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Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Asymmetric Supernovae

Description

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve as heat sources for forming planetary bodies, and their traces can be used to date stellar events. Computational models of asymmetric supernovae provide opportunities to study the effect of explosion geometry on the SLR yields. We are most interested in the production of \iso{Al}{26}, \iso{Fe}{60}, and \iso{Ca}{41}, whose decayed products are found in our own solar system. To study the effect of explosion asymmetries in supernovae, we use TYCHO stellar evolution code, SNSHP smooth particle hydrodynamics code for 3D explosion simulations, Burn code for nucleosythesis post-processing, and Python code written to analyze the output of the post-processing code.

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2018-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

Description

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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2019-05

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The Electrodynamic Ion Trap

Description

In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power

In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power supply was kept in a project box to avoid incidental contact, and was connected to a small copper wire in the shape of a ring. The maximum voltage that could be experienced via incidental contact was well within safe ranges a 0.3mA. Within minutes of its completion the trap was able to trap small Lycopodium powder spores mass of approximately 1.7*10^{-11}kg in clusters of 15-30 for long timescales. The oscillations of these spores were observed to be roughly 1.01mm at their maximum, and in an attempt to understand the dynamics of the Ion Trap, a concept called the pseudo-potential of the trap was used. This method proved fairly inaccurate, involving much estimation and using a static field estimation of 9.39*10^8 N\C and a charge estimate on the particles of ~1e, a maximum oscillation distance of 1.37m was calculated. Though the derived static field strength was not far off from the field strength required to achieve the correct oscillation distance (Percent error of 9.92%, the small discrepancy caused major calculation errors. The trap's intended purpose however was to eventually trap protein molecules for mapping via XFEL laser, and after its successful construction that goal is fairly achievable. The trap was also housed in a vacuum chamber so that it could be more effectively implemented with the XFEL.

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2019-05

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Analysis of the Polarization Observables H & P for gamma p -> pi^+ n

Description

A search is underway to find baryon resonances that have been predicted, but yet remain unobserved. Nucleon resonances, due to their broad energy widths, overlap and must be disentangled in order to be identified. Meson photoproduction observables related to the

A search is underway to find baryon resonances that have been predicted, but yet remain unobserved. Nucleon resonances, due to their broad energy widths, overlap and must be disentangled in order to be identified. Meson photoproduction observables related to the orientation of the spin of the incoming photon and the spin of the target proton are useful tools to deconvolve the nucleon resonance spectrum. These observables are particularly sensitive to interference between phases of the complex amplitudes. A set of these observables has been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab with linearly-polarized photons having energies from 725 to 1575 MeV with polar angle values of cos(theta) between -0.8 and 0.9 and transversely-polarized protons in the Jefferson Lab FRozen Spin Target (FROST). By fitting neutron yields from gamma p -> pi^+ n over azimuthal scattering angle, the observables \H and P have been extracted. These observables manifest as azimuthal modulations in the yields for the double-polarization experiment. Preliminary results for these observables will be presented and compared with predictions provided by the SAID Partial-Wave Analysis Facility.

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2018-05

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Analysis of TiC at the diamond-titanium interface for diamond-based diode detectors via annealing and XPS

Description

In this project we are analyzing the diamond-titanium interface as it applies to diamond-based diode devices, including alpha particle, proton, and neutron detectors. This is done through the fabrication of an O-terminated B-doped diamond sample with a 20 Å Ti

In this project we are analyzing the diamond-titanium interface as it applies to diamond-based diode devices, including alpha particle, proton, and neutron detectors. This is done through the fabrication of an O-terminated B-doped diamond sample with a 20 Å Ti / 10 Å Pt overlayer which was then annealed and examined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was discovered that after annealing the sample at temperatures ranging from 400 C - 900 C that TiC was not formed at any point during this experiment. Possible reasons for this include a lack of sufficient titanium in order to form TiC and over oxygenating the diamond surface before the metal was deposited.

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Date Created
2020-05

Ion Traps for Single Particle Imaging

Description

X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) are used for diffractive x-ray imaging of the structure of many biological particles, such as viruses and proteins. The ultimate goal for XFEL-based microscopy is atomic resolution images of non-crystalline particles. However, data collection efficiency

X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) are used for diffractive x-ray imaging of the structure of many biological particles, such as viruses and proteins. The ultimate goal for XFEL-based microscopy is atomic resolution images of non-crystalline particles. However, data collection efficiency as well as the limited amount of measurement time given annually to researchers, such high-resolution images are presently impossible to attain. Here, we consider two potential solutions to the single-particle hit rate problem; the first looks at applying static electric fields to existing aerodynamic particle injectors, and the second looks at the viability of using time-varying electric fields associated with ion traps to create high-density regions of particles. For the static solution, we looked at applying a constant electric potential to the nozzle, as well as applying a high voltage to a ring electrode in close proximity to a grounded nozzle. We considered the breakdown field strength of the helium gas used to determine how closely the ring electrode could be placed without creating an arc that could potentially destroy expensive equipment. Then, we considered the possibility of using electrodynamic ion traps to increase particle densities. We first characterized how charged particles behave in oscillating electric fields using a simple electrode geometry. Using the general results from this, we then constructed a rudimentary ion trap to test if our experiment agreed with the theory. Finally, we conducted a literature review to determine what particle densities other scientists have been able to measure using ion traps. We then compared existing ion traps to what we expect from the nozzle injectors to determine which method may be the better solution.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Cryogenic Testing of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs)

Description

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on the first and second stages respectively. During the first semester of my thesis I worked on getting the second stage to reach below 4K such that it would be cold enough to add a sorption fridge to reach 250mK. Various parts were machined for the cryostat and some tweaks were made to existing pieces. The largest changes were we thinned our stainless steel supports from 2mm to 10mil and we added roughly 6-10 layers of multi-layer insulation to the first and second stages. Our result was that we now reach temperatures of 36K and 2.6K on the first and second stages respectively. Next we added the sorption fridge to the 4K stage by having the 4K stage remachined to allow the sorption fridge to be mounted to the stage. Then I designed a final, two stage, setup for the 1K and 250mK stages that has maximum capabilities of housing a six inch wafer for testing. The design was sent to a machinist, but the parts were unfinished by the end of my thesis, so the parts and stage were not tested. Once the cryostat was fully tested and proven to reach the necessary temperatures, preliminary testing was done on a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) provided by Stanford. Data was collected on the resonance and quality factor as they shifted with final stage temperature (5K to 285mK) and with input power (60dB to 15dB). The data was analyzed and the results agreed within expectations, as the resonant frequency and quality factor shifted down with increased temperature on the MKID. Finally, a noise characterization setup was designed to test the noise of devices, but was not fully implemented.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Computational Electrodynamics: Adapting the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer to Dispersive Media

Description

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML is to terminate the virtual grid of scattering simulations by absorbing all outgoing radiation. In this thesis, we exposit the method of simulation, establish the Perfectly-Matched Layer as a domain which houses a spatial-coordinate transform to the complex plane, construct the CPML in vacuum, adapt the CPML to the Drude medium, and conclude with tests of the adapted CPML for two different scattering geometries.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Physics Secondary Education: How Perception Creates Educational Realities

Description

This study explores the significant roles and responsibilities of Arizona physics teachers as well as the effect that these teachers have on students and thus their futures. In a two-fold survey administered to all 194 public comprehensive high school physics

This study explores the significant roles and responsibilities of Arizona physics teachers as well as the effect that these teachers have on students and thus their futures. In a two-fold survey administered to all 194 public comprehensive high school physics teachers with 60% participation, questions regarding the perception and expectations that physics teachers hold for themselves, students, and school counselors are addressed as well as the corresponding practices. This survey reveals that generally, teachers feel that students have preconceptions about what physics is and what the course requires, and yet approximately half of the teachers do not make significant recruitment efforts. It is pertinent to ask why physics has one of the lowest enrollment statuses out of all the sciences in high school. Even more so, it is crucial to ask why there is a teacher shortage in the subject of physics. In exploring these questions, results to the previously mentioned genres of questions will speak to the issues at hand and are intended to give a robust explanation as to why physics is fading away in Arizona.

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2018-05

Computer-Aided Space-Time-Energy Budgets for Round-Trip Relativistic Excursions

Description

Since the acceptance of Einstein's special theory of relativity by the scientific community, authors of science fiction have used the concept of time dilation to permit seemingly impossible feats. Simple spacecraft acceleration schemes involving time dilation have been considered by

Since the acceptance of Einstein's special theory of relativity by the scientific community, authors of science fiction have used the concept of time dilation to permit seemingly impossible feats. Simple spacecraft acceleration schemes involving time dilation have been considered by scientists and fiction writers alike. Using an original Java program based upon the differential equations for special relativistic kinematics, several scenarios for round trip excursions at relativistic speeds are calculated and compared, with particular attention to energy budget and relativistic time passage in all relevant frames.

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2015-05