Matching Items (17)

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The Evolution of Automotive Engineering Technology in correlation between the Human Factors

Description

The focus of this research paper is understanding the impacts of human factors on the technology innovations in automobiles and the direction our society is headed. There will be an assessment of our current state and the possible solutions to

The focus of this research paper is understanding the impacts of human factors on the technology innovations in automobiles and the direction our society is headed. There will be an assessment of our current state and the possible solutions to combat the issue of creating technology advancements for automobiles that cater towards the human factors. There will be an introduction on the history of the first automobile invented to provide an understanding of the what the first automobile consisted of and will continue discussing the technological innovations that were implemented due to human factors. Diving into the types of technological innovations such as the ignition system, car radio, the power steering system, and self-driving, it will show the progression of the technological advancements that was implemented in relation to the human factors that was prominent among society. From there, it is important to understand what human factors and the concept of human factor engineering are. It will provide a better understanding of why humans have created technology in relation to the human factors. Then, there will be an introduction of the mobile phone industry history/timeline as a comparison to show the impacts of how human factors have had on the development of the technology in mobile phones and how heavily it catered towards human factors. There will be a discussion of the 3 key human factors that have been catered towards the development and implementation of technology in automobiles. They are selecting the path that requires the least cognitive effort, overestimating the performance of technology, and reducing the attention due to an automated system being put into place. Lastly, is understanding that if we create or implement technology such as self-driving, it should not solely be for comfort and ease of use, but for the overall efficient use of transportation in the future. This way humans would not rely heavily too much on the technology and limit the effect that human factors have on us.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Research, design and validation of a cognitive aid to support the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes

Description

The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the spread of harmful bacterial and viral agents between patients.

The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the spread of harmful bacterial and viral agents between patients. Three themes were found to represent a majority of problems: 1) lack of visibility (parts and tools were difficult to identify), 2) high memory demands, and 3) insufficient user feedback. In an effort to improve completion rate and eliminate error, cognitive aids were designed utilizing human factors principles that would replace existing manufacturer visual aids. Then, a usability test was conducted, which compared the endoscope reprocessing performance of novices using the standard manufacturer-provided visual aids and the new cognitive aids. Participants successfully completed 87.1% of the reprocessing procedure in the experimental condition with the use of the cognitive aids, compared to 46.3% in the control condition using only existing support materials. Twenty-five of sixty subtasks showed significant improvement in completion rates. When given a cognitive aid designed with human factors principles, participants were able to more successfully complete the reprocessing task. This resulted in an endoscope that was more likely to be safe for patient use.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Enhancing movie comprehension for individuals who are visually impaired or blind

Description

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired,

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired, the alternative senses have predominantly been hearing and touch. For movies, visual content has been made accessible to visually impaired viewers through audio descriptions -- an additional narration that describes scenes, the characters involved and other pertinent details. However, as audio descriptions should not overlap with dialogue, sound effects and musical scores, there is limited time to convey information, often resulting in stunted and abridged descriptions that leave out many important visual cues and concepts. This work proposes a promising multimodal approach to sensory substitution for movies by providing complementary information through haptics, pertaining to the positions and movements of actors, in addition to a film's audio description and audio content. In a ten-minute presentation of five movie clips to ten individuals who were visually impaired or blind, the novel methodology was found to provide an almost two time increase in the perception of actors' movements in scenes. Moreover, participants appreciated and found useful the overall concept of providing a visual perspective to film through haptics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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The relationship between team briefings and non-routine events: developing a model of team briefings in the operating room

Description

Preoperative team briefings have been suggested to be important for improving team performance in the operating room. Many high risk environments have accepted team briefings; however healthcare has been slower to follow. While applying briefings in the operating room has

Preoperative team briefings have been suggested to be important for improving team performance in the operating room. Many high risk environments have accepted team briefings; however healthcare has been slower to follow. While applying briefings in the operating room has shown positive benefits including improved communication and perceptions of teamwork, most research has only focused on feasibility of implementation and not on understanding how the quality of briefings can impact subsequent surgical procedures. Thus, there are no formal protocols or methodologies that have been developed.

The goal of this study was to relate specific characteristics of team briefings back to objective measures of team performance. The study employed cognitive interviews, prospective observations, and principle component regression to characterize and model the relationship between team briefing characteristics and non-routine events (NREs) in gynecological surgery. Interviews were conducted with 13 team members representing each role on the surgical team and data were collected for 24 pre-operative team briefings and 45 subsequent surgical cases. The findings revealed that variations within the team briefing are associated with differences in team-related outcomes, namely NREs, during the subsequent surgical procedures. Synthesis of the data highlighted three important trends which include the need to promote team communication during the briefing, the importance of attendance by all surgical team members, and the value of holding a briefing prior to each surgical procedure. These findings have implications for development of formal briefing protocols.

Pre-operative team briefings are beneficial for team performance in the operating room. Future research will be needed to continue understanding this relationship between how briefings are conducted and team performance to establish more consistent approaches and as well as for the continuing assessment of team briefings and other similar team-related events in the operating room.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Human factors analysis of automated planning technologies for human-robot teaming

Description

Humans and robots need to work together as a team to accomplish certain shared goals due to the limitations of current robot capabilities. Human assistance is required to accomplish the tasks as human capabilities are often better suited for certain

Humans and robots need to work together as a team to accomplish certain shared goals due to the limitations of current robot capabilities. Human assistance is required to accomplish the tasks as human capabilities are often better suited for certain tasks and they complement robot capabilities in many situations. Given the necessity of human-robot teams, it has been long assumed that for the robotic agent to be an effective team member, it must be equipped with automated planning technologies that helps in achieving the goals that have been delegated to it by their human teammates as well as in deducing its own goal to proactively support its human counterpart by inferring their goals. However there has not been any systematic evaluation on the accuracy of this claim.

In my thesis, I perform human factors analysis on effectiveness of such automated planning technologies for remote human-robot teaming. In the first part of my study, I perform an investigation on effectiveness of automated planning in remote human-robot teaming scenarios. In the second part of my study, I perform an investigation on effectiveness of a proactive robot assistant in remote human-robot teaming scenarios.

Both investigations are conducted in a simulated urban search and rescue (USAR) scenario where the human-robot teams are deployed during early phases of an emergency response to explore all areas of the disaster scene. I evaluate through both the studies, how effective is automated planning technology in helping the human-robot teams move closer to human-human teams. I utilize both objective measures (like accuracy and time spent on primary and secondary tasks, Robot Attention Demand, etc.) and a set of subjective Likert-scale questions (on situation awareness, immediacy etc.) to investigate the trade-offs between different types of remote human-robot teams. The results from both the studies seem to suggest that intelligent robots with automated planning capability and proactive support ability is welcomed in general.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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A Case for Missing Salience in the Attentional Blink

Description

A literature search revealed that previous research on the Attentional Blink (AB) has not examined the role of salience in AB results. I examined how salience affects the AB through multiple forms and degrees of salience in target 1 (T1)

A literature search revealed that previous research on the Attentional Blink (AB) has not examined the role of salience in AB results. I examined how salience affects the AB through multiple forms and degrees of salience in target 1 (T1) and target 2 (T2) stimuli. When examining increased size as a form of salience, results showed a more salient T2 increased recall, attenuating the AB. A more salient T1 did not differ from the control, suggesting the salience (increased size) of T2 is an important factor in the AB, while salience (increased size) of T1 does not affect the AB. Additionally, the differences in target size (50% or 100% larger) were not significantly different, showing size differences at these intervals do not affect AB results. To further explore the lack of difference in results when T1 is larger in size, I examined dynamic stimuli used as T1. T1 stimuli were presented as looming or receding. When T1 was presented as looming or receding, the AB was attenuated (T2 recall at lag 2 was significantly greater). Additionally, T2 recall was significantly worse at lags three and four (showing a larger decrease directly following the attenuated AB). When comparing looming and receding against each other, at lag 2 (when recall accuracy at its lowest) looming increased recall significantly more than receding stimuli. This is expected to be due to the immediate attentional needs related to looming stimuli. Overall, the results showed T2 salience in the form of size significantly increases recall accuracy while T1 size salience does not affect the AB results. With that, dynamic T1 stimuli increase recall accuracy at early lags (lag 2) while it decreases recall accuracy at later lags (lags 3 and 4). This result is found when the stimuli are presented at a larger size (stimuli appearing closer), suggesting the more eminent need for attention results in greater effects on the AB.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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Towards Human-Machine Symbiosis: Design for Effective AI Facilitation

Description

The rapid increase in the volume and complexity of data lead to accelerated Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, primarily as intelligent machines, in everyday life. Providing explanations is considered an imperative ability for an AI agent in a human-robot teaming framework,

The rapid increase in the volume and complexity of data lead to accelerated Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, primarily as intelligent machines, in everyday life. Providing explanations is considered an imperative ability for an AI agent in a human-robot teaming framework, which provides the rationale behind an AI agent's decision-making. Therefore, the validity of the AI models is constrained based on their ability to explain their decision-making rationale. On the other hand, AI agents cannot perceive the social situation that human experts may recognize using their background knowledge, specifically in cybersecurity and the military. Social behavior depends on situation awareness, and it relies on interpretability, transparency, and fairness when we envision efficient Human-AI collaboration. Consequently, the human remains an essential element for planning, especially when the problem's constraints are difficult to express for an agent in a dynamic setting.
This dissertation will first develop different model-based explanation generation approaches to predict where the human teammate would misunderstand the plan and, therefore, generate an explanation accordingly. The robot's generated explanation or interactive explicable behavior maintains the human teammate's cognitive workload and increases the overall team situation awareness throughout human-robot interaction. Further, it will focus on a rule-based model to preserve the collaborative engagement of the team by exploring essential aspects of the facilitator agent design. In addition to recognizing wherein the plan might be discrepancies, focusing on the decision-making process provides insight into the reason behind the conflict between the human expectation and the robot's behavior. Employing a rule-based framework will shift the focus from assisting an individual (human) teammate to helping the team interactively while maintaining collaboration. Hence, concentrating on teaming provides the opportunity to recognize some cognitive biases that skew the teammate's expectations and affect interaction behavior.
This dissertation investigates how to maintain collaboration engagement or cognitive readiness for collaborative planning tasks. Moreover, this dissertation aims to lay out a planning framework focusing on the human teammate's cognitive abilities to understand the machine-provided explanations while collaborating on a planning task. Consequently, this dissertation explored the design for AI facilitator, helping a team tasked with a challenging task to plan collaboratively, mitigating the teaming biases, and communicate effectively. This dissertation investigates the effect of some cognitive biases on the task outcome and shapes the utility function. The facilitator's role is to facilitate goal alignment, the consensus of planning strategies, utility management, effective communication, and mitigate biases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Understanding Humans to Better Understand Robots in a Joint-Task Environment: The Study of Surprise and Trust in Human-Machine Physical Coordination

Description

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be seamless and effective humans must be willing to trust the

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be seamless and effective humans must be willing to trust the capabilities of assistive robots. A major priority for human-robot interaction should be to understand how human dyads have been historically effective within a joint-task setting. This will ensure that all goals can be met in human robot settings. The aim of the present study was to examine human dyads and the effects of an unexpected interruption. Humans’ interpersonal and individual levels of trust were studied in order to draw appropriate conclusions. Seventeen undergraduate and graduate level dyads were collected from Arizona State University. Participants were broken up into either a surprise condition or a baseline condition. Participants individually took two surveys in order to have an accurate understanding of levels of dispositional and individual levels of trust. The findings showed that participant levels of interpersonal trust were average. Surprisingly, participants who participated in the surprise condition afterwards, showed moderate to high levels of dyad trust. This effect showed that participants became more reliant on their partners when interrupted by a surprising event. Future studies will take this knowledge and apply it to human-robot interaction, in order to mimic the seamless team-interaction shown in historically effective dyads, specifically human team interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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Experimental investigation of typical aircraft field performance versus predicted performance targets

Description

This thesis explores the human factors effects pilots have when controlling the aircraft during the takeoff phase of flight. These variables come into play in the transitory phase from ground roll to flight, and in the initiation of procedures

This thesis explores the human factors effects pilots have when controlling the aircraft during the takeoff phase of flight. These variables come into play in the transitory phase from ground roll to flight, and in the initiation of procedures to abort a takeoff during the ground run. The FAA provides regulations for manufacturers and operators to follow, ensuring safe manufacture of aircraft and pilots that fly without endangering the passengers; however, details regarding accounting of piloting variability are lacking. Creation of a numerical simulation allowed for the controlled variation of isolated piloting procedures in order to evaluate effects on field performance. Reduced rotation rates and delayed reaction times were found to cause significant increases in field length requirements over values published in the AFM. A pilot survey was conducted to evaluate common practices for line pilots in the field, which revealed minimum regulatory compliance is exercised with little to no feedback on runway length requirements. Finally, observation of pilots training in a CRJ-200 FTD gathered extensive information on typical piloting timings in the cockpit. AEO and OEI takeoffs were observed, as well as RTOs. Pilots showed large variability in procedures and timings resulting in significant inconsistency in runway distances used as well as V-speed compliance. The observed effects from pilot timing latency correlated with the numerical simulation increased field length outputs. Variability in piloting procedures results in erratic field performance that deviates from AFM published values that invite disaster in an aircraft operating near its field performance limitations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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Predictive Control of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Civil Infrastructure Systems Operations

Description

Interpersonal communications during civil infrastructure systems operation and maintenance (CIS O&M) are processes for CIS O&M participants to exchange critical information. Poor communications that provide misleading information can jeopardize CIS O&M safety and efficiency. Previous studies suggest that communication contexts

Interpersonal communications during civil infrastructure systems operation and maintenance (CIS O&M) are processes for CIS O&M participants to exchange critical information. Poor communications that provide misleading information can jeopardize CIS O&M safety and efficiency. Previous studies suggest that communication contexts and features could be indicators of communication errors and relevant CIS O&M risks. However, challenges remain for reliable prediction of communication errors to ensure CIS O&M safety and efficiency. For example, existing studies lack a systematic summarization of risky contexts and features of communication processes for predicting communication errors. Limited studies examined quantitative methods for incorporating expert opinions as constraints for reliable communication error prediction. How to examine mitigation strategies (e.g., adjustments of communication protocols) for reducing communication-related CIS O&M risks is also challenging. The main reason is the lack of causal analysis about how various factors influence the occurrences and impacts of communication errors so that engineers lack the basis for intervention.

This dissertation presents a method that integrates Bayesian Network (BN) modeling and simulation for communication-related risk prediction and mitigation. The proposed method aims at tackling the three challenges mentioned above for ensuring CIS O&M safety and efficiency. The proposed method contains three parts: 1) Communication Data Collection and Error Detection – designing lab experiments for collecting communication data in CIS O&M workflows and using the collected data for identifying risky communication contexts and features; 2) Communication Error Classification and Prediction – encoding expert knowledge as constraints through BN model updating to improve the accuracy of communication error prediction based on given communication contexts and features, and 3) Communication Risk Mitigation – carrying out simulations to adjust communication protocols for reducing communication-related CIS O&M risks.

This dissertation uses two CIS O&M case studies (air traffic control and NPP outages) to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method can 1) identify risky communication contexts and features, 2) predict communication errors and CIS O&M risks, and 3) reduce CIS O&M risks triggered by communication errors. The author envisions that the proposed method will shed light on achieving predictive control of interpersonal communications in dynamic and complex CIS O&M.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020