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Augmenting Protocols for In-situ Separation of Biocompounds.

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In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative processes for acquiring the final product have been developed but

In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative processes for acquiring the final product have been developed but still need work. One product that is valuable is butanol. The normal process for butanol production is very intensive but there is a method to produce butanol from bacteria. This process is better because it is more environmentally safe than using oil. One problem however is that when the bacteria produce too much butanol it reaches the toxicity limit and stops the production of butanol. In order to keep butanol from reaching the toxicity limit an adsorbent is used to remove the butanol without harming the bacteria. The adsorbent is a mesoporous carbon powder that allows the butanol to be adsorbed on it. This thesis explores different designs for a magnetic separation process to extract the carbon powder from the culture.

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2015-05

Strategies for Recovery of Biosynthetic Styrene

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Styrene, a component of many rubber products, is currently synthesized from petroleum in a highly energy-intensive process. The Nielsen Laboratory at Arizona State has demonstrated a biochemical pathway by which E. coli can be engineered to produce styrene from the

Styrene, a component of many rubber products, is currently synthesized from petroleum in a highly energy-intensive process. The Nielsen Laboratory at Arizona State has demonstrated a biochemical pathway by which E. coli can be engineered to produce styrene from the amino acid phenylalanine, which E. coli naturally synthesizes from glucose. However, styrene becomes toxic to E. coli above concentrations of 300 mg/L, severely limiting the large-scale applicability of the pathway. Thus, styrene must somehow be continuously removed from the system to facilitate higher yields and for the purposes of scale-up. The separation methods of pervaporation and solvent extraction were investigated to this end. Furthermore, the styrene pathway was extended by one step to produce styrene oxide, which is less volatile than styrene and theoretically simpler to recover. Adsorption of styrene oxide using the hydrophobic resin L-493 was attempted in order to improve the yield of styrene oxide and to provide additional proof of concept that the flux through the styrene pathway can be increased. The maximum styrene titer achieved was 1.2 g/L using the method of solvent extraction, but this yield was only possible when additional phenylalanine was supplemented to the system.

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2013-05

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Modeling and analysis on pervaporation separation of composite zeolite membranes

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Pervaporation is a membrane separation technology that has had industrial application and which is the subject of ongoing research. Two major factors are important in judging the quality of a membrane: selectivity and permeation flux. Although many types of materials

Pervaporation is a membrane separation technology that has had industrial application and which is the subject of ongoing research. Two major factors are important in judging the quality of a membrane: selectivity and permeation flux. Although many types of materials can be used for the separation layer, zeolites will be the material considered in this thesis. A simple mathematical model has been developed to demonstrate the inter-relationships between relative permeation flux, reduced selectivity, and the relative resistance to mass transfer of the support to the zeolite layer. The model was applied to several membranes from our laboratory and to two examples from the literature. The model offers a useful way of conceptualizing membrane performance and facilitates the comparison of different membrane performances. The model predicts the effect of different supports on zeolite supported membrane performance.

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2014

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Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-71/PDMS membranes for biofuel separation

Description

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high alcohol permeabilities and selectivities.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs)

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high alcohol permeabilities and selectivities.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have

demonstrated very promising results. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-71 (ZIF-71)

demonstrated promising alcohol separation abilities. In this dissertation, we present

fundamental studies on the synthesis of ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs.

Free-standing ZIF-71/ PDMS membranes with 0, 5, 25 and 40 wt % ZIF-71

loadings were prepared and the pervaporation separation for ethanol and 1-butanol from

water was measured. ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs were formed through addition cure and

condensation cure methods. Addition cure method was not compatible with ZIF-71

resulting in membranes with poor mechanical properties, while the condensation cure

method resulted in membranes with good mechanical properties. The 40 wt % ZIF-71

loading PDMS nanocomposite membranes achieved a maximum ethanol/water selectivity

of 0.81 ± 0.04 selectivity and maximum 1-butnaol/water selectivity of 5.64 ± 0.15.

The effects of synthesis time, temperature, and reactant ratio on ZIF-71 particle

size and the effect of particle size on membrane performance were studied. Temperature

had the greatest effect on ZIF-71 particle size as the synthesis temperature varied from -

20 to 35 ºC. The ZIF-71 synthesized had particle diameters ranging from 150 nm to 1

μm. ZIF-71 particle size is critical in ZIF-71/PDMS composite membrane performance

for alcohol removal from water through pervaporation. The membranes made with

micron sized ZIF-71 particles showed higher alcohol/water selectivity than those with

smaller particles. Both alcohol and water permeability increased when larger sized ZIF-

71 particles were incorporated.

ZIF-71 particles were modified with four ligands through solvent assisted linker

exchange (SALE) method: benzimidazole (BIM), 5-methylbenzimidazole (MBIM), 5,6-

dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBIM) and 4-Phenylimidazole (PI). The morphology of ZIF-

71 were maintained after the modification. ZIF-71/PDMS composite membranes with 25

wt% loading modified ZIF-71 particles were made for alcohol/water separation. Better

particle dispersion in PDMS polymer matrix was observed with the ligand modified ZIFs.

For both ethanol/water and 1-butanol/water separations, the alcohol permeability and

alcohol/water selectivity were lowered after the ZIF-71 ligand exchange reaction.

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2017