Matching Items (12)

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The Evolution of Automotive Engineering Technology in correlation between the Human Factors

Description

The focus of this research paper is understanding the impacts of human factors on the technology innovations in automobiles and the direction our society is headed. There will be an

The focus of this research paper is understanding the impacts of human factors on the technology innovations in automobiles and the direction our society is headed. There will be an assessment of our current state and the possible solutions to combat the issue of creating technology advancements for automobiles that cater towards the human factors. There will be an introduction on the history of the first automobile invented to provide an understanding of the what the first automobile consisted of and will continue discussing the technological innovations that were implemented due to human factors. Diving into the types of technological innovations such as the ignition system, car radio, the power steering system, and self-driving, it will show the progression of the technological advancements that was implemented in relation to the human factors that was prominent among society. From there, it is important to understand what human factors and the concept of human factor engineering are. It will provide a better understanding of why humans have created technology in relation to the human factors. Then, there will be an introduction of the mobile phone industry history/timeline as a comparison to show the impacts of how human factors have had on the development of the technology in mobile phones and how heavily it catered towards human factors. There will be a discussion of the 3 key human factors that have been catered towards the development and implementation of technology in automobiles. They are selecting the path that requires the least cognitive effort, overestimating the performance of technology, and reducing the attention due to an automated system being put into place. Lastly, is understanding that if we create or implement technology such as self-driving, it should not solely be for comfort and ease of use, but for the overall efficient use of transportation in the future. This way humans would not rely heavily too much on the technology and limit the effect that human factors have on us.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Understanding Humans to Better Understand Robots in a Joint-Task Environment: The Study of Surprise and Trust in Human-Machine Physical Coordination

Description

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be seamless and effective humans must be willing to trust the capabilities of assistive robots. A major priority for human-robot interaction should be to understand how human dyads have been historically effective within a joint-task setting. This will ensure that all goals can be met in human robot settings. The aim of the present study was to examine human dyads and the effects of an unexpected interruption. Humans’ interpersonal and individual levels of trust were studied in order to draw appropriate conclusions. Seventeen undergraduate and graduate level dyads were collected from Arizona State University. Participants were broken up into either a surprise condition or a baseline condition. Participants individually took two surveys in order to have an accurate understanding of levels of dispositional and individual levels of trust. The findings showed that participant levels of interpersonal trust were average. Surprisingly, participants who participated in the surprise condition afterwards, showed moderate to high levels of dyad trust. This effect showed that participants became more reliant on their partners when interrupted by a surprising event. Future studies will take this knowledge and apply it to human-robot interaction, in order to mimic the seamless team-interaction shown in historically effective dyads, specifically human team interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Human factors analysis of automated planning technologies for human-robot teaming

Description

Humans and robots need to work together as a team to accomplish certain shared goals due to the limitations of current robot capabilities. Human assistance is required to accomplish the

Humans and robots need to work together as a team to accomplish certain shared goals due to the limitations of current robot capabilities. Human assistance is required to accomplish the tasks as human capabilities are often better suited for certain tasks and they complement robot capabilities in many situations. Given the necessity of human-robot teams, it has been long assumed that for the robotic agent to be an effective team member, it must be equipped with automated planning technologies that helps in achieving the goals that have been delegated to it by their human teammates as well as in deducing its own goal to proactively support its human counterpart by inferring their goals. However there has not been any systematic evaluation on the accuracy of this claim.

In my thesis, I perform human factors analysis on effectiveness of such automated planning technologies for remote human-robot teaming. In the first part of my study, I perform an investigation on effectiveness of automated planning in remote human-robot teaming scenarios. In the second part of my study, I perform an investigation on effectiveness of a proactive robot assistant in remote human-robot teaming scenarios.

Both investigations are conducted in a simulated urban search and rescue (USAR) scenario where the human-robot teams are deployed during early phases of an emergency response to explore all areas of the disaster scene. I evaluate through both the studies, how effective is automated planning technology in helping the human-robot teams move closer to human-human teams. I utilize both objective measures (like accuracy and time spent on primary and secondary tasks, Robot Attention Demand, etc.) and a set of subjective Likert-scale questions (on situation awareness, immediacy etc.) to investigate the trade-offs between different types of remote human-robot teams. The results from both the studies seem to suggest that intelligent robots with automated planning capability and proactive support ability is welcomed in general.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A Case for Missing Salience in the Attentional Blink

Description

A literature search revealed that previous research on the Attentional Blink (AB) has not examined the role of salience in AB results. I examined how salience affects the AB through

A literature search revealed that previous research on the Attentional Blink (AB) has not examined the role of salience in AB results. I examined how salience affects the AB through multiple forms and degrees of salience in target 1 (T1) and target 2 (T2) stimuli. When examining increased size as a form of salience, results showed a more salient T2 increased recall, attenuating the AB. A more salient T1 did not differ from the control, suggesting the salience (increased size) of T2 is an important factor in the AB, while salience (increased size) of T1 does not affect the AB. Additionally, the differences in target size (50% or 100% larger) were not significantly different, showing size differences at these intervals do not affect AB results. To further explore the lack of difference in results when T1 is larger in size, I examined dynamic stimuli used as T1. T1 stimuli were presented as looming or receding. When T1 was presented as looming or receding, the AB was attenuated (T2 recall at lag 2 was significantly greater). Additionally, T2 recall was significantly worse at lags three and four (showing a larger decrease directly following the attenuated AB). When comparing looming and receding against each other, at lag 2 (when recall accuracy at its lowest) looming increased recall significantly more than receding stimuli. This is expected to be due to the immediate attentional needs related to looming stimuli. Overall, the results showed T2 salience in the form of size significantly increases recall accuracy while T1 size salience does not affect the AB results. With that, dynamic T1 stimuli increase recall accuracy at early lags (lag 2) while it decreases recall accuracy at later lags (lags 3 and 4). This result is found when the stimuli are presented at a larger size (stimuli appearing closer), suggesting the more eminent need for attention results in greater effects on the AB.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Predictive Control of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Civil Infrastructure Systems Operations

Description

Interpersonal communications during civil infrastructure systems operation and maintenance (CIS O&M) are processes for CIS O&M participants to exchange critical information. Poor communications that provide misleading information can jeopardize CIS

Interpersonal communications during civil infrastructure systems operation and maintenance (CIS O&M) are processes for CIS O&M participants to exchange critical information. Poor communications that provide misleading information can jeopardize CIS O&M safety and efficiency. Previous studies suggest that communication contexts and features could be indicators of communication errors and relevant CIS O&M risks. However, challenges remain for reliable prediction of communication errors to ensure CIS O&M safety and efficiency. For example, existing studies lack a systematic summarization of risky contexts and features of communication processes for predicting communication errors. Limited studies examined quantitative methods for incorporating expert opinions as constraints for reliable communication error prediction. How to examine mitigation strategies (e.g., adjustments of communication protocols) for reducing communication-related CIS O&M risks is also challenging. The main reason is the lack of causal analysis about how various factors influence the occurrences and impacts of communication errors so that engineers lack the basis for intervention.

This dissertation presents a method that integrates Bayesian Network (BN) modeling and simulation for communication-related risk prediction and mitigation. The proposed method aims at tackling the three challenges mentioned above for ensuring CIS O&M safety and efficiency. The proposed method contains three parts: 1) Communication Data Collection and Error Detection – designing lab experiments for collecting communication data in CIS O&M workflows and using the collected data for identifying risky communication contexts and features; 2) Communication Error Classification and Prediction – encoding expert knowledge as constraints through BN model updating to improve the accuracy of communication error prediction based on given communication contexts and features, and 3) Communication Risk Mitigation – carrying out simulations to adjust communication protocols for reducing communication-related CIS O&M risks.

This dissertation uses two CIS O&M case studies (air traffic control and NPP outages) to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method can 1) identify risky communication contexts and features, 2) predict communication errors and CIS O&M risks, and 3) reduce CIS O&M risks triggered by communication errors. The author envisions that the proposed method will shed light on achieving predictive control of interpersonal communications in dynamic and complex CIS O&M.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Experimental investigation of typical aircraft field performance versus predicted performance targets

Description

This thesis explores the human factors effects pilots have when controlling the aircraft during the takeoff phase of flight. These variables come into play in the transitory phase from

This thesis explores the human factors effects pilots have when controlling the aircraft during the takeoff phase of flight. These variables come into play in the transitory phase from ground roll to flight, and in the initiation of procedures to abort a takeoff during the ground run. The FAA provides regulations for manufacturers and operators to follow, ensuring safe manufacture of aircraft and pilots that fly without endangering the passengers; however, details regarding accounting of piloting variability are lacking. Creation of a numerical simulation allowed for the controlled variation of isolated piloting procedures in order to evaluate effects on field performance. Reduced rotation rates and delayed reaction times were found to cause significant increases in field length requirements over values published in the AFM. A pilot survey was conducted to evaluate common practices for line pilots in the field, which revealed minimum regulatory compliance is exercised with little to no feedback on runway length requirements. Finally, observation of pilots training in a CRJ-200 FTD gathered extensive information on typical piloting timings in the cockpit. AEO and OEI takeoffs were observed, as well as RTOs. Pilots showed large variability in procedures and timings resulting in significant inconsistency in runway distances used as well as V-speed compliance. The observed effects from pilot timing latency correlated with the numerical simulation increased field length outputs. Variability in piloting procedures results in erratic field performance that deviates from AFM published values that invite disaster in an aircraft operating near its field performance limitations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Buzz or Beep? How Mode of Alert Influences Driver Takeover Following Automation Failure

Description

Highly automated vehicles require drivers to remain aware enough to takeover

during critical events. Driver distraction is a key factor that prevents drivers from reacting

adequately, and thus there is

Highly automated vehicles require drivers to remain aware enough to takeover

during critical events. Driver distraction is a key factor that prevents drivers from reacting

adequately, and thus there is need for an alert to help drivers regain situational awareness

and be able to act quickly and successfully should a critical event arise. This study

examines two aspects of alerts that could help facilitate driver takeover: mode (auditory

and tactile) and direction (towards and away). Auditory alerts appear to be somewhat

more effective than tactile alerts, though both modes produce significantly faster reaction

times than no alert. Alerts moving towards the driver also appear to be more effective

than alerts moving away from the driver. Future research should examine how

multimodal alerts differ from single mode, and see if higher fidelity alerts influence

takeover times.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Enhancing movie comprehension for individuals who are visually impaired or blind

Description

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired, the alternative senses have predominantly been hearing and touch. For movies, visual content has been made accessible to visually impaired viewers through audio descriptions -- an additional narration that describes scenes, the characters involved and other pertinent details. However, as audio descriptions should not overlap with dialogue, sound effects and musical scores, there is limited time to convey information, often resulting in stunted and abridged descriptions that leave out many important visual cues and concepts. This work proposes a promising multimodal approach to sensory substitution for movies by providing complementary information through haptics, pertaining to the positions and movements of actors, in addition to a film's audio description and audio content. In a ten-minute presentation of five movie clips to ten individuals who were visually impaired or blind, the novel methodology was found to provide an almost two time increase in the perception of actors' movements in scenes. Moreover, participants appreciated and found useful the overall concept of providing a visual perspective to film through haptics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The perceptual motor-effects of the Ebbinghaus illusion on golf putting

Description

Previous research has shown that perceptual illusions can enhance golf putting performance, and the effect has been explained as being due to enhanced expectancies. The present study was designed to

Previous research has shown that perceptual illusions can enhance golf putting performance, and the effect has been explained as being due to enhanced expectancies. The present study was designed to further understand this effect by measuring putting in 3 additional variations to the Ebbinghaus illusion and by measuring putting kinematics. Nineteen ASU students with minimal golf experience putted to the following illusion conditions: a target, a target surrounded by small circles, a target surrounded by large circles, a target surrounded by both large and small circles, no target surrounded by small circles and no target surrounded by large circles. Neither perceived target size nor putting error was significantly affected by the illusion conditions. Time to peak speed was found to be significantly greater for the two conditions with no target, and lowest for the condition with the target by itself. Suggestions for future research include having split groups with and without perceived performance feedback as well as general performance feedback. The size conditions utilized within this study should continue to be explored as more consistent data could be collected within groups.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Performance Expectations of Branded Autonomous Vehicles: Measuring Brand Trust Using Pathfinder Associative Networks

Description

Future autonomous vehicle systems will be diverse in design and functionality since they will be produced by different brands. In the automotive industry, trustworthiness of a vehicle is closely tied

Future autonomous vehicle systems will be diverse in design and functionality since they will be produced by different brands. In the automotive industry, trustworthiness of a vehicle is closely tied to its perceived safety. Trust involves dependence on another agent in an uncertain situation. Perceptions of system safety, trustworthiness, and performance are important because they guide people’s behavior towards automation. Specifically, these perceptions impact how reliant people believe they can be on the system to do a certain task. Over or under reliance can be a concern for safety because they involve the person allocating tasks between themselves and the system in inappropriate ways. If a person trusts a brand they may also believe the brand’s technology will keep them safe. The present study measured brand trust associations and performance expectations for safety between twelve different automobile brands using an online survey.

The literature and results of the present study suggest perceived trustworthiness for safety of the automation and the brand of the automation, could together impact trust. Results revelated that brands closely related to the trust-based attributes, Confidence, Secure, Integrity, and Trustworthiness were expected to produce autonomous vehicle technology that performs in a safer way. While, brands more related to the trust-based attributes Harmful, Deceptive, Underhanded, Suspicious, Beware, and Familiar were expected to produce autonomous vehicle technology that performs in a less safe way.

These findings contribute to both the fields of Human-Automation Interaction and Consumer Psychology. Typically, brands and automation are discussed separately however, this work suggests an important relationship may exist. A deeper understanding of brand trust as it relates to autonomous vehicles can help producers understand potential for over or under reliance and create safer systems that help users calibrate trust appropriately. Considering the impact on safety, more research should be conducted to explore brand trust and expectations for performance between various brands.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018