Matching Items (21)

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Cultivating Empathy for English Language Learners Through Study Abroad Experiences

Description

Traditionally, a study abroad program is a semester or year-long program. However, short-term study abroad (STSA) programs are becoming increasingly more popular for those who want to study abroad but

Traditionally, a study abroad program is a semester or year-long program. However, short-term study abroad (STSA) programs are becoming increasingly more popular for those who want to study abroad but feel as though they cannot for various reasons. A STSA experience provides opportunities for cultural immersion and second language acquisition. Additionally, the population of English language learners (ELLs) in American classrooms, specifically Arizona, is increasing. Pre-service teachers are often not properly equipped with the tools and skills necessary to address the needs of ELLs in the classroom. Previous literature reported that pre-service teachers who participated in a STSA program working with ELLs showed an increase in empathy in regards to language learning. This study merges the two mentioned above, where Arizona State University undergraduate students from various colleges participated in a one-week short-term study abroad experience to the Dominican Republic working with ELLs. Six participants share their experiences about how their work with English language learners impacted their views about ELLs here in the United States. One-on-one structured interviews were conducted after which the data was analyzed qualitatively for various themes and patterns that emerged across all participants. These themes include reasons why participants chose to participate in a STSA program and how the participants' perspective changed in regards to language learning after this experience. Additionally, participants developed an increase in empathy for English language learners, a commitment to participating in more international and local service events, and expressing the need to advocate for more support of ELLs in American classrooms. Implications for various key stakeholders within and outside of the university setting will be shared.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Putting a Ding in the Universe: Creative Arts and the SolarSPELL

Description

The SolarSPELL is an offline, ruggedized, digital library, created by Dr. Laura Hosman for the U.S. Peace Corps. It has thousands of pieces of educational content that can be accessed

The SolarSPELL is an offline, ruggedized, digital library, created by Dr. Laura Hosman for the U.S. Peace Corps. It has thousands of pieces of educational content that can be accessed through a self-contained Wi-Fi hotspot on the device itself. Currently, there are more than 200 deployed in several Pacific Island nations. After visiting one of these nations, Tonga, in December of 2016, I learned that almost all of the Peace Corps volunteers stationed around the Pacific Islands suffered from a lack of resources due to a variety of reasons. While the SolarSPELL helps to remedy that, the device is lacking classroom activities and resources for creative work and educational drama. Furthermore, for many students in these environments, schools are for learning information and producing high scores on exams, not for learning about creative strengths and identity. After researching curriculum development and the use of drama in an educational setting, I compiled over 50 pieces of content to include on the SolarSPELL involving art, drama, music, movement, and most importantly, imagination. These resources will allow Peace Corps volunteers to explore additional ways to teach English in their schools, while also creating a classroom environment that allows for creative expression. All the content is compiled into one folder as "Teaching Resources", and is then broken down into seven sub- categories. In the first sub-category, Art Projects, there is a collection of several hands-on projects, many of which involve recyclable or readily available materials. These projects will allow for a greater understanding of conservation and "green" living, concepts that are crucial to the stability of these island nations. The next 5 categories are Drama Readings, Music, Movement, and Video, Group Exercises, Creative Writing, and Worksheets. The second sub- category is a collection of beginner-level "Reader's Theater" scripts. The third sub-category involves music and video to engage students in movement activities. The fourth sub-category is a compilation of group games and activities to help students express themselves and learn social skills. The fifth sub-category includes a collection of activities such as fill-in-the-blank story worksheets and journal prompts which will aid in creative thinking and the practice of the English language. The sixth sub-category involves a collection of worksheets that mainly focus on self-reflection and identity. The seventh and final sub-category, Content Guide and Information, works to explain the benefits of using of drama and creative play in the classroom, as well as strategies teachers can implement in order to further engage their students in dramatic learning and play. Overall, these pieces of content are meant to be used as resources for the Peace Corps volunteers in order to provide alternative ways to practice reading, writing, and speaking the English language, a critical part of education in the Pacific Islands.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Development of Expressive Past Tense in Children Learning English as a Second Language

Description

Research regarding typical English language development in children who are bilingual is of interest for speech-language pathologists, but often this information is not available to them. As a result, many

Research regarding typical English language development in children who are bilingual is of interest for speech-language pathologists, but often this information is not available to them. As a result, many individuals find themselves believing false stereotypes about children who are bilingual, such as the idea that bilingualism causes developmental delay or disorders. For example, individuals do not realize the differences in past tense development for bilingual children versus monolingual children, a form that is often difficult for monolingual English-speaking children with developmental language delays. By focusing on a specific aspect of language development, such as English past tense acquisition of children who are bilingual, and observing changes in MLU and grammaticality that accompany acquisition, this study seeks to increase the existing knowledge on bilingualism and language development. Specifically, we will answer the following questions: a) At which grade level do Spanish-English bilingual children master English past tense after they enter English-only schooling in preschool? b) What types of errors do the children make with regular past tense? c) what types of errors do they make with irregular past tense? and d) What is the level of English grammaticality and MLUw at each grade level in English after children enter preschool? This study examined past-tense accuracy, MLU, and grammaticality development over a period of 5 years, in 13 children who were participants in a larger project called the Language and Reading Research Consortium (LARRC). Children were followed from preschool to third grade. They provided a yearly language sample by retelling one of the wordless Marianna Meyer and Mercer Meyer frog books, such as Frog on His Own or A Boy a Dog a Frog and a Friend. The language samples were then transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software. Results indicate that children progressively improved over the years, with children reaching over 80% accuracy with past tense by year 3 or first grade; they demonstrated the most improvement in MLU between years 2 to 3 and years 3 to 4; and they showed a gradual improvement in grammaticality each year, with the exception of no increase between years 4 to 5. Findings from the study indicate that there is leveling in all three areas after 2nd grade. These results contribute to our understanding of normal English language development in bilingual children and may improve assessment when we evaluate their performance in English as a second language.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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The Kids You Don't See: Arizona's English Language Learners

Description

Arizona's English Language Learners have the lowest graduation rate in the nation at 18 percent in the 2013-2014 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. There is

Arizona's English Language Learners have the lowest graduation rate in the nation at 18 percent in the 2013-2014 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. There is no federal standard for how to teach English Language Learners. Arizona mandates that all English Language Learners be enrolled in a four-hour model for quick language acquisition, a system that went into effect in 2009. It is the only program of its kind in the country. Graduation rates dropped from 48 percent, the year before the model was implemented, to 19 percent in 2014, according to data from the Arizona Department of Education. Advocates have argued that the model creates a barrier to graduation and segregates students by language while the state and immersion advocates maintain that the model is working. The model was the focus of a federal civil rights appeal that eventually ruled in favor of the state. But educators say problems persist. The difference in opinions stem from conflicting philosophies about the best method for language acquisition \u2014 bilingual or immersion. The debate is heated and rightfully so - Hispanic and Latino students make up a majority of the school-aged population meaning the education of their community can have lasting impacts on Arizona's economy. With a growing Hispanic and Latino population nationally, Arizona's education system is put in the national spotlight. If Arizona can get ahold of its education system, one advocate said, the impacts would ripple across the nation.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Equipping Regular Education Teachers with Instructional Strategies to Teach English Language Learners (ELLs)

Description

Schools are tasked with the responsibility of educating students from a wide variety of backgrounds. Teachers are tasked with finding and implementing effective teaching strategies for every student in

Schools are tasked with the responsibility of educating students from a wide variety of backgrounds. Teachers are tasked with finding and implementing effective teaching strategies for every student in their classroom. English Language Learners (ELLs), students who are not fluent speakers of English, represent an increasing population of students within the education system that have unique instructional needs. The goal of this study was to provide regular education teachers with instructional strategies targeted toward the educational needs of ELLs.

This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data. Data sources include using pre-post innovation surveys, self-reflection forms, post-innovation interviews, and field notes. For this study, nine public school teachers from different (representing different content areas) and two English Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) teachers were used.

The innovation for this study was the implementation of a whole group professional development (PD) session and access to a digital toolbox that provided teachers with instructional strategies for ELLs. The strategies provided in the whole group PD session and the digital toolbox were based on the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model.

The results of the study show that the instructional strategies provided to the teachers from the innovation positively impacted the teacher’s ability to teach ELLs. Additionally, teachers liked the format of the whole group PD session and the Digital Toolbox as a way to learn new teaching strategies related to ELLs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Latina/o language minorities with learning disabilities: examining the interplay between in- and out-of-school literacies

Description

There are many educational issues connected to the exponential growth of the Latina/o population in the U.S. One such issue is Latina/os’ educational outcomes in the area of literacy.

There are many educational issues connected to the exponential growth of the Latina/o population in the U.S. One such issue is Latina/os’ educational outcomes in the area of literacy. Despite the increased attention to subpopulations of students (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities) there is little attention given to students that do not fit neatly into one subcategory, which positions Latina/o language minorities (LMs) with learning disabilities (LDs) in a liminal space where their educational services are fragmented into either being a student with LD or a LM student. Unfortunately, labels that are meant to afford students resources often result in fragmenting students’ educational experiences. This becomes evident when attempting to locate research on students who have ethnic, linguistic, and ability differences. Rarely are their educational needs as Latina/o LMs with LD met fluidly. Understanding the intersections of ethnicity, language, and ability differences in situated literacy practice is imperative to creating the deep, nuanced understanding of how Latina/o LMs with LD might become proficient in the use of critical twenty-first century tools such as new literacies. In this study I used cultural historical activity theory in combination with New Literacy Studies (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009; Gee, 1996) and intersectionality (McCall, 2014) to examine how Latina/o LMs with LD’s participated in literacies across in- and out-of-school contexts with the following research questions: In what ways does participation in literacy change for Latina/o LMs with LD as they move between in- and out-of-school? What situated identities do LMs with LD enact and resist while participating in literacy across in- and out-of-school contexts?

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A study of school finance in Arizona: equity, English language learners, and the allocation of funding

Description

ABSTRACT

Closing the achievement gap between low-income, marginalized, racially, and linguistically diverse students has proven difficult. Research has outlined the effects of funding on student achievement in a manner that focuses

ABSTRACT

Closing the achievement gap between low-income, marginalized, racially, and linguistically diverse students has proven difficult. Research has outlined the effects of funding on student achievement in a manner that focuses the attention on dollars expended, in order overcome barriers to learning. Arizona has long been recognized for its education funding disparity, and its inability to balance fiscal capacity in a manner that serves to improve educational outcomes.

This dissertation examines how Arizona funds its education system. It measures horizontal inequity in a robust manner by examining those fiscal capacity resources directly related to learning and poverty. Recognizing districts with higher concentrations of special needs students will impact fiscal capacity at the district level, this dissertation applies a non-linear analysis to measure how English language learners/ limited English proficient (ELL/ LEP) student proportionality impacts federal and state revenue per pupil, ELL expenditures per pupil, and total expenditures per pupil.

Using the Gini Ratio, McCloone Index, Coefficient of Variation, and Theil inequality index, this dissertation confirms that significant education funding disparity exists across Arizona’s school districts. This dissertation also shows the proportion of English language learners is negatively related to local revenue per pupil, and ELL expenditures per ELL pupil.

Arizona has characteristically funded the public education system inequitably and positioned its students in a manner that stratifies achievement gaps based on wealth. Targeted funding toward ELLs is in no way meaningfully related to the proportion of ELLs in a district. Conceptually the way in which equity is defined, and measured, may require re-evaluation, beyond correlated inputs and outputs. This conceptual re-evaluation of equity must include the decision making process of administrative leaders which influence the quality of those resources related to student learning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Policy as practice: the experiences and views of learners and teachers in restrictive language contexts

Description

This study reports on research that explores local manifestations of Arizona's English-only language education policy by investigating the experiences of selected English language learners (ELLs) with reclassification into mainstream classrooms

This study reports on research that explores local manifestations of Arizona's English-only language education policy by investigating the experiences of selected English language learners (ELLs) with reclassification into mainstream classrooms and four of their classroom teachers. In this study, I employed ethnographic methods (participant observation, document collection, interviewing, and focus groups) to investigate what practices emerge after ELLs are reclassified as "Fluent English Proficient" (FEP) students and moved from "the four-hour English Language Development (ELD) block" into mainstream classrooms. With a focus on the perspectives and experiences of twelve 5th and 6th grade elementary school students and four of their teachers, I examined how students and teachers viewed and responded to restrictive language policies and the practices that accompany them. One finding from this study is that students and teachers believed that the four-hour ELD block helped prepare students to learn English, but "proficiency" in English as determined by the Arizona English Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA) did not always indicate a solid understanding of the language used in the mainstream classrooms. A second finding from this study is that ideologies of language that position English over multilingualism are robust and further strengthened by language policies that prohibit the use of languages other than English in ELD and mainstream classrooms. A third finding from this study is that, in part because of the language restrictive policies in place, particular groups of students continued to engage in practices that enact ideologies of language that devalue multilingualism (e.g., "language policing"). At the same time, however, a close examination of student-to-student interaction indicates that these same students use their multiple linguistic and communicative resources in a variety of creative and purposeful ways (e.g., through language crossing and language sharing). The close examination of policy as practice in a restrictive educational language policy context conducted here has implications for debates about English-only as a method and medium of instruction, about how the ideologies of language operate in situated interactional contexts, and about how youth might use existing resources to challenge restrictive ideologies and policies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Ideologies toward language minority students: a study of three newspapers in Arizona

Description

The presence of language minority students in American schools is a growing phenomenon in present-day times. In the year 2008, almost 11 million school-age children spoke a language other than

The presence of language minority students in American schools is a growing phenomenon in present-day times. In the year 2008, almost 11 million school-age children spoke a language other than English at home. Educational language policy is largely influenced by the attitudes that society holds regarding the presence of language minority speakers in the community. One of the sources of these attitudes is the written press. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing the ideologies that newspapers display in connection with language minority speakers. The underlying assumption of the study was that the English language occupies a dominant position in society, thus creating a power struggle in which speakers of other languages are disenfranchised. Using critical theory as the theoretical framework enabled the study to identify and oppose the ideologies that may reproduce and perpetuate social inequalities. The methodological approach used was critical discourse analysis (CDA) which aligns with the main tenets of critical theory, among them the need to uncover hidden ideologies. The analysis of articles from English-language (The Arizona Republic and the East Valley Tribune) and Spanish-language (La Prensa Hispana) newspapers allowed for the identification of the ideologies of the written press in connection to two main hypothetical constructs: education and immigration. The analysis of the results revealed that the three newspapers of the study held specific ideologies on issues related to the education of language minority students and immigration. Whereas the East Valley Tribune showed an overarching ideology connected to the opposition of immigrant students in schools, the hegemonic position of theEnglish language, and a belligerent stance toward the immigrant community, The Arizona Republic showed a favorable attitude to both English Language Learners and immigrants, based on reasons mainly related to the economic interest of the state of Arizona. La Prensa Hispana, on the other hand, showed ideologies favorable to the immigrant community based on humanitarianism. In summary, the results confirm that newspapers hold specific ideologies and that these ideologies are reflected in the content and the manner of their information to the public.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Effects of Music Education on Academic Achievement

Description

This study aims at exploring whether English Language Learners (ELL) who are enrolled in a music education program have higher standardized test scores compared to those who are not engaged

This study aims at exploring whether English Language Learners (ELL) who are enrolled in a music education program have higher standardized test scores compared to those who are not engaged in a music education program. A West Phoenix, inner city school was studied were the majority of students are Hispanic and qualify for free and reduced lunch. The main purpose of this dissertation was to analyze the effects of instrumental music courses on the AZmerit assessment scores. AZMerit is a standardized assessment used to measure student growth during the given timeframe of one school year (AIMS A Science, n.d.). In this study, I compared a cohort of instrumental music students who studied performance against a cohort of comparable students who did not volunteer to participate in an instrumental music program. Many of these students are bilingual in English and Spanish. As such, students were divided into subcategories based on their level of language acquisition in sixth grade. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if being a part of an instrumental music program affected students at different languages levels in different manners. Over a two-year period, the English Language Learners (ELL) students were examined to determine the effects of music education by focusing a large part of this research on ELL students’ success within music education programs and academic content areas.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019