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The Electrodynamic Ion Trap

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In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power

In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power supply was kept in a project box to avoid incidental contact, and was connected to a small copper wire in the shape of a ring. The maximum voltage that could be experienced via incidental contact was well within safe ranges a 0.3mA. Within minutes of its completion the trap was able to trap small Lycopodium powder spores mass of approximately 1.7*10^{-11}kg in clusters of 15-30 for long timescales. The oscillations of these spores were observed to be roughly 1.01mm at their maximum, and in an attempt to understand the dynamics of the Ion Trap, a concept called the pseudo-potential of the trap was used. This method proved fairly inaccurate, involving much estimation and using a static field estimation of 9.39*10^8 N\C and a charge estimate on the particles of ~1e, a maximum oscillation distance of 1.37m was calculated. Though the derived static field strength was not far off from the field strength required to achieve the correct oscillation distance (Percent error of 9.92%, the small discrepancy caused major calculation errors. The trap's intended purpose however was to eventually trap protein molecules for mapping via XFEL laser, and after its successful construction that goal is fairly achievable. The trap was also housed in a vacuum chamber so that it could be more effectively implemented with the XFEL.

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2019-05

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Computational Electrodynamics: Adapting the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer to Dispersive Media

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Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML is to terminate the virtual grid of scattering simulations by absorbing all outgoing radiation. In this thesis, we exposit the method of simulation, establish the Perfectly-Matched Layer as a domain which houses a spatial-coordinate transform to the complex plane, construct the CPML in vacuum, adapt the CPML to the Drude medium, and conclude with tests of the adapted CPML for two different scattering geometries.

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2018-05

Computer-Aided Space-Time-Energy Budgets for Round-Trip Relativistic Excursions

Description

Since the acceptance of Einstein's special theory of relativity by the scientific community, authors of science fiction have used the concept of time dilation to permit seemingly impossible feats. Simple spacecraft acceleration schemes involving time dilation have been considered by

Since the acceptance of Einstein's special theory of relativity by the scientific community, authors of science fiction have used the concept of time dilation to permit seemingly impossible feats. Simple spacecraft acceleration schemes involving time dilation have been considered by scientists and fiction writers alike. Using an original Java program based upon the differential equations for special relativistic kinematics, several scenarios for round trip excursions at relativistic speeds are calculated and compared, with particular attention to energy budget and relativistic time passage in all relevant frames.

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2015-05

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The Mathematical Successes and Failures of Students in an Introductory Physics Course

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A working knowledge of mathematics is a vital requirement for introductory university physics courses. However, there is mounting evidence which shows that many incoming introductory physics students do not have the necessary mathematical ability to succeed in physics. The investigation

A working knowledge of mathematics is a vital requirement for introductory university physics courses. However, there is mounting evidence which shows that many incoming introductory physics students do not have the necessary mathematical ability to succeed in physics. The investigation reported in this thesis used preinstruction diagnostics and interviews to examine this problem in depth. It was found that in some cases, over 75% of students could not solve the most basic mathematics problems. We asked questions involving right triangles, vector addition, vector direction, systems of equations, and arithmetic, to give a few examples. The correct response rates were typically between 25% and 75%, which is worrying, because these problems are far simpler than the typical problem encountered in an introductory quantitative physics course. This thesis uncovered a few common problem solving strategies that were not particularly effective. When solving trigonometry problems, 13% of students wrote down the mnemonic "SOH CAH TOA," but a chi-squared test revealed that this was not a statistically significant factor in getting the correct answer, and was actually detrimental in certain situations. Also, about 50% of students used a tip-to-tail method to add vectors. But there is evidence to suggest that this method is not as effective as using components. There are also a number of problem solving strategies that successful students use to solve mathematics problems. Using the components of a vector increases student success when adding vectors and examining their direction. Preliminary evidence also suggests that repetitive trigonometry practice may be the best way to improve student performance on trigonometry problems. In addition, teaching students to use a wide variety of algebraic techniques like the distributive property may help them from getting stuck when working through problems. Finally, evidence suggests that checking work could eliminate up to a third of student errors.

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2016-12

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Comparison of the Mesonic and Diquark Effects on Tetraquark States via Resonance Synchronization with Thresholds

Description

We develop the mathematical tools necessary to describe the interaction between a resonant pole and a threshold energy. Using these tools, we analyze the properties an opening threshold has on the resonant pole mass (the "cusp effect"), leading to an

We develop the mathematical tools necessary to describe the interaction between a resonant pole and a threshold energy. Using these tools, we analyze the properties an opening threshold has on the resonant pole mass (the "cusp effect"), leading to an effect called "pole-dragging." We consider two models for resonances: a molecular, mesonic model, and a color-nonsinglet diquark plus antidiquark model. Then, we compare the pole-dragging effect due to these models on the masses of the f0(980), the X(3872), and the Zb(10610) and compare the effect's magnitude. We find that, while for lower masses, such as the f 0 (980), the pole-dragging effect that arises from the molecular model is more significant, the diquark model's pole-dragging effect becomes dominant at higher masses such as those of the X(3872) and the Z b (10610). This indicates that for lower threshold energies, diquark models may have less significant effects on predicted resonant masses than mesonic models, but for higher threshold energies, it is necessary to include the pole-dragging effect due to a diquark threshold in high-precision QCD calculations.

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2015-05

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Optimal Coherent Control of Spin State Transfer in Silicon

Description

In this paper, optimal control routines are applied to an existing problem of electron state transfer to determine if spin information can successfully be moved across a chain of donor atoms in silicon. The additional spin degrees of freedom are

In this paper, optimal control routines are applied to an existing problem of electron state transfer to determine if spin information can successfully be moved across a chain of donor atoms in silicon. The additional spin degrees of freedom are introduced into the formulation of the problem as well as the control optimization algorithm. We find a timescale of transfer for spin quantum information across the chain fitting with a t > π/A and t > 2π/A transfer pulse time corresponding with rotation of states on the electron Bloch sphere where A is the electron-nuclear coupling constant. Introduction of a magnetic field weakens transfer
efficiencies at high field strengths and prohibits anti-aligned nuclear states from transferring. We also develop a rudimentary theoretical model based on simulated results and partially validate the characteristic transfer times for spin states. This model also establishes a framework for future work including the introduction of a magnetic field.

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2015-05

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Feasibility of Studying Photoproduction of the ηC Meson and π1(2015) Hybrid Meson Candidate

Description

Preliminary feasibility studies for two possible experiments with the GlueX detector, installed in Hall D of Jefferson Laboratory, are presented. First, a general study of the feasibility of detecting the ηC at the current hadronic rate is discussed, without regard

Preliminary feasibility studies for two possible experiments with the GlueX detector, installed in Hall D of Jefferson Laboratory, are presented. First, a general study of the feasibility of detecting the ηC at the current hadronic rate is discussed, without regard for detector or reconstruction efficiency. Second, a study of the use of statistical methods in studying exotic meson candidates is outlined, describing methods and providing preliminary data on their efficacy.

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2015-05

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Exploring Student Thinking in Novel Linear Relationship Problems

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This is a report of a study that investigated the thinking of a high-achieving precalculus student when responding to tasks that required him to define linear formulas to relate covarying quantities. Two interviews were conducted for analysis. A team of

This is a report of a study that investigated the thinking of a high-achieving precalculus student when responding to tasks that required him to define linear formulas to relate covarying quantities. Two interviews were conducted for analysis. A team of us in the mathematics education department at Arizona State University initially identified mental actions that we conjectured were needed for constructing meaningful linear formulas. This guided the development of tasks for the sequence of clinical interviews with one high-performing precalculus student. Analysis of the interview data revealed that in instances when the subject engaged in meaning making that led to him imagining and identifying the relevant quantities and how they change together, he was able to give accurate definitions of variables and was usually able to define a formula to relate the two quantities of interest. However, we found that the student sometimes had difficulty imagining how the two quantities of interest were changing together. At other times he exhibited a weak understanding of the operation of subtraction and the idea of constant rate of change. He did not appear to conceptualize subtraction as a quantitative comparison. His inability to conceptualize a constant rate of change as a proportional relationship between the changes in two quantities also presented an obstacle in his developing a meaningful formula that relied on this understanding. The results further stress the need to develop a student's ability to engage in mental operations that involve covarying quantities and a more robust understanding of constant rate of change since these abilities and understanding are critical for student success in future courses in mathematics.

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2014-05

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Improving the Energy Reconstruction for Low Energy Supernova Neutrinos

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The current observable universe is made of matter due to baryon/antibaryon asymmetry. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is an international experiment through the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory that will study neutrinos. In this study, the detection efficiency for low energy

The current observable universe is made of matter due to baryon/antibaryon asymmetry. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is an international experiment through the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory that will study neutrinos. In this study, the detection efficiency for low energy supernova neutrinos was examined in order to improve energy reconstruction for neutrino energies less than 40 MeV. To do this, supernova neutrino events were simulated using the LarSoft simulation package with and without background. The ratios between the true data and reconstructed data were compared to identify the deficiencies of the detector, which were found to be low energies and high drift times. The ratio between the true and reconstructed data was improved by applying the physical limits of the detector. The efficiency of the improved ratio of the clean data was found to be 93.2% and the efficiency of the improved ratio with the data with background was 82.6%. The study suggests that a second photon detector at the far wall of the detector would help improve the resolutions at high drift times and low neutrino energies.

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2020-05

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Driven-Dissipative Dynamics of the Hubbard Model Attached to a Fermionic Bath

Description

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which will one day be able to be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer. For now we used classical computing to model one of the simplest nontrivial driven dissipative systems. This will serve as a verification of the master equation method and a baseline to test against when we are able to implement it on a quantum computer. For this report, we will mainly focus on classifying the DC component of the current around our ring. We notice several expected characteristics of this DC current including an inverse square tail at large values of the electric field and a linear response region at small values of the electric field.

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2020-05