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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

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Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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2018-05

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Targeting the Prefrontal Cortex with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) to Improve Sleep in Adult Down Syndrome (DS) Populations

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Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) display significantly earlier symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) beginning around age 35. Because AD-like symptoms tend to be ever present in those with DS, it is difficult to accurately evaluate those with DS for earlier

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) display significantly earlier symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) beginning around age 35. Because AD-like symptoms tend to be ever present in those with DS, it is difficult to accurately evaluate those with DS for earlier onset of AD. It has been suggested that physical activity and sleep are potential measures to monitor for manifestations of early AD-like symptoms in people with DS. Our lab has previously shown remarkable improvements in physical activity, cognition, and motor control while using Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) for adolescents with DS, Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke populations. This novel exercise intervention is suggested to mediate improvements in cerebral activation through upregulated neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuro-plastic mechanisms. Despite prior research, there remains to be limited studies behind these concepts in adults with DS and sleep, which is suspected to be an accurate metric for AD-like manifestations. Fifteen older adult participants with DS were assigned to one of two cycling interventions: ACT or VC. All participants were provided Fitbit HR devices for sleep and physical activity tracking. Only five adults had viable continuous collection of data for both sleep and physical activity. While none of our results reached conventional levels of significance, there were trends towards significance in the VC group for total steps taken and in the ACT group for sleep-onset latency (SOL). Individual cases of improvement were noted but it globally can be supported that Fitbit devices are not optimistic for adults with DS due to poor long-term compliance. It comes to no surprise to those involved with these groups that cooperativity tends to be low with long term interventions in research design. In spite of this significant barrier, Fitbit devices offer to be a reliable and inexpensive record keeper of physical activity and sleep. Future research should lean to investigate the viability of Fitbit devices within younger populations, the role of heart rate variability on sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency in DS, and utilize more extensive compliance reinforcement to obtain volume of data collection needed to establish significant measurements of physical activity and sleep in populations with DS.

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2018-12

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Trying to Keep Up: Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption, Student Involvement, and Sleep Among Diverse College Freshmen

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Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink consumption and sleep. Understanding the association between student involvement and

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink consumption and sleep. Understanding the association between student involvement and the impact it could have on sleep and energy drink consumption among college freshmen is essential in promoting healthy behaviors while in college. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between student involvement, average hours of sleep, and predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption amongst college freshmen living in residence halls at a large, public university in the Southwest. Student involvement and fewer hours of sleep hypothesized to observe higher energy drink consumption. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the second wave of the longitudinal SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study assessing college freshmen (n=599; 70.6% female; 50.9% non-white) living on campus. Students were enrolled in this study during the 2015\u20142016 school year. Mutually adjusted generalized estimating equation (GEE) binomial models examined the relationship between involvement (academic clubs, sport clubs, honors, taking 16 or more credit hours, and having a job) and sleep with energy drink and coffee consumption, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, ever having tried alcohol, and clustering of students in residence halls. Results On average, students were enrolled in 15 credits, slept an average 8 hours per night, those who had a job worked 14 hours for pay per week, 35% reported consuming energy drinks in the past week, and about 29% of students reported coffee consumption. Males showed a higher predicted prevalence of energy drink consumption compared to females (p<0.001), where females showed a higher predicted prevalence of coffee consumption compared to males (<0.001); energy drink consumption was less prevalent amongst Hispanic students compared to white students (p=0.018), but more prevalent amongst black students compared to white students (p=0.002); no associations between race were found in predicted prevalence of coffee consumption. Average hours of sleep per night was inversely associated with energy drink consumption predicted prevalence (p<0.001). There was a lower predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption in honors student status (p<0.001) compared to non-honors students. Students taking 16 or more class credit hours showed a higher predicted prevalence in both energy drink (p=0.050) and coffee consumption (p=0.023) compared to students taking less than 16 class credit hours. Students involved in physically active clubs showed a greater predicted prevalence of coffee consumption (p<0.001) compared to students not in physically active clubs. There was no difference in the predicted prevalence in energy drink consumption amongst students involved in physically active clubs (p=0.710), non-physically active clubs (p=0.493), and having a job (p=0.146). Coffee consumption predicted prevalence showed no significant prevalence amongst students of different race and ethnicity [Black (p=0.507), Hispanic (p=103), Other (p=116)] as well as students involved in non-physically active (p=0.839) clubs and who had a paid job (p=0.088). Conclusion Associations observed between average hours of sleep, the different types of involvement of student activities, and energy drink and coffee consumption, were interesting in that a few findings were found to be contrary to the hypotheses. Future research should delve deeper into student involvement within honors programs to understand the contextual factors of why these students showed a significant inverse association in energy drink consumption. Contrary to hypothesis, sleep and energy drink consumption prevalence were indirectly related leading future research to examine and understand why students are consuming energy drinks since on average participants were meeting recommended sleep guidelines. Nutrition interventions are needed for the groups at consuming energy drinks and alcohol in combination due to the study finding increased predicted prevalence amongst these groups as well as the increased risky health behavior associated with the combination found in the literature. Support or Funding Information This study was supported by the NIH Common Fund from the Office of the Director and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, grant number 1DP5OD017910-01 (PI: M. Bruening). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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2015-05

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Comparison of Actigraphic and Subjective Assessment of Sleep Parameters in Healthy Individuals

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Sleep diaries and actigraphy are two common methods used to assess sleep subjectively and objectively, respectively. Compared to the gold standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphic methods are more cost-effective and simpler to use. This study aimed

Sleep diaries and actigraphy are two common methods used to assess sleep subjectively and objectively, respectively. Compared to the gold standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphic methods are more cost-effective and simpler to use. This study aimed to compare the sleep parameters derived from actigraphy and sleep diaries (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, wake after sleep onset, percentage of time awake, and sleep efficiency). Based on results from previous similar studies, it was hypothesized that the sleep diaries would overestimate the total sleep time parameter and underestimate wake parameters. Twenty healthy young adults without sleep problems volunteered to participate. The participants wore an Actiwatch 2 on their wrist and filled out a sleep diary every morning for the duration of six days. A high intraclass correlation coefficient value between subjective and objective sleep was found for the parameter total sleep time, even though total sleep time was found to be slightly overestimated by the sleep diaries. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings, percentage of time awake, and sleep efficiency were underestimated by the sleep diaries and did not have high correlation values. Based off of the ICC results, there does not seem to be a strong correlation between the Actiwatch 2 and the sleep diaries, but looking at the Bland Altman plots, there seems to be agreement between the methods.

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2016-12

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Effect of sleep efficiency on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker in college students

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Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living, impacts social living, reduces participation in physical activity, and increases

Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living, impacts social living, reduces participation in physical activity, and increases risk of fractures and physical pain. In addition to age, gender, race, physical activity and diet, sleep is considered to be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis in both the young and elderly population. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker was measured to determine osteoporotic risk while an actigraphy device was used to measure sleep efficiency in college students. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels. Recognition of any association may help in understanding how sleep is related to bone health. Methods Twenty-seven participants were recruited with the use of flyers distributed on campus and in residential halls, social media, email, and student newsletters. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker was measured using human specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sleep data were collected from participants who wore ActiWatch for 7 days and completed a 7-night sleep diary. Linear and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate association between B-ALP (outcome) and sleep efficiency while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, race, gender). Results and Conclusions Overall, there was no significant association between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Gender, however, showed a significant influence on the levels of bone-alkaline phosphatase. This is supported by a study that found higher bone turnover marker in males than in females. The result from the study could be due to limitations such as small sample size. More participants may provide a better comparison or association between variables. Genetic factors are believed to influence the outcome of the study as genetics can influence rate of bone loss or formation. Findings may be beneficial for public health and policy initiatives and allow health / nutrition educators to more adequately encourage proper habits such as physical activity, healthy diet and sufficient sleep for good bone health.

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2018-05

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Methods of Relaxation for Promoting Sleep in Patients Diagnosed with Cancer

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For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with greater ease. Based on a literature review, autogenic training and

For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with greater ease. Based on a literature review, autogenic training and tai chi were chosen as the relaxation techniques to demonstrate in the video project. The literature review informed what components of autogenic training and tai chi should be included in the video. A patient with cancer was asked to participate in the making of the video. The patient was guided through autogenic training and tai chi. The patient provided feedback on her experience after completing each technique. The video also included background information on the two relaxation techniques. The completed video was presented to the director of Natural Medicine and Detox in Phoenix, AZ, a naturopathic physician, and a cancer survivor. These individuals provided feedback on what they liked about the video and what they thought needed improvement. The video was posted on YouTube as a resource for patients with cancer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04kYz1kSCaU

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2016-12

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Impact of Sleep Restriction on Muscle Recovery Following Eccentric Exercise

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This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in the restricted group (age 251) and 8 were in the

This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in the restricted group (age 251) and 8 were in the control group (age 231). Measurements of muscle function included isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, and muscle soreness. Isometric strength and isokinetic velocity were taken for knee extension using a dynamometer. Muscle soreness was measured via a 100mm likert visual analogue scale for the step-up and step-down movements with the effected leg. Measurements were taken at baseline, and 48 hours after the damaging bout of eccentric exercise following either 8 hours of sleep per night or 3 hours of sleep per night. Results show that there were no statistical differences between groups for either measurements of isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, or muscle soreness. Due to possible confounding factors, future research needs to be conducted in order to get a better understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function.

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2016-12