Matching Items (11)

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Evaluation of EpiFinder App: An Epilepsy Diagnostic Tool

Description

Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease that affects one in twenty-six people. Despite this prevalence, it is very difficult to diagnose. EpiFinder, Inc. has created an app to better diagnose

Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease that affects one in twenty-six people. Despite this prevalence, it is very difficult to diagnose. EpiFinder, Inc. has created an app to better diagnose epilepsy through the use of an epilepsy focused ontology and a heuristic algorithm. Throughout this project, efforts were made to improve the user interface and robustness of the EpiFinder app in order to ease usability and increase diagnostic accuracy. A general workflow of the app was created to aid new users with navigation of the app’s screens. Additionally, numerous diagnostic guidelines provided by the International League Against Epilepsy as well as de-identified case studies were annotated using the Knowtator plug-in in Protégé 3.3.1, where new terms not currently represented in the seizure and epilepsy syndrome ontology (ESSO) were identified for future integration into the ontology. This will help to increase the confidence level of the differential diagnosis reached. A basic evaluation of the user interface was done to provide feedback for the developers for future iterations of the app. Significant efforts were also made for better incorporation of the app into a physician’s typical workflow. For instance, an ontology of a basic review of systems of a medical history was built in Protégé 4.2 for later integration with the ESSO, which will help to increase efficiency and familiarity of the app for physician users. Finally, feedback regarding utility of the app was gathered from an epilepsy support group. These points will be taken into consideration for development of patient-based features in future versions of the EpiFinder app. It is the hope that these various improvements of the app will contribute to a more efficient, more accurate diagnosis of epilepsy patients, resulting in more appropriate treatments and an overall increased quality of life.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Research, Medicine, and Patients

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis a difficult and rarely uniform task. Currently, ASD is behaviorally diagnosed based on criteria defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Recently, a change was made in the criteria from more lenient criteria in DSM-IV-TR, to more narrow criteria laid out by the DSM-V, which supersedes the DSM-IV-TR. This drastic change raised many questions and debates about which set of criteria are better. The more lenient criteria offers a more inclusive diagnosis giving greater access to therapies; while the narrow diagnostic criteria excludes some individuals, creating a more uniform diagnosis that's easier to use in research. This thesis analyzes the change in diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-V and the effects of these changes on the practices of diagnosis. In addition, it explores the implications of this change for the families of children with autism and for those involved in autism research, examining their respective opinions and interests pertaining to narrow verses broad diagnostic criteria. Building on this analysis, the thesis offers recommendations about diagnostic criteria should be set. It argues that the wellbeing of patients takes priority over the interests of researchers, and thus diagnosis should be done in a way that offers the best prognosis for all children who suffer from autistic symptoms.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Portrayal of Clients with Eating Disorders by Gender, Weight, and Diagnosis in Foundational Psychiatric Nursing Textbooks from 2017 to Present

Description

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine recent nursing textbooks’ portrayal of gender, weight, and diagnosis in eating disorder exemplars, and compare the textbook presentation to prevalence rates

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine recent nursing textbooks’ portrayal of gender, weight, and diagnosis in eating disorder exemplars, and compare the textbook presentation to prevalence rates as published within the textbooks themselves.

CONTEXT: Eating disorders are often portrayed as afflicting underweight women with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Demographics of people outside this stereotype face health disparities in illness recognition and treatment. Passive exposure to information on eating disorders can reduce stereotypical beliefs among nursing students, which has the potential to improve patient care.

METHOD: Case studies, practice questions, vignettes, and care plans from eight psychiatric nursing textbooks were analyzed for portrayal of the three research variables.

DATA and RESULTS: Men were not significantly underrepresented in the exemplars. Transgender clients, clients of normal or overweight status, and clients with diagnoses other than anorexia nervosa were significantly underrepresented from eating disorder exemplars.

CONCLUSION: Textbooks should be adjusted to include more exemplars from underrepresented demographics of clients with eating disorders.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

Introducing Child Life into the Classroom: A Curriculum for Teachers on Common Childhood Diagnosis

Description

When earning a teaching certification, there is no curriculum when it comes to the treatment of students with a diagnosis as well as how to educate their fellow classmates. Diagnoses

When earning a teaching certification, there is no curriculum when it comes to the treatment of students with a diagnosis as well as how to educate their fellow classmates. Diagnoses affect the process of child development of the diagnosed as well as the friends and family. Children of all different ages have different responses and reactions to the world of health. Looking at a developmental perspective, teachers can properly educate themselves and their students about these diagnoses. To be able to successfully inform students of diagnoses, there must be an overall understanding of how well they are able to acquire the knowledge. According to Jean Piaget, a key researcher in cognitive development, the age of the child correlates with their overall understanding and comprehension. In his theory, he explained how he believed that the environment of an organism affects how it will respond and adapt to the situations at hand. There are four stages that are connected to age, from infancy to adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, this project will focus on school-age children who are in the concrete operational stage. The concrete operational stage is made up of elementary and early adolescents and focuses on intelligence that is demonstrated through logical and precise thinking of concrete ideas (Huitt, W., & Hummel, J, 2003). This type of thinking applies to all parts of the child’s life and informs their behaviors on how to “adapt” to new information. Knowing this information, we will be able to create a curriculum of lectures, informational videos, worksheets and quizzes that can properly assess the student’s and their knowledge of the diagnoses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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FIRMA: Force Impact Recognition Mouth Guard for Athletes, a Validation Study

Description

Concussions and traumatic brain injuries are mechanical events which can derive from no specific activity or event. However, these injuries occur often during athletic and sporting events but many athletes

Concussions and traumatic brain injuries are mechanical events which can derive from no specific activity or event. However, these injuries occur often during athletic and sporting events but many athletes experiencing these symptoms go undiagnosed and continue playing without proper medical attention. The current gold standard for diagnosing athletes with concussions is to have medical professionals on the sidelines of events to perform qualitative standardized assessments which may not be performed frequently enough and are not specialized for each athlete. The purpose of this report is to discuss a study sanctioned by Arizona State University's Project HoneyBee and additional affiliations to validate a third-party mouth guard device product to recognize and detect force impacts blown to an athlete's head during athletic activity. Current technology in health monitoring medical devices can allow users to apply this device as an additional safety mechanism for early concussion awareness and diagnosis. This report includes the materials and methods used for experimentation, the discussion of its results, and the complications which occurred and areas for improvement during the preliminary efforts of this project. Participants in the study were five non-varsity ASU Wrestling athletes who volunteered to wear a third-party mouth guard device during sparring contact at practice. Following a needed calibration period for the devices, results were recorded both through visual observation and with the mouth guard devices using an accelerometer and gyroscope. This study provided a sound understanding for the operation and functionality of the mouth guard devices. The mouth guard devices have the capability to provide fundamental avenues of research for future investigations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Prenatal Testing and Behavioral Genetics

Description

The knowledge of medical genetics is currently used with prenatal testing, and the advancements in the field of behavioral genetics may someday allow for its use with prenatal testing as

The knowledge of medical genetics is currently used with prenatal testing, and the advancements in the field of behavioral genetics may someday allow for its use with prenatal testing as well. The use of prenatal procedures for medical phenotypes has its own implications and should these techniques be used for behavioral phenotypes, such implications can also apply. The complexity of behavior in terms of the factors that may affect it, along with the way it is conceptualized and perceived, adds further implications for prenatal testing of it. In this thesis, I discuss the qualitative, quantitative, and historical facets of prenatal testing for medical and behavioral phenotypes and the undercurrent of eugenics. I do so by presenting an example of the medical phenotype (cystic fibrosis) as a case for envisioning the implications of medical phenotypes before delving into examples of behavioral phenotypes (aggression, impulsivity, extraversion, and neuroticism) in order to explore the implications shared with those for medical phenotypes as well as those unique to it. These implications then set the foundation for a discussion of eugenics, and the considerations for how behavioral genetics with prenatal testing may give way to a modern form of it.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The influence of psychological assessment language on counselor trainees' evaluations of client characteristics

Description

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in an unfavorable light. Logically, the opinions of subsequent therapists may then be influenced by reading these assessments, resulting in negative attitudes toward clients, inaccurate diagnoses, adverse experiences for clients, and poor therapeutic outcomes. However, little current research exists that addresses this issue. This study analyzed the degree to which strength-based, deficit-based, and neutral language used in psychological assessments influenced the opinions of counselor trainees (N= 116). It was hypothesized that participants assigned to each type of assessment would describe the client using adjectives that closely conformed to the language used in the assessment they received. The hypothesis was confirmed (p = .000), indicating significant mean differences between all three groups. Limitations and implications of the study were identified and suggestions for further research were discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Immunosignature of Alzheimer's disease

Description

The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This

The goal of this thesis is to test whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with distinctive humoral immune changes that can be detected in plasma and tracked across time. This is relevant because AD is the principal cause of dementia, and yet, no specific diagnostic tests are universally employed in clinical practice to predict, diagnose or monitor disease progression. In particular, I describe herein a proteomic platform developed at the Center for Innovations in Medicine (CIM) consisting of a slide with 10.000 random-sequence peptides printed on its surface, which is used as the solid phase of an immunoassay where antibodies of interest are allowed to react and subsequently detected with a labeled secondary antibody. The pattern of antibody binding to the microarray is unique for each individual animal or person. This thesis will evaluate the versatility of the microarray platform and how it can be used to detect and characterize the binding patterns of antibodies relevant to the pathophysiology of AD as well as the plasma samples of animal models of AD and elderly humans with or without dementia. My specific aims were to evaluate the emergence and stability of immunosignature in mice with cerebral amyloidosis, and characterize the immunosignature of humans with AD. Plasma samples from APPswe/PSEN1-dE9 transgenic mice were evaluated longitudinally from 2 to 15 months of age to compare the evolving immunosignature with non-transgenic control mice. Immunological variation across different time-points was assessed, with particular emphasis on time of emergence of a characteristic pattern. In addition, plasma samples from AD patients and age-matched individuals without dementia were assayed on the peptide microarray and binding patterns were compared. It is hoped that these experiments will be the basis for a larger study of the diagnostic merits of the microarray-based immunoassay in dementia clinics.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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How Does Technology Development Influence the Assessment of Parkinson’s Disease? A Systematic Review

Description

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with complicated and disabling motor and non-motor symptoms. The pathology for PD is difficult and expensive. Furthermore, it depends on patient

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with complicated and disabling motor and non-motor symptoms. The pathology for PD is difficult and expensive. Furthermore, it depends on patient diaries and the neurologist’s subjective assessment of clinical scales. Objective, accurate, and continuous patient monitoring have become possible with the advancement in mobile and portable equipment. Consequently, a significant amount of work has been done to explore new cost-effective and subjective assessment methods or PD symptoms. For example, smart technologies, such as wearable sensors and optical motion capturing systems, have been used to analyze the symptoms of a PD patient to assess their disease progression and even to detect signs in their nascent stage for early diagnosis of PD.

This review focuses on the use of modern equipment for PD applications that were developed in the last decade. Four significant fields of research were identified: Assistance diagnosis, Prognosis or Monitoring of Symptoms and their Severity, Predicting Response to Treatment, and Assistance to Therapy or Rehabilitation. This study reviews the papers published between January 2008 and December 2018 in the following four databases: Pubmed Central, Science Direct, IEEE Xplore and MDPI. After removing unrelated articles, ones published in languages other than English, duplicate entries and other articles that did not fulfill the selection criteria, 778 papers were manually investigated and included in this review. A general overview of PD applications, devices used and aspects monitored for PD management is provided in this systematic review.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Integrated structural health management of complex carbon fiber reinforced composite structures

Description

Structural health management (SHM) is emerging as a vital methodology to help engineers improve the safety and maintainability of critical structures. SHM systems are designed to reliably monitor and test

Structural health management (SHM) is emerging as a vital methodology to help engineers improve the safety and maintainability of critical structures. SHM systems are designed to reliably monitor and test the health and performance of structures in aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering applications. SHM combines multidisciplinary technologies including sensing, signal processing, pattern recognition, data mining, high fidelity probabilistic progressive damage models, physics based damage models, and regression analysis. Due to the wide application of carbon fiber reinforced composites and their multiscale failure mechanisms, it is necessary to emphasize the research of SHM on composite structures. This research develops a comprehensive framework for the damage detection, localization, quantification, and prediction of the remaining useful life of complex composite structures. To interrogate a composite structure, guided wave propagation is applied to thin structures such as beams and plates. Piezoelectric transducers are selected because of their versatility, which allows them to be used as sensors and actuators. Feature extraction from guided wave signals is critical to demonstrate the presence of damage and estimate the damage locations. Advanced signal processing techniques are employed to extract robust features and information. To provide a better estimate of the damage for accurate life estimation, probabilistic regression analysis is used to obtain a prediction model for the prognosis of complex structures subject to fatigue loading. Special efforts have been applied to the extension of SHM techniques on aerospace and spacecraft structures, such as UAV composite wings and deployable composite boom structures. Necessary modifications of the developed SHM techniques were conducted to meet the unique requirements of the aerospace structures. The developed SHM algorithms are able to accurately detect and quantify impact damages as well as matrix cracking introduced.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012