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Financial Intelligence Pays Off: A Personal Guide to Finance for Students

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Financial Intelligence Pays Off blog is an easy to use blog for high school juniors and seniors and college students to access in order to receive a quick overview of essential financial topics. There are many sources and college courses

Financial Intelligence Pays Off blog is an easy to use blog for high school juniors and seniors and college students to access in order to receive a quick overview of essential financial topics. There are many sources and college courses for students to take to get a more in-depth understanding of topics such as saving, filing taxes, learning about credit but many times students do not know about these courses. However, it is often that courses are restricted to students who are business majors and online sources sometimes use to technical of terminology for young adults to follow along. The goal of this blog is for it to give students just a quick overview of what taxes are, how to manage and have a good credit score, how to keep a budget and other essential financial tasks. There are five topics covered in the blog as well as resources for students to access if they would like more information on a topic.

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2018-12

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A Study on Occupational Fraud within Small Businesses

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The main goal of this study was to understand the awareness of small business owners regarding occupational fraud, meaning fraud committed from within an organization. A survey/questionnaire was used to gather insight into the knowledge and perceptions of small business

The main goal of this study was to understand the awareness of small business owners regarding occupational fraud, meaning fraud committed from within an organization. A survey/questionnaire was used to gather insight into the knowledge and perceptions of small business owners, while also obtaining information about the history of fraud and the internal controls within their business. Twenty-four owners of businesses with less than 100 employees participated in the study. The results suggest that small business owners overestimate their knowledge regarding internal controls and occupational fraud, while also underestimating the risk of fraud within their own business. In fact, 92% of participants were not at all familiar with the popular Internal Control \u2014 Integrated Framework published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. The results also show that small business owners tend to overestimate the protection provided by their currently implemented controls in regard to their risk of fraud. Overall, through continued knowledge of internal controls and occupational fraud, business owners can better protect their businesses from the risk of occupational fraud by increasing their awareness of fraud.

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2014-05

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Housing as a Mandate Not a Goal in Arizona The Arizona Housing Crisis: Affordable and Accessible Housing

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In the long term, there is evidence that accessible and affordable housing is crucial to the health, wealth and sustainability of a community (Enterprise, 2014). In Arizona, the ramifications of regressive tax policies and discriminatory zoning and credit practices have

In the long term, there is evidence that accessible and affordable housing is crucial to the health, wealth and sustainability of a community (Enterprise, 2014). In Arizona, the ramifications of regressive tax policies and discriminatory zoning and credit practices have led to what has been termed an “affordable housing crisis” where Arizona is ranked the third worst in the nation for affordable housing (NLIHC, 2020). The research grapples with the policies and history of housing in Arizona, with specific focus on the policies regarding lending, tax and zoning. Access to opportunities and resources (food, health, etc.) is significantly related to housing, thus exploring what kind of homes are available to whom and where those homes are located is critical to understanding the disparate barriers inadequate housing imposes and the impact housing has. To understand this we must understand the role of the state in ensuring an equitable housing market, and the intimacies of what is already happening at local level. The goal is to explore sustainable solutions that can bridge the affordable housing gap and provide protections for residents in the volatile housing market.

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2021-05

The CARES Act: Analyzing America's $2 Trillion Stimulus Package and Investing the Motivations and Results of the PPP Loan Program

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The PPP Loan Program was created by the CARES Act and carried out by the Small Business Administration (SBA) to provide support to small businesses in maintaining their payroll during the Coronavirus pandemic. This program was approved for $350 billion,

The PPP Loan Program was created by the CARES Act and carried out by the Small Business Administration (SBA) to provide support to small businesses in maintaining their payroll during the Coronavirus pandemic. This program was approved for $350 billion, but this amount was expanded by an additional $320 billion to meet the demand by struggling businesses, since initial funding was exhausted under two weeks.<br/><br/>Significant controversy surrounds the program. In December 2020, the Department of Justice reported 90 individuals were charged for fraudulent use of funds, totaling $250 million. The loans, which were intended for small business, were actually approved for 450 public companies. Furthermore, the methods of approval are<br/>shrouded in mystery. In an effort to be transparent, the SBA has released information about loan recipients. Conveniently, the SBA has released information of all recipients. Detailed information was released for 661,218 recipients who have received a PPP loan in excess of $150,000. These recipients are the central point of this research.<br/><br/>This research sought to answer two primary questions: how did the SBA determine which loans, and therefore which industries are approved, and did the industries most affected by the pandemic receive the most in PPP loans, as intended by Congress? It was determined that, generally, PPP Loans were approved on the basis of employment percentages relative to the individual state. Furthermore, in general, the loans approved were approved fairly, with respect to the size of the industry. The loans, when adjusted for GDP and Employment factors, yielded a clear ranking that prioritized vulnerable industries first.<br/><br/>However, significant questions remain. The effectiveness of the PPP has been hindered by unclear incentives and negative outcomes, characterized by a government program that has essentially been rushed into service. Furthermore, limitations of available data to regress and compare the SBA's approved loans are not representative of small business.

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2021-05

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An Analysis of Income’s Role in the Arizona Public School Tax Credit

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Over the years from 2009 to 2017, the people of Arizona witnessed the state consistently defunding the schools, its students academically underperforming, and as a result, the poverty achievement gap widening. Even with the efforts in recent years to re-invest

Over the years from 2009 to 2017, the people of Arizona witnessed the state consistently defunding the schools, its students academically underperforming, and as a result, the poverty achievement gap widening. Even with the efforts in recent years to re-invest in education, Arizona’s education funding falls below its level at 2008 and the national average. Among Arizona’s funding sources is the Public School Tax Credit, a unique legislation for the state that allows for taxpayers to donate money to certain programs at Arizona public schools and reduce their state income tax liability dollar-for-dollar. Because of the already severe achievement gap in Arizona, this funding source which relies on surrounding neighborhoods’ income raises the concern that, instead of helping Arizona students, it is exacerbating the existing achievement gap. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between income and donations received by schools to determine the validity of this concern. To ensure a comprehensive examination of the relationship between income and donations received, regression tests are run on both the aggregate level and individual level. The tests find that, although income does have a statistically significant correlation with the donations received, it is only positive for the effect of total income on total donations, negative for the effect of average income per return on average donation per donor, and negative for average income per return on total donations. The results imply that to garner high donations, it matters less to be located in a high-earning neighborhood and more important to be located in a moderate-earning neighborhood with a lot of people donating using this credit. Therefore, the concern of income’s effect on donations is valid, but perhaps not in the straightforward way that we would expect.

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2020-12

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Internal Controls at a Startup Yoga Studio: No Flexible Matter

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Within this paper I summarize the key features, and results, of research conducted to support the development, design, and implementation of an internal control system at a startup small business. These efforts were conducted for an Honors Thesis/Creative Project for

Within this paper I summarize the key features, and results, of research conducted to support the development, design, and implementation of an internal control system at a startup small business. These efforts were conducted for an Honors Thesis/Creative Project for Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University. The research revolved around deciding which financial policies, procedures, and safeguards could be useful in creating an internal control system for small businesses. In addition to academic research, I developed an “Internal Control Questionnaire” for use as a ‘jumping off point’ in conversations about a business’ existing accounting system. This questionnaire is applicable across many industries, covering the major topics which every small business/startup should consider.

The questionnaire was then used in conjunction with two interviews of small business owners. The interviews covered both the overall financial status of their business and their business’ pre-existing accounting system. The feedback received during these interviews was subsequently used to provide the business owners with eleven recommendations ranging from the implementation of new policies to verification of existing internal controls.

Finally, I summarize my findings, both academic and real-world, conveying that many small business owners do not implement formal internal control systems. I also discuss why the business owners, in this specific circumstance, did not yet implement the aforementioned eleven suggestions.

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Date Created
2019-05