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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

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Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

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Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013

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Application of Ultrasound in Regeneration of Adsorbents

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Desorption processes are an important part of all processes which involve utilization of solid adsorbents such as adsorption cooling, sorption thermal energy storage, and drying and dehumidification processes and are inherently energy-intensive. Here, how those energy requirements can be

Desorption processes are an important part of all processes which involve utilization of solid adsorbents such as adsorption cooling, sorption thermal energy storage, and drying and dehumidification processes and are inherently energy-intensive. Here, how those energy requirements can be reduced through the application of ultrasound for three widely used adsorbents namely zeolite 13X, activated alumina and silica gel is investigated. To determine and justify the effectiveness of incorporating ultrasound from an energy-savings point of view, an approach of constant overall input power of 20 and 25 W was adopted. To measure the extent of the effectiveness of using ultrasound, the ultrasonic-power-to-total power ratios of 0.2, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 were investigated and the results compared with those of no-ultrasound (heat only) at the same total power. Duplicate experiments were performed at three nominal frequencies of 28, 40 and 80 kHz to observe the influence of frequency on regeneration dynamics. Regarding moisture removal, application of ultrasound results in higher desorption rate compared to a non-ultrasound process. A nonlinear inverse proportionality was observed between the effectiveness of ultrasound and the frequency at which it is applied. Based on the variation of desorption dynamics with ultrasonic power and frequency, three mechanisms of reduced adsorbate adsorption potential, increased adsorbate surface energy and enhanced mass diffusion are proposed. Two analytical models that describe the desorption process were developed based on the experimental data from which novel efficiency metrics were proposed, which can be employed to justify incorporating ultrasound in regeneration and drying processes.

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Date Created
2021