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Private Equity Reputation: Arbitrage Spreads and Offer Premiums of Public to Private Transactions

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This paper classifies private equity groups (PEGs) seeking to engage in public to private transactions (PTPs) and determines (primarily through an examination of the implied merger arbitrage spread), whether certain reputational factors associated with the private equity industry affect a

This paper classifies private equity groups (PEGs) seeking to engage in public to private transactions (PTPs) and determines (primarily through an examination of the implied merger arbitrage spread), whether certain reputational factors associated with the private equity industry affect a firm's ability to acquire a publicly-traded company. We use a sample of 1,027 US-based take private transactions announced between January 5, 2009 and August 2, 2018, where 333 transactions consist of private-equity led take-privates, to investigate how merger arbitrage spreads, offer premiums, and deal closure are impacted based on PEG- and PTP-specific input variables. We find that the merger arbitrage spread of PEG-backed deals are 2-3% wider than strategic deals, hostile deals have a greater merger arbitrage spread, larger bid premiums widen spreads and markets accurately identify deals that will close through a narrower spread. PEG deals offer lower premiums, as well as friendly deals and larger deals. Offer premiums are 8.2% larger among deals that eventually consummate. In a logistic regression, we identified that PEG deals are less likely to close than strategic deals, however friendly deals are much more likely to close and Mega Funds are more likely to consummate deals among their PEG peers. These findings support previous research on PTP deals. The insignificance of PEG-classified variables on arbitrage spreads and premiums suggest that investors do not differentiate PEG-backed deals by PEG due to most PEGs equal ability to raise competitive financing. However, Mega Funds are more likely to close deals, and thus, we identify that merger arbitrage spreads should be narrower among this PEG classification.

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2019-05

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The Effect of Dodd-Frank Title VII Clearing Regulations on the OTC Derivatives Market

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The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of the Dodd-Frank Title VII Clearing Regulations on the Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market and to analyze if the benefits of the Title VII regulations have outweighed the costs in the

The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of the Dodd-Frank Title VII Clearing Regulations on the Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market and to analyze if the benefits of the Title VII regulations have outweighed the costs in the OTC derivatives market by reducing systematic(market) risk and protecting market participants or if the Title VII regulations’ costs have made things worse by lessening opportunities in the OTC derivatives market and stifling economics benefits by over regulating the market. This paper strives to examine this issue by explaining how OTC are said to have played a part in the 2008 Financial crisis. Next, we give a general overview of financial securities, and what OTC are. Then we will give a general overview of what the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Acts are, which are the regulations to come out of the 2008 Financial crisis. Then the paper will dive into Dodd-Frank Title VII Clearing Regulations and how they regulated OTC derivatives in the aftermath of the 2008 Financial crisis. Next, we discuss the Clearing House industry. Then the paper explores the major change of central clearing versus the previous bilateral clearing system. The paper will then cover how these rules have affected OTC derivatives market by examining the works of authors, who both support the regulations and others, who oppose the regulations by looking at logical arguments, historical evidence, and empirical evidence. Finally, we conclude that based on all the evidence how the Dodd-Frank Title VII Clearing Regulations effects on the OTC derivatives market are inconclusive at this time.

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2019-05

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Value Creation in Leveraged Buyouts

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The following thesis discusses the primary drivers of value creation in a leveraged buyout. Value creation is defined by two broad criteria: enterprise value creation and financial value creation. With enterprise value creation, the company itself may be improved, which

The following thesis discusses the primary drivers of value creation in a leveraged buyout. Value creation is defined by two broad criteria: enterprise value creation and financial value creation. With enterprise value creation, the company itself may be improved, which in turn may have positive implications on the economy at large. As the analysis of enterprise value creation is outside the scope of publicly available information and data, the core focus of this thesis is financial value creation. Financial value creation is defined as the financial returns to a given private equity firm. Amongst this segment of value creation, there are roughly three primary categories responsible for generating returns: financial engineering, governance improvements, and operational improvements. The attached literature review and subsequent chapters of this thesis discuss the academic drivers of value creation and the outputs of a leveraged buyout model conducted on a public company, Schnitzer Steel, that has been determined to be an ideal candidate for a buyout.

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2019-05

The Entrepreneurial Journey

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This Creative Project contains a short movie that is comprised of interviews with various business owners and entrepreneurs based in Arizona. The purpose of this project was originally to explore "how businesses finance their initial venture" but quickly evolved into

This Creative Project contains a short movie that is comprised of interviews with various business owners and entrepreneurs based in Arizona. The purpose of this project was originally to explore "how businesses finance their initial venture" but quickly evolved into open-ended interviews. Originally, one of the listed goals for the project was to ensure that the movie be entertaining for the viewer. In order to gain the richest experience, it was decided that at least 8-10 entrepreneurs be interviewed for a 25 minute video. Since the creator of the video had no prior videography experience, it was assumed to be feasible \u2014 but in order to maintain the integrity of the interviews, and in order to provide the viewer with a better background, the format was changed to a 44 minute movie with 5 featured businesses, though more than 30 businesses were considered. It became clear that the diversity of available interviewees and the complexity of the businesses and financing methods made it impractical to feature such a technical topic in the movie. Balancing the entertainment value of the film and its functional, educational purpose proved to be one of the challenges for the completion of the project. Each interview stands alone its own right, but it's highly recommended that the viewer watch the entire feature. The businesses are featured in the following order: DryClean U.S., Jeffrey Rivera (sole-proprietor), Arizona Hops and Vines, Rune Wines, and The Duquesne House Inn and Gardens. The viewer will find that the businesses featured include both service-based businesses and product-based businesses. In all, over 300 hours of planning, filming, writing, and video-editing contributed to successful completion of this project.

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2017-05

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Extending Profitability to 1927-1953

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In this paper we conduct an out-of-sample test on gross profitability and investment in the same manner as Davis, Fama, and French (2000) for the pre-Compustat period (1926-1955). We hand-collect financial statement data from Moodys Industrial Manuals using the company

In this paper we conduct an out-of-sample test on gross profitability and investment in the same manner as Davis, Fama, and French (2000) for the pre-Compustat period (1926-1955). We hand-collect financial statement data from Moodys Industrial Manuals using the company PERMNO list first created by DFF. In total, we collect data from 1,291 firms, largely industrial firms but with some utilities. We then run Fama-Macbeth (1973) regressions using gross profit, scaled operating profit, scaled net income, and investment along with existing variables like book-to-market, market equity, one-month reversal, and one-year momentum. We find that the premiums on gross profitability and investment are not significant for any part of our sample period. For the overall sample period as well as the first half (before the 1933 Securities Act), our accounting data is often missing or cross-sectionally inconsistent. Despite the better-quality data in the period after 1935, however, neither gross profitability not investment have significant Fama-Macbeth slopes. We believe this is caused by inconsistent and incomplete accounting data, chiefly the number of firms that combine SG&A and COGS data into one "cost" number and the inclusion of investment-like costs, like R&D, in COGS or SG&A. This causes gross profitability to not reflect direct economic profitability as closely as in prior research. However, net income has significantly positive coefficients during this period and is not subsumed by gross profitability; this contradicts prior research for the post-1962 period. More data cleaning and analysis is needed in order to form firm conclusions on the gross profitability, net income, and investment premiums during this period.

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2016-05

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EFFECT OF AGE OF ARRIVAL ON REFUGEE PERFORMANCE: EARLY ADOLESCENSE THROUGH EARLY ADULTHOOD

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Are there measurable differences between the human capital of the refugee children born inside and outside of the United States? If so, does the amount of time spent abroad before immigrating matter, and can we get an idea of what

Are there measurable differences between the human capital of the refugee children born inside and outside of the United States? If so, does the amount of time spent abroad before immigrating matter, and can we get an idea of what happens to this gap over time? Looking at the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) 1991-2006, I examine standardized test scores and other indicators of performance of young Indochinese refugees and immigrants. This study finds evidence for a negative correlation between being born abroad and performance in selected metrics at the time of early adolescence. This is extended into a negative relationship between the lengths of time abroad before coming to the United States (age of arrival) and those same metrics. However, this study finds signs that this gap in human capital is at least partly bridged by the time of early adulthood. It remains unclear though, whether this possible catch up is reflected in other early adult outcomes such as household income.

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2016-05

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The Formation and Analysis of a Start Up Venture: Outwork Yourself

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This paper takes a look at developing a technological start up revolving around the world of health and fitness. The entire process is documented, starting from the ideation phase, and continuing on to product testing and market research. The research

This paper takes a look at developing a technological start up revolving around the world of health and fitness. The entire process is documented, starting from the ideation phase, and continuing on to product testing and market research. The research done focuses on identifying a target market for a 24/7 fitness service that connects clients with personal trainers. It is a good study on the steps needed in creating a business, and serves as a learning tool for how to bring a product to market.

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2014-05

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Aggregated Insider Trading Signals and Their Implications

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This paper provides evidence through an event study, portfolio simulation, and regression analysis that insider trading, when appropriately aggregated, has predictive power for abnormal risk-adjusted returns on some country and sector exchange traded funds (ETFs). I examine ETFs because of

This paper provides evidence through an event study, portfolio simulation, and regression analysis that insider trading, when appropriately aggregated, has predictive power for abnormal risk-adjusted returns on some country and sector exchange traded funds (ETFs). I examine ETFs because of their broad scope and liquidity. ETF markets are relatively efficient and, thus, the effects I document are unlikely to appear in ETF markets. My evidence that aggregated insider trading predicts abnormal returns in some ETFs suggests that aggregated insider trading is likely to have predictive power for financial assets traded in less efficient markets. My analysis depends on specialized insider trading data covering 88 countries is generously provided by 2iQ.

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2014-05

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Leveraged Buyouts: An Examination of Modeling Techniques and Transaction Structures

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This thesis provides an in-depth comparison of the attractiveness of leveraged buyout (LBO) transactions under low versus high interest rates. In particular, our analysis focuses on how London Interbank Offered Rates (LIBOR) affect internal rates of return for hypothetical LBO

This thesis provides an in-depth comparison of the attractiveness of leveraged buyout (LBO) transactions under low versus high interest rates. In particular, our analysis focuses on how London Interbank Offered Rates (LIBOR) affect internal rates of return for hypothetical LBO transactions, assuming financing structure and operational enhancements for the individual transactions are held constant. Given that LIBOR rates are currently at historically low levels, we model four hypothetical LBO transactions in the specialty retail space using both historically high and currently low LIBOR rates (for a total of eight model outputs). We quantify the extent to which high rates have the potential to decrease LBO value, while low rates may enhance value. Through this thesis, we have obtained a better understanding of LBO transaction modeling, an understanding that will make us more effective as professionals in investment banking. Finally, this thesis can serve as a step-by-step guide to LBOs for undergraduate finance students, particularly for members of the Investment Banking Industry Scholars (IBIS) program at Arizona State University.

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2014-05

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Monetization of E-Sports

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The current model of revenue generation for some free to play video games is preventing the companies controlling them from growing, but with a few changes in approach these issues could be alleviated. A new style of video games, called

The current model of revenue generation for some free to play video games is preventing the companies controlling them from growing, but with a few changes in approach these issues could be alleviated. A new style of video games, called a MOBA (Massive Online Battle Arena) has emerged in the past few years bringing with it a new style of generating wealth. Contrary to past gaming models, where users must either purchase the game outright, view advertisements, or purchase items to gain a competitive advantage, MOBAs require no payment of any kind. These are free to play computer games that provides users with all the tools necessary to compete with anyone free of charge; no advantages can be purchased in this game. This leaves the only way for users to provide money to the company through optional purchases of purely aesthetic items, only to be purchased if the buyer wishes to see their character in a different set of attire. The genre’s best in show—called League of Legends, or LOL—has spearheaded this method of revenue-generation. Fortunately for LOL, its level of popularity has reached levels never seen in video games: the world championships had more viewers than game 7 of the NBA Finals (Dorsey). The player base alone is enough to keep the company afloat currently, but the fact that they only convert 3.75% of the players into revenue is alarming. Each player brings the company an average of $1.32, or 30% of what some other free to play games earn per user (Comparing MMO). It is this low per player income that has caused Riot Games, the developer of LOL, to state that their e-sports division is not currently profitable. To resolve this issue, LOL must take on a more aggressive marketing plan. Advertisements for the NBA Finals cost $460,000 for 30 seconds, and LOL should aim for ads in this range (Lombardo). With an average of 3 million people logged on at any time, 90% of the players being male and 85% being between the ages of 16 and 30, advertising via this game would appeal to many companies, making a deal easy to strike (LOL infographic 2012). The idea also appeals to players: 81% of players surveyed said that an advertisement on the client that allows for the option to place an order would improve or not impact their experience. Moving forward with this, the gaming client would be updated to contain both an option to order pizza and an advertisement for Mountain Dew. This type of advertising was determined based on community responses through a sequence of survey questions. These small adjustments to the game would allow LOL to generate enough income for Riot Games to expand into other areas of the e-sports industry.

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2015-05