplitudes for the N1, P2, and P3a components. Performance was compared across groups and listening conditions. Correlations between the behavioral tasks and the cortical auditory evoked responses were also examined.

No differences were found between groups (musicians vs. non-musicians) on any of the behavioral tasks. Nor did the groups differ in cortical auditory evoked response latencies or amplitudes, with the exception of P2 latencies, which were significantly longer in musicians than in non-musicians. Performance was significantly poorer in babble than in quiet on word recognition and non-word detection, but not on word learning, learned-word retention, or learned-word detection. CAEP latencies collapsed across group were significantly longer and amplitudes were significantly smaller in babble than in quiet. P2 latencies in quiet were positively correlated with word recognition in quiet, while P3a latencies in babble were positively correlated with word recognition and learned-word detection in babble. No other significant correlations were observed between CAEPs and performance on behavioral tasks.

These results indicated that, for young normal-hearing adults, auditory experience resulting from long-term music training did not provide an advantage for learning new information in either favorable (quiet) or unfavorable (babble) listening conditions. Results of the present study suggest that the relationship between music training and the strength of cortical auditory evoked responses may be more complex or too weak to be observed in this population.
ContributorsStewart, Elizabeth (Author) / Pittman, Andrea (Thesis advisor) / Cone, Barbara (Committee member) / Zhou, Yi (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2017
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Description
Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is a severe motor speech disorder that is difficult to diagnose as there is currently no gold-standard measurement to differentiate between CAS and other speech disorders. In the present study, we investigate underlying biomarkers associated with CAS in addition to enhanced phenotyping through behavioral testing.

Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is a severe motor speech disorder that is difficult to diagnose as there is currently no gold-standard measurement to differentiate between CAS and other speech disorders. In the present study, we investigate underlying biomarkers associated with CAS in addition to enhanced phenotyping through behavioral testing. Cortical electrophysiological measures were utilized to investigate differences in neural activation in response to native and non-native vowel contrasts between children with CAS and typically developing peers. Genetic analysis included full exome sequencing of a child with CAS and his unaffected parents in order to uncover underlying genetic variation that may be causal to the child’s severely impaired speech and language. Enhanced phenotyping was completed through extensive behavioral testing, including speech, language, reading, spelling, phonological awareness, gross/fine motor, and oral and hand motor tasks. Results from cortical electrophysiological measures are consistent with previous evidence of a heightened neural response to non-native sounds in CAS, potentially indicating over specified phonological representations in this population. Results of exome sequencing suggest multiple genetic variations contributing to the severely affected phenotype in the child and provide further evidence of heterogeneous genomic pathways associated with CAS. Finally, results of behavioral testing demonstrate significant impairments evident across tasks in CAS, suggesting underlying sequential processing deficits in multiple domains. Overall, these results have the potential to delineate functional pathways from genetic variations to the brain to observable behavioral phenotypes and motivate the development of preventative and targeted treatment approaches.
ContributorsVose, Caitlin (Author) / Peter, Beate (Thesis advisor) / Liu, Li (Committee member) / Brewer, Gene (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2018
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Description
Communication amongst eusocial insect is key to their success. Ants rely on signaling to mediate many different functions within a colony such as policing and nest mate recognition. Camponotus floridanus uses chemosensory signaling in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons to regulate these functions. Each cuticular hydrocarbon profile contains numerous hydrocarbons,

Communication amongst eusocial insect is key to their success. Ants rely on signaling to mediate many different functions within a colony such as policing and nest mate recognition. Camponotus floridanus uses chemosensory signaling in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons to regulate these functions. Each cuticular hydrocarbon profile contains numerous hydrocarbons, however it is yet to be seen if Camponotus floridanus can discriminate between linear hydrocarbons of similar length. Individual specimens were conditioned in three different ways: 5 conditioning with high concentration of sugar water (1;1 ratio), 1 conditioning with high concentration of sugar water, and 5 conditioning with low concentration of sugar water (1;4). Two linear hydrocarbons were use, C23 and C24, with C23 always being the conditioned stimulus. Specimens who were conditioned 5 times with high concentration of sugar water were the only group to show a significant response to the conditioned stimulus with a p-value of .008 and exhibited discrimination behavior 46% of the time. When compared 5 conditioning with high concentration to the other two testing conditioning groups, 1 conditioning with high concentration produced an insignificant p-value of .13 was obtained whereas when comparing it with 5 conditioning low concentration of sugar a significant p-value of .0132 was obtained. This indiciates that Camponotus floridanus are capable of discrimination however must be conditioned with high concentration of sugar water, while number of conditioning is insignificant.
ContributorsDamari, Ben Aviv (Author) / Liebig, Juergen (Thesis director) / Ghaninia, Majid (Committee member) / Pratt, Stephen (Committee member) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor) / School of Life Sciences (Contributor)
Created2014-05
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Description
ABSTRACT Communication is vital in the context of everyday life for all organisms, but particularly so in social insects, such as Z. nevadensis. The overall lifestyle and need for altruistic acts of individuals within a colony depends primarily on intracolony chemical communication, with a focus on odorants. The perception of

ABSTRACT Communication is vital in the context of everyday life for all organisms, but particularly so in social insects, such as Z. nevadensis. The overall lifestyle and need for altruistic acts of individuals within a colony depends primarily on intracolony chemical communication, with a focus on odorants. The perception of these odorants is made possible by the chemoreceptive functions of sensilla basiconica and sensilla trichoid which exist on the antennal structure. The present study consists of both a morphological analysis and electrophysiological experiment concerning sensilla basiconica. It attempts to characterize the function of neurons present in sensilla basiconica through single sensillum recordings and contributes to existing literature by determining if a social insect, such as the dampwood termite, is able to perceive a wide spectrum of odorants despite having significantly fewer olfactory receptors than most other social insect species. Results indicated that sensilla basiconica presence significantly out-paced that of sensilla trichoid and sensilla chaetica combined, on all flagellomeres. Analysis demonstrated significant responses to all general odorants and several cuticular hydrocarbons. Combined with the knowledge of fewer olfactory receptors present in this species and their lifestyle, results may indicate a positive association between the the social complexity of an insect's lifestyle and the number of ORs the individuals within that colony possess.
ContributorsMcGlone, Taylor (Author) / Liebig, Juergen (Thesis director) / Ghaninia, Majid (Committee member) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2015-05
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Description
It is important to consider attention when designing and conducting an experiment due to the significant impact it can have on how people process information. This study compared the influence attention can have on performance of an auditory task. Using an EEG system and measuring cortical evoked response potentials (ERPs)

It is important to consider attention when designing and conducting an experiment due to the significant impact it can have on how people process information. This study compared the influence attention can have on performance of an auditory task. Using an EEG system and measuring cortical evoked response potentials (ERPs) the assumptions about keeping eyes open during passive listening tasks which related to the low attention parameter of MMN, as well as requiring an active response for the high attention parameter of the P300 were tested. The hypotheses were that the presence of an active, focused component will increase the magnitude of the P300 (as is generally accepted), that the presence of an active, focused component will decrease the magnitude of the MMN (as is currently debated), and that closed eyes would diminish the magnitude of both components (as also is currently debated). The presence of significant values for both the P300 amplitude and P300 adaptive mean indicated a successful causal link between the presence of an active condition and an increased P300 waveform, while the high individual variability present throughout the data focus the scope of future study on MMN and P300.
ContributorsKonduri, Gopi (Author) / Peter, Beate (Thesis director) / Lancaster, Hope (Committee member) / School of Life Sciences (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2016-05
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Description

Olfactory discrimination tasks can provide useful information about how olfaction may have evolved by demonstrating which types of compounds animals will detect and respond to. Ants discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates by using olfaction to detect the cuticular hydrocarbons on other ants, and Camponotus floridanus have particularly clear and aggressive

Olfactory discrimination tasks can provide useful information about how olfaction may have evolved by demonstrating which types of compounds animals will detect and respond to. Ants discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates by using olfaction to detect the cuticular hydrocarbons on other ants, and Camponotus floridanus have particularly clear and aggressive responses to non-nestmates. A new method of adding hydrocarbons to ants, the “Snow Globe” method was further optimized and tested on C. floridanus. It involves adding hydrocarbons and a solvent to a vial of water, vortexing it, suspending hydrocarbon droplets throughout the solution, and then dipping a narcotized ant in. It is hoped this method can evenly coat ants in hydrocarbon. Ants were treated with heptacosane (C27), nonacosane (C29), hentriacontane (C31), a mixture of C27/C29/C31, 2-methyltriacontane (2MeC30), S-3-methylhentriacontane (SMeC31), and R-3-methylhentriacontane (RMeC31). These were chosen to see how ants reacted in a nestmate recognition context to methyl-branched hydrocarbons, R and S enantiomers, and to multiple added alkanes. Behavior assays were performed on treated ants, as well as two untreated controls, a foreign ant and a nestmate ant. There were 15 replicates of each condition, using 15 different queenright colonies. The Snow Globe method successfully transfers hydrocarbons, as confirmed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) done on treated ants, and the behavior assay data shows the foreign control, SMeC31, and the mixture of C27/29/31 were all statistically significant in their differences from the native control. The multiple alkane mixture received a significant response while single alkanes did not, which supports the idea that larger variations in hydrocarbon profile are needed for an ant to be perceived as foreign. The response to SMeC31 shows C. floridanus can respond during nestmate recognition to hydrocarbons that are not naturally occurring, and it indicates the nestmate recognition process may simply be responding to any compounds not found in the colony profile and rather than detecting particular foreign compounds.

ContributorsNoss, Serena Marie (Author) / Liebig, Juergen (Thesis director) / Pratt, Stephen (Committee member) / Haight, Kevin (Committee member) / School of Life Sciences (Contributor) / Department of Psychology (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2021-05
Description

Oxymonas is a genus of Oxymonad protist found in the hindgut of drywood termites (family Kalotermitidae). Many genera of drywood termites are invasive pests globally. The hindgut microbiome of Cryptotermes brevis, the West Indian drywood termite, has not been described in detail, and only one published sequence exists of Oxymonas

Oxymonas is a genus of Oxymonad protist found in the hindgut of drywood termites (family Kalotermitidae). Many genera of drywood termites are invasive pests globally. The hindgut microbiome of Cryptotermes brevis, the West Indian drywood termite, has not been described in detail, and only one published sequence exists of Oxymonas from C. brevis. This study aims to analyze Oxymonas sequences in C. brevis from whole gut genetic material, as well as to dissect its place in phylogenetic trees of Oxymonas and how it fits into specific and evolutionary patterns. To amplify the 18S rRNA gene Oxymonas from C. brevis, the MasterPure DNA extraction kit was used, followed by PCR amplification, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by purification of the resulting gel bands, followed by ligation/transformation on to an LB agar plate, followed by cloning the resulting bacterial colonies, and topped off by colony screening. The colony screening PCR products were then sequenced in the Genomics Core, assembled in Geneious, aligned and trimmed into a phylogenetic tree, along with several long-read amplicon sequences from Oxymonas in other drywood termites. All whole gut sequences and one amplicon from C. brevis formed a single clade, sharing an ancestor with a sister clade of Oxymonas sp. from C. cavifrons and Procryptotermes leewardensis, but the other long-read fell into its own clade in a different spot on the tree. It can be conjectured that the latter sequence was contaminated and that the C. brevis clones are a monophyletic group, a notion further corroborated by a distantly related clade featuring sequences from Cryptotermes dudleyi, which in turn has a sister taxon of Oxymonas clones from C. cavifrons and P. leewardensis, pointing toward a different kind of co-diversification of the hosts and symbionts rather than cospeciation.

ContributorsSharma, Noah (Author) / Gile, Gillian (Thesis director) / Shaffer, Zachary (Committee member) / Coots, Nicole (Committee member) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor) / School of Life Sciences (Contributor)
Created2023-05
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Description
Information processing in the brain is mediated by network interactions between anatomically distant (centimeters apart) regions of cortex and network action is fundamental to human behavior. Disruptive activity of these networks may allow a variety of diseases to develop. Degradation or loss of network function in the brain can affect

Information processing in the brain is mediated by network interactions between anatomically distant (centimeters apart) regions of cortex and network action is fundamental to human behavior. Disruptive activity of these networks may allow a variety of diseases to develop. Degradation or loss of network function in the brain can affect many aspects of the human experience; motor disorder, language difficulties, memory loss, mood swings, and more. The cortico-basal ganglia loop is a system of networks in the brain between the cortex, basal ganglia, the thalamus, and back to the cortex. It is not one singular circuit, but rather a series of parallel circuits that are relevant towards motor output, motor planning, and motivation and reward. Studying the relationship between basal ganglia neurons and cortical local field potentials may lead to insights about neurodegenerative diseases and how these diseases change the cortico-basal ganglia circuit. Speech and language are uniquely human and require the coactivation of several brain regions. The various aspects of language are spread over the temporal lobe and parts of the occipital, parietal, and frontal lobe. However, the core network for speech production involves collaboration between phonologic retrieval (encoding ideas into syllabic representations) from Wernicke’s area, and phonemic encoding (translating syllables into motor articulations) from Broca’s area. Studying the coactivation of these brain regions during a repetitive speech production task may lead to a greater understanding of their electrophysiological functional connectivity. The primary purpose of the work presented in this document is to validate the use of subdural microelectrodes in electrophysiological functional connectivity research as these devices best match the spatial and temporal scales of brain activity. Neuron populations in the cortex are organized into functional units called cortical columns. These cortical columns operate on the sub-millisecond temporal and millimeter spatial scale. The study of brain networks, both in healthy and unwell individuals, may reveal new methodologies of treatment or management for disease and injury, as well as contribute to our scientific understanding of how the brain works.
ContributorsO'Neill, Kevin John (Author) / Greger, Bradley (Thesis advisor) / Santello, Marco (Committee member) / Helms Tillery, Stephen (Committee member) / Papandreou-Suppapola, Antonia (Committee member) / Kleim, Jeffery (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2021
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Description
Patch-clamp electrophysiology is the current gold-standard technique for obtaining high-resolution recordings of neuronal activity in vivo. However, robotic technologies recently developed to automate these labor-intensive and low-throughput experiments are limited to superficial regions of the brain or lack cell type specific-targeting (Kodandaramaiah et al., 2012; Suk et al., 2017; Annecchino

Patch-clamp electrophysiology is the current gold-standard technique for obtaining high-resolution recordings of neuronal activity in vivo. However, robotic technologies recently developed to automate these labor-intensive and low-throughput experiments are limited to superficial regions of the brain or lack cell type specific-targeting (Kodandaramaiah et al., 2012; Suk et al., 2017; Annecchino et al., 2017) . In this work, a new approach for automatically navigating patch-clamp micropipette electrodes using fluorescence feedback collected at the electrode aperture was developed and validated in vitro. In future efforts, an internal excitation source will be integrated into the system to enable micropipette navigation at any electrode-accessible depth and the system will be tested in vivo using fluorescence feedback from cell type-specific labels.
ContributorsHowell, Madeleine R. (Author) / Smith, Barbara (Thesis director) / Anderson, Trent (Committee member) / School of Molecular Sciences (Contributor) / Barrett, The Honors College (Contributor)
Created2020-05
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Description
This project was completed to understand the evolution of the ability to digest wood in termite symbiotic protists. Lower termites harbor bacterial and protist symbionts which are essential to the termite ability to use wood as a nutritional source, producing glycoside hydrolases to break down the polysaccharides found in lignocellulose.

This project was completed to understand the evolution of the ability to digest wood in termite symbiotic protists. Lower termites harbor bacterial and protist symbionts which are essential to the termite ability to use wood as a nutritional source, producing glycoside hydrolases to break down the polysaccharides found in lignocellulose. Yet, only a few molecular studies have been done to confirm the protist species responsible for particular enzymes. By mining publicly available and newly generated genomic and transcriptomic data, including three transcriptomes from isolated protist cells, I identify over 200 new glycoside hydrolase sequences and compute the phylogenies of eight glycoside hydrolase families (GHFs) reported to be expressed by termite hindgut protists.

Of those families examined, the results are broadly consistent with Todaka et al. 2010, though none of the GHFs found were expressed in both termite-associated protist and non-termite-associated protist transcriptome data. This suggests that, rather than being inherited from their free-living protist ancestors, GHF genes were acquired by termite protists while within the termite gut, potentially via lateral gene transfer (LGT). For example one family, GHF10, implies a single acquisition of a bacterial xylanase into termite protists. The phylogenies from GHF5 and GHF11 each imply two distinct acquisitions in termite protist ancestors, each from bacteria. In eukaryote-dominated GHFs, GHF7 and GHF45, there are three apparent acquisitions by termite protists. Meanwhile, it appears prior reports of GHF62 in the termite gut may have been misidentified GHF43 sequences. GHF43 was the only GHF found to contain sequences from the protists not found in the termite gut. These findings generally all support the possibility termite-associated protists adapted to a lignocellulosic diet after colonization of the termite hindgut. Nonetheless, the poor resolution of GHF phylogeny and limited termite and protist sampling constrain interpretation.
ContributorsSanderlin, Viola (Author) / Gile, Gillian H (Thesis advisor) / Wojciechowski, Martin (Committee member) / Weiss, Taylor (Committee member) / Varman, Arul Mozhy (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2019