Matching Items (38)
- All Subjects: Physics
- Creators: Department of Physics
- Member of: Barrett, The Honors College Thesis/Creative Project Collection
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern through the use of a Michelson interferometer. The slide was placed in the path of one of the beams. The slide could then be rotated through a series of angles, and, from the resulting changes in the interference pattern, the index of refraction of the slide could be extracted. The index of refraction was found to be 1.5±0.02.
STEM education stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and is necessary for students to keep up with global competition in the changing job market, technological advancements and challenges of the future. However, American students are lacking STEM achievement at the state, national and global levels. To combat this lack of achievement I propose that STEM instruction should begin in preschool, be integrated into the curriculum and be inquiry based. To support this proposal I created a month-long physics unit for preschoolers in a Head Start classroom. Students investigated the affect of incline, friction and weight on the distance of a rolling object, while developing their pre-math, pre-literacy and social emotional skills.
Preliminary feasibility studies for two possible experiments with the GlueX detector, installed in Hall D of Jefferson Laboratory, are presented. First, a general study of the feasibility of detecting the ηC at the current hadronic rate is discussed, without regard for detector or reconstruction efficiency. Second, a study of the use of statistical methods in studying exotic meson candidates is outlined, describing methods and providing preliminary data on their efficacy.
Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of maltreated children, the one sure sanctuary is school. However, this idea requires teachers to be actively involved in identifying and caring for the children who need it most. Traumatic childhood experiences leave lasting scars on its victims, so it is helpful if teachers learn how to identify and support children who have lived through them. It is unfortunate that teachers will most likely encounter children throughout their career who have experienced horrendous things, but it is a reality. With this being said, teachers need to develop an understanding of what traumatized children live with, and learn how to address these issues with skilled sensitivity. Schools are not just a place where children learn how to read and write; they build the foundation for a successful life. This project was designed to provide teachers with a necessary resource for helping children who have suffered traumatic experiences. The methodology of this project began with interviews with organizations specializing in working with traumatized children such as Arizonans for Children, Free Arts for Abused Children, The Sojourner Center, and UMOM. The next step was a review of the current literature on the subject of childhood trauma. The findings have all been compiled into one, convenient document for teacher use and distribution. Upon completion of this document, an interactive video presentation will be made available through an online education website, so that distribution will be made simpler. Hopefully, teachers will share the information with people in their networks and create a chain reaction. The goal is to make it available to as many teachers as possible, so that more children will receive the support they need.
Dry and steam NanoBonding™ are conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a two-dimensional SiOxHy or hydrated SiOxHy interphase connecting surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. The motivation is to create strong, long lasting, hermetically bonded sensors with their electronics for the development of an artificial pancreas and to bond solar cells to glass panels for robust photovoltaic technology. The first step in NanoBonding™ is to synthesize smooth surfaces with 20 nm wide atomic terraces via a precursor phase, ß-cSiO2 on Si(100) and oxygen-deficient SiOx on the silica using the Herbots-Atluri process and Entrepix’s spin etching. Smooth precursor phases act as geometric and chemical template to nucleate and grow macroscopic contacting domains where cross bridging occurs via arrays of molecular strands in the hydrated SiOxHy interphase. Steam pressurization is found to catalyze NanoBonding™ consistently, eliminating the need for direct mechanical compression that limits the size and shape of wafers to be bonded in turn, reducing the cost of processing. Total surface energy measurements via 3 Liquids Contact Angle Analysis (3L CAA) enables accurate quantitative analysis of the total surface energy and each of its components. 3L CAA at each step in the process shows that surface energy drops to 42.4 ± 0.6 mJ/m2 from 57.5 ± 1.4 mJ/m2 after the Herbots-Atluri clean of an “As Received” wafer. 3L CAA after steam pressurization Nanobonding™ shows almost complete elimination from 13.8 mJ/m2 ± 1.0 to 0.002 ±- 0.0002 mJ/m2 in the contribution of acceptors to the total free surface energy, and an increase from 0.2 ± .03 to 23.8± 1.6 mJ/m2 in the contribution of donors. This is consistent with an increase in hydroxylation of the ß-cSiO2 surface as a consistent precursor phase for cross-bridging. This research optimizes the use of glycerin, water, and α-bromo-naphtalene in the use of 3L CAA to effectively quantify the components of total free surface energy which helps to better understand the most consistent method for NanoBonding™.
We develop the mathematical tools necessary to describe the interaction between a resonant pole and a threshold energy. Using these tools, we analyze the properties an opening threshold has on the resonant pole mass (the "cusp effect"), leading to an effect called "pole-dragging." We consider two models for resonances: a molecular, mesonic model, and a color-nonsinglet diquark plus antidiquark model. Then, we compare the pole-dragging effect due to these models on the masses of the f0(980), the X(3872), and the Zb(10610) and compare the effect's magnitude. We find that, while for lower masses, such as the f 0 (980), the pole-dragging effect that arises from the molecular model is more significant, the diquark model's pole-dragging effect becomes dominant at higher masses such as those of the X(3872) and the Z b (10610). This indicates that for lower threshold energies, diquark models may have less significant effects on predicted resonant masses than mesonic models, but for higher threshold energies, it is necessary to include the pole-dragging effect due to a diquark threshold in high-precision QCD calculations.
In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently, thermal effects in magnetic materials have attracted a great deal of attention because of its potential to generate pure spin currents using a thermal gradient (∇T), such as the spin Seebeck effect. However, unlike electric potential, the exact thermal gradient direction is experimentally difficult to control, which has already caused misinterpretation of the thermal effects in Py and Py/Pt films. In this work, we show that a well-defined ∇T can be created by two thermoelectric coolers (TECs) based on Peltier effect. The ∇T as well as its sign can be accurately controlled by the driven voltage on the TECs. Using a square-wave driven potential, thermal effects of a few μV can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the anomalous Nernst effect in magnetic Co/Py and Py/Pt layers and determined their angular dependence. The angular dependence shows the same symmetry as the anomalous Hall effect in these films.
This work has been carried out under the guidance of the author’s thesis advisor, Professor Tingyong Chen.
In this paper, optimal control routines are applied to an existing problem of electron state transfer to determine if spin information can successfully be moved across a chain of donor atoms in silicon. The additional spin degrees of freedom are introduced into the formulation of the problem as well as the control optimization algorithm. We find a timescale of transfer for spin quantum information across the chain fitting with a t > π/A and t > 2π/A transfer pulse time corresponding with rotation of states on the electron Bloch sphere where A is the electron-nuclear coupling constant. Introduction of a magnetic field weakens transfer
efficiencies at high field strengths and prohibits anti-aligned nuclear states from transferring. We also develop a rudimentary theoretical model based on simulated results and partially validate the characteristic transfer times for spin states. This model also establishes a framework for future work including the introduction of a magnetic field.
Since the acceptance of Einstein's special theory of relativity by the scientific community, authors of science fiction have used the concept of time dilation to permit seemingly impossible feats. Simple spacecraft acceleration schemes involving time dilation have been considered by scientists and fiction writers alike. Using an original Java program based upon the differential equations for special relativistic kinematics, several scenarios for round trip excursions at relativistic speeds are calculated and compared, with particular attention to energy budget and relativistic time passage in all relevant frames.
We implemented the well-known Ising model in one dimension as a computer program and simulated its behavior with four algorithms: (i) the seminal Metropolis algorithm; (ii) the microcanonical algorithm described by Creutz in 1983; (iii) a variation on Creutz’s time-reversible algorithm allowing for bonds between spins to change dynamically; and (iv) a combination of the latter two algorithms in a manner reflecting the different timescales on which these two processes occur (“freezing” the bonds in place for part of the simulation). All variations on Creutz’s algorithm were symmetrical in time, and thus reversible. The first three algorithms all favored low-energy states of the spin lattice and generated the Boltzmann energy distribution after reaching thermal equilibrium, as expected, while the last algorithm broke from the Boltzmann distribution while the bonds were “frozen.” The interpretation of this result as a net increase to the system’s total entropy is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, which leads to the relationship between maximum entropy and the Boltzmann distribution.