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Ion Traps for Single Particle Imaging

Description

X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) are used for diffractive x-ray imaging of the structure of many biological particles, such as viruses and proteins. The ultimate goal for XFEL-based microscopy is atomic resolution images of non-crystalline particles. However, data collection efficiency

X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) are used for diffractive x-ray imaging of the structure of many biological particles, such as viruses and proteins. The ultimate goal for XFEL-based microscopy is atomic resolution images of non-crystalline particles. However, data collection efficiency as well as the limited amount of measurement time given annually to researchers, such high-resolution images are presently impossible to attain. Here, we consider two potential solutions to the single-particle hit rate problem; the first looks at applying static electric fields to existing aerodynamic particle injectors, and the second looks at the viability of using time-varying electric fields associated with ion traps to create high-density regions of particles. For the static solution, we looked at applying a constant electric potential to the nozzle, as well as applying a high voltage to a ring electrode in close proximity to a grounded nozzle. We considered the breakdown field strength of the helium gas used to determine how closely the ring electrode could be placed without creating an arc that could potentially destroy expensive equipment. Then, we considered the possibility of using electrodynamic ion traps to increase particle densities. We first characterized how charged particles behave in oscillating electric fields using a simple electrode geometry. Using the general results from this, we then constructed a rudimentary ion trap to test if our experiment agreed with the theory. Finally, we conducted a literature review to determine what particle densities other scientists have been able to measure using ion traps. We then compared existing ion traps to what we expect from the nozzle injectors to determine which method may be the better solution.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

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Cryogenic Testing of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs)

Description

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on the first and second stages respectively. During the first semester of my thesis I worked on getting the second stage to reach below 4K such that it would be cold enough to add a sorption fridge to reach 250mK. Various parts were machined for the cryostat and some tweaks were made to existing pieces. The largest changes were we thinned our stainless steel supports from 2mm to 10mil and we added roughly 6-10 layers of multi-layer insulation to the first and second stages. Our result was that we now reach temperatures of 36K and 2.6K on the first and second stages respectively. Next we added the sorption fridge to the 4K stage by having the 4K stage remachined to allow the sorption fridge to be mounted to the stage. Then I designed a final, two stage, setup for the 1K and 250mK stages that has maximum capabilities of housing a six inch wafer for testing. The design was sent to a machinist, but the parts were unfinished by the end of my thesis, so the parts and stage were not tested. Once the cryostat was fully tested and proven to reach the necessary temperatures, preliminary testing was done on a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) provided by Stanford. Data was collected on the resonance and quality factor as they shifted with final stage temperature (5K to 285mK) and with input power (60dB to 15dB). The data was analyzed and the results agreed within expectations, as the resonant frequency and quality factor shifted down with increased temperature on the MKID. Finally, a noise characterization setup was designed to test the noise of devices, but was not fully implemented.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Of Locality, Causality, and the Unseen: Delving Into J.S. Bell's Inequality

Description

This research endeavor explores the 1964 reasoning of Irish physicist John Bell and how it pertains to the provoking Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox. It is necessary to establish the machinations of formalisms ranging from conservation laws to quantum mechanical principles. The notion

This research endeavor explores the 1964 reasoning of Irish physicist John Bell and how it pertains to the provoking Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox. It is necessary to establish the machinations of formalisms ranging from conservation laws to quantum mechanical principles. The notion that locality is unable to be reconciled with the quantum paradigm is upheld through analysis and the subsequent Aspect experiments in the years 1980-1982. No matter the complexity, any local hidden variable theory is incompatible with the formulation of standard quantum mechanics. A number of strikingly ambiguous and abstract concepts are addressed in this pursuit to deduce quantum's validity, including separability and reality. `Elements of reality' characteristic of unique spaces are defined using basis terminology and logic from EPR. The discussion draws directly from Bell's succinct 1964 Physics 1 paper as well as numerous other useful sources. The fundamental principle and insight gleaned is that quantum physics is indeed nonlocal; the door into its metaphysical and philosophical implications has long since been opened. Yet the nexus of information pertaining to Bell's inequality and EPR logic does nothing but assert the impeccable success of quantum physics' ability to describe nature.

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Created

Date Created
2021-05

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Improving the Energy Reconstruction for Low Energy Supernova Neutrinos

Description

The current observable universe is made of matter due to baryon/antibaryon asymmetry. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is an international experiment through the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory that will study neutrinos. In this study, the detection efficiency for low energy

The current observable universe is made of matter due to baryon/antibaryon asymmetry. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is an international experiment through the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory that will study neutrinos. In this study, the detection efficiency for low energy supernova neutrinos was examined in order to improve energy reconstruction for neutrino energies less than 40 MeV. To do this, supernova neutrino events were simulated using the LarSoft simulation package with and without background. The ratios between the true data and reconstructed data were compared to identify the deficiencies of the detector, which were found to be low energies and high drift times. The ratio between the true and reconstructed data was improved by applying the physical limits of the detector. The efficiency of the improved ratio of the clean data was found to be 93.2% and the efficiency of the improved ratio with the data with background was 82.6%. The study suggests that a second photon detector at the far wall of the detector would help improve the resolutions at high drift times and low neutrino energies.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Time Travel: A People's History

Description

Time travel is closely associated with futuristic science fiction, but it is a concept that dates back to ancient times. Over many generations it has been developed and explored narratively and scientifically. This paper aims to document and analyze the

Time travel is closely associated with futuristic science fiction, but it is a concept that dates back to ancient times. Over many generations it has been developed and explored narratively and scientifically. This paper aims to document and analyze the history of the time travel concept and the important role fiction had in its development.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-12

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Probing the Radio Sky with the Low Frequency Array

Description

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very low frequencies (10-240 MHz) and consists of an extensive interferometry

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very low frequencies (10-240 MHz) and consists of an extensive interferometry array of dipole antenna stations distributed throughout the Netherlands and Europe which allows it to achieve superb angular resolution. I investigate a part of the northern sky to search for rare radio objects such as radio haloes and radio relics that may have not been able to have been resolved by other radio telescopes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Photometric Color Correction of the Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS)

Description

The Star Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M dwarfs in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) (160 and 280 nm respectively), measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of

The Star Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M dwarfs in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) (160 and 280 nm respectively), measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. The delta-doped detectors baselined for SPARCS have demonstrated more than five times the in-band quantum efficiency of the detectors of GALEX. Given that red:UV photon emission from cool, low-mass stars can be million:one, UV observation of thes stars are susceptible to red light contamination. In addition to the high efficiency delta-doped detectors, SPARCS will include red-rejection filters to help minimize red leak. Even so, careful red-rejection and photometric calibration is needed. As was done for GALEX, white dwarfs are used for photometric calibration in the UV. We find that the use of white dwarfs to calibrate the observations of red stars leads to significant errors in the reported flux, due to the differences in white dwarf and red dwarf spectra. Here we discuss the planned SPARCS calibration model and the color correction, and demonstrate the importance of this correction when recording UV measurements of M stars taken by SPARCS.

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Date Created
2021-05