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Addressing Childhood Trauma in the Classroom

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Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of

Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of maltreated children, the one sure sanctuary is school. However, this idea requires teachers to be actively involved in identifying and caring for the children who need it most. Traumatic childhood experiences leave lasting scars on its victims, so it is helpful if teachers learn how to identify and support children who have lived through them. It is unfortunate that teachers will most likely encounter children throughout their career who have experienced horrendous things, but it is a reality. With this being said, teachers need to develop an understanding of what traumatized children live with, and learn how to address these issues with skilled sensitivity. Schools are not just a place where children learn how to read and write; they build the foundation for a successful life. This project was designed to provide teachers with a necessary resource for helping children who have suffered traumatic experiences. The methodology of this project began with interviews with organizations specializing in working with traumatized children such as Arizonans for Children, Free Arts for Abused Children, The Sojourner Center, and UMOM. The next step was a review of the current literature on the subject of childhood trauma. The findings have all been compiled into one, convenient document for teacher use and distribution. Upon completion of this document, an interactive video presentation will be made available through an online education website, so that distribution will be made simpler. Hopefully, teachers will share the information with people in their networks and create a chain reaction. The goal is to make it available to as many teachers as possible, so that more children will receive the support they need.

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2016-05

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Rolling Down Ramps: A Unit Plan to Address the Urgent Need of STEM Instruction in Preschool

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STEM education stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and is necessary for students to keep up with global competition in the changing job market, technological advancements and challenges of the future. However, American students are lacking STEM achievement at

STEM education stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and is necessary for students to keep up with global competition in the changing job market, technological advancements and challenges of the future. However, American students are lacking STEM achievement at the state, national and global levels. To combat this lack of achievement I propose that STEM instruction should begin in preschool, be integrated into the curriculum and be inquiry based. To support this proposal I created a month-long physics unit for preschoolers in a Head Start classroom. Students investigated the affect of incline, friction and weight on the distance of a rolling object, while developing their pre-math, pre-literacy and social emotional skills.

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2015-05

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Synthesis and band gap engineering in Ge₁-x-ySixSny Materials for Near-IR Wavelength Applications

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This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially

This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially focused on Ge1-x-ySixSny (1-5% Sn, 4-20% Si) materials grown on Ge(100) via gas-source epitaxy of Ge4H10, Si4H10 and SnD4. Both intrinsic and doped layers were produced with defect-free microstructure and viable thickness, allowing the fabrication of high-performance photodetectors. These exhibited low ideality factors, state-of-the-art dark current densities and adjustable absorption edges between 0.87 and 1.03 eV, indicating that the band gaps span a significant range above that of Ge. Next Sn-rich Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys (2-4% Si and 4-10% Sn) were fabricated directly on Si and were found to show significant optical emission using photoluminescence measurements, indicating that the alloys have direct band gaps below that of pure Ge in the range of 0.7-0.55 eV. A series of Sn-rich Ge1-x-ySixSny analogues (y>x) with fixed 3-4% Si content and progressively increasing Sn content in the 4-10% range were then grown on Ge buffered Si platforms for the purpose of improving the material's crystal quality. The films in this case exhibited lower defect densities than those grown on Si, allowing a meaningful study of both the direct and indirect gaps. The results show that the separation of the direct and indirect edges can be made smaller than in Ge even for non-negligible 3-4% Si content, confirming that with a suitable choice of Sn compositions the ternary Ge1-x-ySixSny reproduces all features of the electronic structure of binary Ge1-ySny, including the sought-after indirect-to-direct gap cross over. The above synthesis of optical quality Ge1-x-ySixSny on virtual Ge was made possible by the development of high quality Ge-on-Si buffers via chemical vapor deposition of Ge4H10. The resultant films exhibited structural and electrical properties significantly improved relative to state-of-the-art results obtained using conventional approaches. It was found that pure Ge4H10 facilitates the control of residual doping and enables p-i-n devices whose dark currents are not entirely determined by defects and whose zero-bias collection efficiencies are higher than those obtained from samples fabricated using alternative Ge-on-Si approaches.

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2013

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Epitaxy of group IV optical materials and synthesis of IV/III-V semiconductor analogs by designer hydride chemistries

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The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk

The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk Ge, dominated by indirect gap emission, and the PL spectrum of Ge-on-Si films, dominated by direct gap emission. It was found that the difference is due to the supression of self-absorption effects in Ge films, combined with a deviation from quasi-equilibrium conditions in the conduction band of undoped films. The latter is confirmed by a model suggesting that the deviation is caused by the shorter recombination lifetime in the films relative to bulk Ge. The knowledge acquired from this work was then utilized to study the PL properties of n-type Ge1-ySny/Si (y=0.004-0.04) samples grown via chemical vapor deposition of Ge2H6/SnD4/P(GeH3)3. It was found that the emission intensity (I) of these samples is at least 10x stronger than observed in un-doped counterparts and that the Idir/Iind ratio of direct over indirect gap emission increases for high-Sn contents due to the reduced gamma-L valley separation, as expected. Next the PL investigation was expanded to samples with y=0.05-0.09 grown via a new method using the more reactive Ge3H8 in place of Ge2H6. Optical quality, 1-um thick Ge1-ySny/Si(100) layers were produced using Ge3H10/SnD4 and found to exhibit strong, tunable PL near the threshold of the direct-indirect bandgap crossover. A byproduct of this study was the development of an enhanced process to produce Ge3H8, Ge4H10, and Ge5H12 analogs for application in ultra-low temperature deposition of Group-IV semiconductors. The thesis also studies synthesis routes of an entirely new class of semiconductor compounds and alloys described by Si5-2y(III-V)y (III=Al, V= As, P) comprising of specifically designed diamond-like structures based on a Si parent lattice incorporating isolated III-V units. The common theme of the two thesis topics is the development of new mono-crystalline materials on ubiquitous silicon platforms with the objective of enhancing the optoelectronic performance of Si and Ge semiconductors, potentially leading to the design of next generation optical devices including lasers, detectors and solar cells.

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2013

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Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

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Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

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2011

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The effect of material properties on energy resolution in gamma-ray detectors

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Nuclear proliferation concerns have resulted in a desire for radiation detectors with superior energy resolution. In this dissertation a Monte Carlo code is developed for calculating energy resolution in gamma-ray detector materials. The effects of basic material properties such

Nuclear proliferation concerns have resulted in a desire for radiation detectors with superior energy resolution. In this dissertation a Monte Carlo code is developed for calculating energy resolution in gamma-ray detector materials. The effects of basic material properties such as the bandgap and plasmon resonance energy are studied using a model for inelastic electron scattering based on electron energy-loss spectra. From a simplified "toy model" for a generic material, energy resolution is found to oscillate as the plasmon resonance energy is increased, and energy resolution can also depend on the valence band width. By incorporating the model developed here as an extension of the radiation transport code Penelope, photon processes are also included. The enhanced version of Penelope is used to calculate the Fano factor and average electron-hole pair energy in semiconductors silicon, gallium arsenide, zinc telluride, and scintillators cerium fluoride and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO). If the effects of the valence band density-of-states and phonon scattering are removed, the calculated energy-resolution for these materials is fairly close to that for a toy model with a uniform electron energy-loss probability density function. This implies that the details of the electron cascade may in some cases have only a marginal effect on energy resolution.

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2011

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Epitaxial development of advanced group IV materials and high performance optical devices for applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics

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Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this work, several new approaches to produce these alloys directly on

Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this work, several new approaches to produce these alloys directly on Si(100) and Ge(100) wafers are developed. For photovoltaics, use of Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers as a low cost platform for epitaxy of In1-xGaxAs layers was explored. The results indicate that this approach has promise for transitioning from bulk Ge platforms to virtual substrates for a significant cost reduction. The electrical and optical properties of Ge and Ge1-ySny layers produced using several different techniques were explored via fabrication of high performance heterostructure photodiodes. First, a new CVD approach to Ge-like materials was developed in which germanium is alloyed with very small amounts of tin. These alloys exhibited no significant difference in their structural properties or band gap compared to pure Ge, however superior photo response and reduced dark currents were observed from fabricated devices relative to pure Ge on Si reference diodes. Additionally, pure Ge/Si(100) photodiodes were fabricated using layers grown via reactions of Ge4H10 on Si(100) and found to exhibit low dark current densities with high collection efficiencies. Ge1-x-ySixSny materials represent the newest member of group IV alloy family. The ability to decouple the lattice constant and the band gap in this system has led to strong interest both for strain/confinement layers in quantum well structures, and as the possible "missing" 1 eV junction in multijunction photovoltaics. Recent progress in this field has allowed for the first time growth, fabrication and measurement of novel photodiodes based on Ge1-x-ySixSny. This work presents the material, electrical and optical properties of Ge1-x-ySixSny layers and photodiodes grown directly on Ge and Si wafers using two different synthetic approaches. A series of photodiodes containing Sn concentrations from 1-5%, all lattice matched to Ge, was fabricated. The devices exhibited low dark current densities with high collection efficiencies as required for photovoltaics. By measuring the photoresponse, tunable band gaps ranging from 0.85 eV to 1.02 eV were observed.

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2012

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Structural properties of III-nitride semiconductors

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Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. InGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 0.7

Group III-nitride semiconductors have been commercially used in the fabrication of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, covering the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectral range and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. InGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 eV. It has a great potential in the application for high efficient solar cells. AlGaN ternary alloys have energy band gaps ranging from 3.4 to 6.2 eV. These alloys have a great potential in the application of deep ultra violet laser diodes. However, there are still many issues with these materials that remain to be solved. In this dissertation, several issues concerning structural, electronic, and optical properties of III-nitrides have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. First, the microstructure of InxGa1-xN (x = 0.22, 0.46, 0.60, and 0.67) films grown by metal-modulated epitaxy on GaN buffer /sapphire substrates is studied. The effect of indium composition on the structure of InGaN films and strain relaxation is carefully analyzed. High luminescence intensity, low defect density, and uniform full misfit strain relaxation are observed for x = 0.67. Second, the properties of high-indium-content InGaN thin films using a new molecular beam epitaxy method have been studied for applications in solar cell technologies. This method uses a high quality AlN buffer with large lattice mismatch that results in a critical thickness below one lattice parameter. Finally, the effect of different substrates and number of gallium sources on the microstructure of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet laser has been studied. It is found that defects in epitaxial layer are greatly reduced when the structure is deposited on a single crystal AlN substrate. Two gallium sources in the growth of multiple quantum wells active region are found to cause a significant improvement in the quality of quantum well structures.

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Date Created
2014

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Tuning the electronic properties of nanoscale semiconductors

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Nanoscale semiconductors with their unique properties and potential applications have been a focus of extensive research in recent years. There are many ways in which semiconductors change the world with computers, cell phones, and solar panels, and nanoscale semiconductors having

Nanoscale semiconductors with their unique properties and potential applications have been a focus of extensive research in recent years. There are many ways in which semiconductors change the world with computers, cell phones, and solar panels, and nanoscale semiconductors having a promising potential to expand the efficiency, reduce the cost, and improve the flexibility and durability of their design. In this study, theoretical quantum mechanical simulations were performed on several different nanoscale semiconductor materials, including graphene/phosphorene nanoribbons and group III-V nanowires. First principles density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the electronic and structural properties of these nanomaterials in their fully relaxed and strained states. The electronic band gap, effective masses of charge carriers, electronic orbitals, and density of states were most commonly examined with strain, both from intrinsic and external sources. For example, armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) were found to have unprecedented band gap-strain dependence. Phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) demonstrate a different behavior, including a chemical scissors effect, and studies revealed a strong relationship between passivation species and band gap tunability. Unlike the super mechanical flexibility of AGNRs and PNRs which can sustain incredible strain, modest yet large strain was applied to group III-V nanowires such as GaAs/InAs. The calculations showed that a direct and indirect band gap transition occurs at some critical strains and the origination of these gap transitions were explored in detail. In addition to the pure nanowires, GaAs/InAs core/shell heterostructure nanowires were also studied. Due to the lattice mismatch between GaAs and InAs, the intrinsic strain in the core/shell nanowires demonstrates an interesting behavior on tuning the electronic properties. This interesting behavior suggests a mechanical way to exert compressive strain on nanowires experimentally, and can create a finite quantum confinement effect on the core.

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Date Created
2016

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Chemical vapor deposition of metastable germanium based semiconductors for optoelectronic applications

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Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via molecular epitaxy of Ge5H12. Next, As(GeH3)3, As(SiH3)3, SbD3, S(GeH3)2 and

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via molecular epitaxy of Ge5H12. Next, As(GeH3)3, As(SiH3)3, SbD3, S(GeH3)2 and S(SiH3)2 molecular sources were utilized in degenerate n-type doping of Ge. The epitaxial Ge films produced in this work incorporate donor atoms at concentrations above the thermodynamic equilibrium limits. The donors are nearly fully activated, and led to films with lowest resistivity values thus far reported.

Band engineering of Ge was achieved by alloying with Sn. Epitaxy of the alloy layers was conducted on virtual Ge substrates, and made use of the germanium hydrides Ge2H6 and Ge3H8, and the Sn source SnD4. These films exhibit stronger emission than equivalent material deposited directly on Si, and the contributions from the direct and indirect edges can be separated. The indirect-direct crossover composition for Ge1-ySny alloys was determined by photoluminescence (PL). By n-type doping of the Ge1-ySny alloys via P(GeH3)3, P(SiH3)3 and As(SiH3)3, it was possible to enhance photoexcited emission by more than an order-of-magnitude.

The above techniques for deposition of direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys and doping of Ge were combined with p-type doping methods for Ge1-ySny using B2H6 to fabricate pin heterostructure diodes with active layer compositions up to y=0.137. These represent the first direct gap light emitting diodes made from group IV materials. The effect of the single defected n-i¬ interface in a n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture on electroluminescence (EL) was studied. This led to lattice engineering of the n-type contact layer to produce diodes of n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture which are devoid of interface defects and therefore exhibit more efficient EL than the previous design. Finally, n-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz pn junction devices were synthesized with varying composition and doping parameters to investigate the effect of these properties on EL.

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2016