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Feedback, affect, and creative behavior: a multi-level model linking feedback to performance

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Researchers lament that feedback interventions often fail. Traditional theories assume a cognitive relationship between the receipt of feedback and its impact on employee performance. I offer a theoretical model derived from Affective Events and Broaden and Build Theories to shed

Researchers lament that feedback interventions often fail. Traditional theories assume a cognitive relationship between the receipt of feedback and its impact on employee performance. I offer a theoretical model derived from Affective Events and Broaden and Build Theories to shed new light on the feedback-performance relationship. I bridge the two primary streams of feedback literature-the passive receipt and active seeking-to examine how employees' affective responses to feedback drive how they use feedback to improve performance. I develop and test a model whereby supervisor developmental feedback and coworker feedback seeking relate to the positivity ratio (the ratio of positive as compared to negative affect), enabling them to be more creative and thus improving their performance. I test my model using Experience Sampling Methodology with a sample of MBA students over a two week working period.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Social Enterprises: What Allows them to be Successful

Description

Social enterprises strive to tackle social problems, improve the lives of the people around them and help create a sustainable environment. Three specific enterprises will be analyzed to illustrate the differences between management styles, mission, financials and overall successes. There

Social enterprises strive to tackle social problems, improve the lives of the people around them and help create a sustainable environment. Three specific enterprises will be analyzed to illustrate the differences between management styles, mission, financials and overall successes. There are numerous social enterprises in the southwest of the United States of America, some show more success than others, but what separates them? What commonalities do some of these enterprises share that allow them to be more successful than the rest? Is there a common denominator for enterprises to follow that will allow them to have success financially as well as accomplish their goals to better the community around them? Free Arts for Abused Children or Arizona, Seed Spot and Goodmans, we are able to better distinguish what factors allow enterprises to succeed. Due to the nature of social enterprises being able to be qualified as different types of organizations, i.e., company with shareholders, nonprofit organizations, etc. it is difficult to pin point a concrete model social enterprises should follow today. However, a finding that made all three of these social enterprises successful were their governance and ownership structures. Each enterprise consisted of a board that helped the enterprise stay on track with their given mission. Boards are also responsible for making major decisions that can impact the organization as well as being responsible for fundraising and making various financial decisions. After analyzing their structures, it was evident that all three enterprises consisted of strong governance structures. Although enterprises may not be able to follow a distinct model in order to be successful, they are able to place a board in control that aligns with the social enterprises mission and has a variety of knowledge that allows the board to make sound decisions. Keywords: social enterprise, management, governance, success, mission, financials

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Date Created
2016-12

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Adapting leader behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness: a mindful approach to situational leadership

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This study develops a theoretical model that explains how leaders come to adapt their leadership behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness. Mindfulness theory suggests that mindful individuals are better able to engage in self-regulation and I consider empathy, response flexibility, and

This study develops a theoretical model that explains how leaders come to adapt their leadership behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness. Mindfulness theory suggests that mindful individuals are better able to engage in self-regulation and I consider empathy, response flexibility, and emotional regulation as three self-regulatory processes in particular which likely impact the leader-follower relationship. I suggest that leaders who have the ability to self-regulate in these three ways will be better able to engage in leadership behavior characterized by adapting or flexing the specific types of leadership they demonstrate according to the needs of the situation and what their followers most require at a given time to perform at their best. When followers receive the type of situationally-appropriate support in the form of leader behavior, they are more effective (e.g. have higher job performance and extra-role performance). I validate a new trait and state measure of workplace mindfulness with multiple samples and utilize this new scale to collect data from leaders and followers from a government organization to test the theoretical relationships proposed in this study. I utilize an experience sampling methodology (ESM) design over 10 days to investigate the within-leader variation among variables in the study given theory suggesting the dynamic nature of the mindfulness, self-regulation, and situational leadership constructs which may not adequately be captured when data are collected at one point in time. Finally, I introduce organizational constraints as a moderator of the relationship between leader mindfulness and leader self- regulation in order to understand how stressors and strains outside the control of a leader may overload a leader’s ability to ultimately self-regulate his/her behavior.

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Date Created
2015

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Exploring supervisor responses to employees who share bad news: why and under what conditions are messengers shot?

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Employees are directly involved in work tasks and processes which are necessary to accomplish unit or organizational goals, and accordingly, they may become aware of key mistakes, slips, and failures that are unbeknownst to the leader or supervisor responsible for

Employees are directly involved in work tasks and processes which are necessary to accomplish unit or organizational goals, and accordingly, they may become aware of key mistakes, slips, and failures that are unbeknownst to the leader or supervisor responsible for the work unit or organization. Given that errors or deviations in work tasks or processes can have far-reaching effects within the organization, it may be essential for employees to share bad news with their leader or supervisor so that steps can be taken to address the issue or ameliorate negative consequences. However, although employees' sharing of bad news may be important to the organization and should be encouraged, supervisors may respond to the messenger in ways that discourage the behavior. Unfortunately, we lack an explanation of why and under what conditions supervisors respond positively or negatively to employees who share bad news. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to address this gap in our understanding. I draw from social exchange theory and the transactional theory of stress to develop a conceptual model of sharing bad news. I suggest that sharing bad news can be cast as a transaction between employees and supervisors that is mediated by supervisors’ appraisals of employees’ sharing the message. The quality of the relationship between an employee and supervisor, or leader-member exchange (LMX), is strengthened when supervisors appraise the sharing of bad news as challenging, or potentially rewarding; however, LMX is weakened when supervisors appraise the sharing of bad news as hindering, or potential harmful. In turn, LMX influences supervisor responses to the sharing of bad news in the form of evaluations of the employee’s effectiveness. In addition to these main effects, I also consider how aspects of the message delivery, such as the timeliness with which messages are conveyed and extent to which employees incorporate solutions when they share bad news, can influence supervisor appraisals of sharing bad news. Finally, I suggest that the extent to which the messenger is responsible for the bad news moderates the relationships between appraisals of sharing bad news and LMX. I test this model in three studies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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Employee authenticity's influence on engagement, coworker interactions, and perceived effectiveness

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I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel they display their true selves at work, they can more

I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel they display their true selves at work, they can more fully employ their physical, cognitive and emotional energies in their work roles, which in turn leads to higher levels of employee effectiveness (e.g., task performance, perceived value to the organization, and promotability). In addition to this personal motivational process, individuals who are more authentic also develop high-quality relationships with their coworkers, thereby receiving more instrumental support and minimizing the antagonistic encounters they have with their colleagues. Both types of coworker interactions should, in turn, also influence the focal individual's effectiveness at work. Finally, I hypothesize that the relationships between authenticity and these relational and effectiveness outcomes are moderated by certain personality traits, such that when an individual is highly narcissistic, has very low self-esteem, or has strongly held values or beliefs generally perceived to be negative or deviant, the relationships change: authenticity's positive influence on coworker instrumental support becomes less positive, and authenticity's negative influence on coworker incivility becomes less negative. These moderation effects are expected for employee effectiveness as well. The sample used to test these hypotheses consisted of 102 employees and their 16 supervisors from two private companies headquartered in the Southwest United States. Authenticity was found to be positively associated with employee engagement, coworker instrumental support, and employee effectiveness, and negatively associated with coworker incivility. Once other factors were controlled for, significant relationships remained with employee engagement and coworker support. Contrary to expectations, neither engagement nor coworker interactions mediated the authenticity-employee effectiveness relationship. A dark side of authenticity was found for two of the three personality traits: self-esteem moderated the relationship between authenticity and coworker instrumental support, such that when self-esteem was low, the relationship between authenticity and coworker support was significantly weaker. Additionally, narcissism moderated the relationship between authenticity and employee effectiveness such that when narcissism was low, the relationship between authenticity and effectiveness was positive, but when narcissism was high, the relationship became negative.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Examining Forms of Informal Leadership (Non)Emergence and Their Differential Consequences

Description

This dissertation addresses two issues in the literature on informal leadership emergence (i.e., the process of an individual without a formal leadership position coming to exert leadership influence over others). First, scholars have focused on situations in which a focal

This dissertation addresses two issues in the literature on informal leadership emergence (i.e., the process of an individual without a formal leadership position coming to exert leadership influence over others). First, scholars have focused on situations in which a focal person’s leadership claiming is aligned with a peer’s leadership granting. In doing so, past work has overlooked instances of misalignment, that is, when a focal person claims more leadership than a peer grants (i.e., overclaiming) or when a peer grants more leadership than a focal person claims (i.e., underclaiming). Second, the consensus in the literature suggests that emerging as an informal leader provides more beneficial outcomes to the individual and their team than non-emerging. However, I argue that this assumption may not be warranted in some situations, for example when a focal person’s lack of claiming is aligned with a peer’s lack of granting. Drawing on the leadership identity claiming and granting framework, I postulate four forms of informal leadership (non)emergence, namely (1) dyadic emergent leadership, (2) dyadic leadership absence, (3) overclaiming, and (4) underclaiming. Based on role theory, I then build theory regarding their effects on behavioral consequences through affective and cognitive mechanisms. More precisely, I suggest that forms characterized by congruence in leadership claiming and granting (as opposed to forms characterized by incongruence) result in increased peer backing-up behavior towards the focal person (mediated by enthusiasm and respect) and reduced peer social undermining (mediated by anger and revenge cognitions). I further hypothesize asymmetrical incongruence effects and consider a focal person’s prosocial motivation as a boundary condition. I conducted three studies to examine my theorizing. In Pilot Study 1 (N = 199), I adapted and validated a measure to assess leadership claiming and granting. In Pilot Study 2 (N = 151), I shortened established measures. In the Main Study (N = 279), I tested my theoretical predictions yielding mixed findings. Whereas I find support for the congruence effect on backing-up behavior, all other hypotheses were not supported. I report supplemental analyses to examine these null results and discuss the theoretical, empirical, and practical implications of this research.

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Created

Date Created
2021

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Sucking-up in context: effects of relativity and congruence of ingratiation on social exchange relationships with supervisors and teammates

Description

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social exchange relationships with target audiences (i.e., supervisors) and subsequently obtain

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social exchange relationships with target audiences (i.e., supervisors) and subsequently obtain desired outcomes at work. On the other hand, third party observers of ingratiation often view this behavior (and the people enacting it) in a negative manner, thereby hindering ingratiatory employees’ ability to develop high quality social exchange relationships with these individuals. However, this research primarily focuses on how organizational actors perceive of ingratiatory employees while neglecting the social context in which this behavior occurs. This is an important limitation because there are compelling reasons to believe that the social context plays a crucial role in how individuals react to ingratiation. Specifically, the social context may influence the extent to which ingratiation is salient, valued, and/or perceived as normative behavior by organizational members both within and external to the ingratiator-target dyad, which in turn affects how this behavior relates to relationship quality with the target and observers. The objective of my dissertation is to address this limitation by integrating a social context perspective with social exchange theory to build a “frog-pond” model of ingratiation. To that end, I propose that employees’ ingratiation relative to their team members, rather than absolute levels of ingratiation, drives positive exchange quality with supervisors. Furthermore, I hypothesize that congruence between the focal employee’s ingratiation and other team members’ ingratiation increases employees’ social exchange quality with team members. I also shed light on the asymmetrical nature of ingratiation (in)congruence by investigating how different types of congruence and incongruence impact social exchange quality with team members in different ways. In addition, I examine how relative ingratiation indirectly influences supervisors’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee via focal employee-supervisor social exchange quality, as well as how ingratiation congruence indirectly affects team members’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee through social exchange quality between the two parties. I test my hypotheses in a multi-wave multi-source field study of 222 employees and 64 teams/supervisors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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他乡有故知:外派高管中方社会网络异地嵌入对离职倾向的影响研究

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全球化经济背景下,跨国公司愈发依赖国际化的任务管理新的全球化机会。对于跨国企业来说,外派高管具有重要的战略决策地位.他们的离职对于跨国企业的经营发展是更加严峻的挑战。因此,本研究关注海外派遣高管的离职倾向问题。首先,基于社会网络理论和社会资本理论,本研究认为外派高管在东道国当地的中方社会网络体现了他们在当地持有的社会资本状况,外派高管通过中方社会网络实现了资源获取和情感获取,进而抑制了他们的离职倾向。而且随着文化距离的扩大,外派高管嵌入东道国中方社会网络对其离职倾向的抑制作用更加明显。其次,本研究基于现有研究,并结合对外派高管的访谈结果,构建了各变量的测量量表,并且形成了问卷。在有效问卷的基础上,本研究进行了信度和效度检验以及共同方差偏差检验,并且利用探索性因子分析和多重线性回归分析的方法进行实证检验。实证结果表明,资源获取效果部分中介网络规模和网络中心度对外派高管离职倾向的负向影响,情感获取效果在网络规模和网络关系强度同外派高管离职倾向之间的关系中存在部分中介作用。此外,随着文化距离的增加,外派高管异地嵌入中方社会网络的网络规模、网络中心度和网络关系强度的负向影响均得到增强。最后,基于本文的实证研究结果,并结合我国跨国企业外派高管离职形势的现状,提出了跨国企业合理培育和利用高管社会网络和社会资本的建议。同时,对本文的研究不足和未来展望进行总结。

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021