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Addressing Childhood Trauma in the Classroom

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Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of

Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of maltreated children, the one sure sanctuary is school. However, this idea requires teachers to be actively involved in identifying and caring for the children who need it most. Traumatic childhood experiences leave lasting scars on its victims, so it is helpful if teachers learn how to identify and support children who have lived through them. It is unfortunate that teachers will most likely encounter children throughout their career who have experienced horrendous things, but it is a reality. With this being said, teachers need to develop an understanding of what traumatized children live with, and learn how to address these issues with skilled sensitivity. Schools are not just a place where children learn how to read and write; they build the foundation for a successful life. This project was designed to provide teachers with a necessary resource for helping children who have suffered traumatic experiences. The methodology of this project began with interviews with organizations specializing in working with traumatized children such as Arizonans for Children, Free Arts for Abused Children, The Sojourner Center, and UMOM. The next step was a review of the current literature on the subject of childhood trauma. The findings have all been compiled into one, convenient document for teacher use and distribution. Upon completion of this document, an interactive video presentation will be made available through an online education website, so that distribution will be made simpler. Hopefully, teachers will share the information with people in their networks and create a chain reaction. The goal is to make it available to as many teachers as possible, so that more children will receive the support they need.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Rolling Down Ramps: A Unit Plan to Address the Urgent Need of STEM Instruction in Preschool

Description

STEM education stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and is necessary for students to keep up with global competition in the changing job market, technological advancements and challenges of the future. However, American students are lacking STEM achievement at

STEM education stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and is necessary for students to keep up with global competition in the changing job market, technological advancements and challenges of the future. However, American students are lacking STEM achievement at the state, national and global levels. To combat this lack of achievement I propose that STEM instruction should begin in preschool, be integrated into the curriculum and be inquiry based. To support this proposal I created a month-long physics unit for preschoolers in a Head Start classroom. Students investigated the affect of incline, friction and weight on the distance of a rolling object, while developing their pre-math, pre-literacy and social emotional skills.

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2015-05

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Interface electronic state characterization of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on GaN

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In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an enhanced growth rate within the PEALD temperature window (25-220 ºC). The properties of Al2O3 deposited at various temperatures were characterized to better understand the relation between the growth parameters and film properties. In the second study, the interface electronic structures of PEALD dielectrics on Ga-face GaN films were measured. Five promising dielectrics (Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, La2O3, and ZnO) with a range of band gap energies were chosen. Prior to dielectric growth, a combined wet chemical and in-situ H2/N2 plasma clean process was employed to remove the carbon contamination and prepare the surface for dielectric deposition. The surface band bending and band offsets were measured by XPS and UPS for dielectrics on GaN. The trends of the experimental band offsets on GaN were related to the dielectric band gap energies. In addition, the experimental band offsets were near the calculated values based on the charge neutrality level model. The third study focused on the effect of the polarization bound charge of the Ga- and N-face GaN on interface electronic structures. A surface pretreatment process consisting of a NH4OH wet chemical and an in-situ NH3 plasma treatment was applied to remove carbon contamination, retain monolayer oxygen coverage, and potentially passivate N-vacancy related defects. The surface band bending and polarization charge compensation of Ga- and N-face GaN were investigated. The surface band bending and band offsets were determined for Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 on Ga- and N-face GaN. Different dielectric thicknesses and post deposition processing were investigated to understand process related defect formation and/or reduction.

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Date Created
2014

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Resistivity of endotaxial silicide nanowires measured with a scanning tunneling microscope

Description

In this project, a novel method is presented for measuring the resistivity of nanoscale metallic conductors (nanowires) using a variable-spacing 2-point method with a modified ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. An auxiliary field emission imaging method that allows for scanning

In this project, a novel method is presented for measuring the resistivity of nanoscale metallic conductors (nanowires) using a variable-spacing 2-point method with a modified ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. An auxiliary field emission imaging method that allows for scanning insulating surfaces using a large gap distance (20nm) is also presented. Using these methods, the resistivity of self-assembled endotaxial FeSi2 nanowires (NWs) on Si(110) was measured. The resistivity was found to vary inversely with NW width, being rhoNW = 200 uOhm cm at 12 nm and 300 uOhm cm at 2 nm. The increase at small w is attributed to boundary scattering, and is fit to the Fuchs-Sondheimer model, yielding values of rho0 = 150 uOhm cm and lambda = 2.4 nm, for specularity parameter p = 0.5. These results are attributed to a high concentration of point defects in the FeSi2 structure, with a correspondingly short inelastic electron scattering length. It is remarkable that the defect concentration persists in very small structures, and is not changed by surface oxidation.

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Date Created
2011

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

Description

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of quantum wires

Description

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at finite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the Luttinger liquid theory and observed in experiments is first presented, showing the need for new PIMC calculations in this field. I calculate the DC conductance at finite temperature for both noninteracting and interacting electrons. The quantized conductance is identified in PIMC simulations without making the same approximation in the Luttinger model. The low electron density regime is subject to strong interactions, since the kinetic energy decreases faster than the Coulomb interaction at low density. An electron state called the Wigner crystal has been proposed in this regime for quasi-1D wires. By using PIMC, I observe the zig-zag structure of the Wigner crystal. The quantum fluctuations suppress the long range correla- tions, making the order short-ranged. Spin correlations are calculated and used to evaluate the spin coupling strength in a zig-zag state. I also find that as the density increases, electrons undergo a structural phase transition to a dimer state, in which two electrons of opposite spins are coupled across the two rows of the zig-zag. A phase diagram is sketched for a range of densities and transverse confinements. The quantum point contact (QPC) is a typical realization of quantum wires. I study the QPC by explicitly simulating a system of electrons in and around a Timp potential (Timp, 1992). Localization of a single electron in the middle of the channel is observed at 5 K, as the split gate voltage increases. The DC conductance is calculated, which shows the effect of the Coulomb interaction. At 1 K and low electron density, a state similar to the Wigner crystal is found inside the channel.

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Date Created
2012

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TEM characterization of electrically stressed high electron mobility transistors

Description

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three topical areas: (1) characterization of near-gate defects in electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, (2) microstructural and chemical analysis of the gate/buffer interface of AlN/GaN HEMTs, and (3) studies of the impact of laser-liftoff processing on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The electrical performance of stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs was measured and the devices binned accordingly. Source- and drain-side degraded, undegraded, and unstressed devices were then prepared via focused-ion-beam milling for examination. Defects in the near-gate region were identified and their correlation to electrical measurements analyzed. Increased gate leakage after electrical stressing is typically attributed to "V"-shaped defects at the gate edge. However, strong evidence was found for gate metal diffusion into the barrier layer as another contributing factor. AlN/GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire substrates were found to have high electrical performance which is attributed to the AlN barrier layer, and robust ohmic and gate contact processes. TEM analysis identified oxidation at the gate metal/AlN buffer layer interface. This thin a-oxide gate insulator was further characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and energy-filtered TEM. Attributed to this previously unidentified layer, high reverse gate bias up to −30 V was demonstrated and drain-induced gate leakage was suppressed to values of less than 10−6 A/mm. In addition, extrinsic gm and ft * LG were improved to the highest reported values for AlN/GaN HEMTs fabricated on sapphire substrates. Laser-liftoff (LLO) processing was used to separate the active layers from sapphire substrates for several GaN-based HEMT devices, including AlGaN/GaN and InAlN/GaN heterostructures. Warpage of the LLO samples resulted from relaxation of the as-grown strain and strain arising from dielectric and metal depositions, and this strain was quantified by both Newton's rings and Raman spectroscopy methods. TEM analysis demonstrated that the LLO processing produced no detrimental effects on the quality of the epitaxial layers. TEM micrographs showed no evidence of either damage to the ~2 μm GaN epilayer generated threading defects.

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Date Created
2012

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Plasma surface interactions at interlayer dielectric (ILD) and metal surfaces

Description

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) Cu surfaces using N2/H2 plasma processes. H atoms and radicals in the plasma react with the carbon groups leading to carbon removal for the ILD films. Results indicate that an N2 plasma forms an amide-like layer on the surface which apparently leads to reduced carbon abstraction from an H2 plasma process. In addition, FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hydroxyl (Si-OH) groups following the plasma exposure. Increased temperature (380 °C) processing leads to a reduction of the hydroxyl group formation compared to ambient temperature processes, resulting in reduced changes of the dielectric constant. For CMP Cu surfaces, the carbonate contamination was removed by an H2 plasma process at elevated temperature while the C-C and C-H contamination was removed by an N2 plasma process at elevated temperature. The second part of this study examined oxide stability and cleaning of Ru surfaces as well as consequent Cu film thermal stability with the Ru layers. The ~2 monolayer native Ru oxide was reduced after H-plasma processing. The thermal stability or islanding of the Cu film on the Ru substrate was characterized by in-situ XPS. After plasma cleaning of the Ru adhesion layer, the deposited Cu exhibited full coverage. In contrast, for Cu deposition on the Ru native oxide substrate, Cu islanding was detected and was described in terms of grain boundary grooving and surface and interface energies. The thermal stability of 7 nm Ti, Pt and Ru ii interfacial adhesion layers between a Cu film (10 nm) and a Ta barrier layer (4 nm) have been investigated in the third part. The barrier properties and interfacial stability have been evaluated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the surfaces before and after annealing, and all the surfaces are relatively smooth excluding islanding or de-wetting phenomena as a cause of the instability. The RBS showed no discernible diffusion across the adhesion layer/Ta and Ta/Si interfaces which provides a stable underlying layer. For a Ti interfacial layer RBS indicates that during 400 °C annealing Ti interdiffuses through the Cu film and accumulates at the surface. For the Pt/Cu system Pt interdiffuion is detected which is less evident than Ti. Among the three adhesion layer candidates, Ru shows negligible diffusion into the Cu film indicating thermal stability at 400 °C.

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Date Created
2012

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Spin polarized currents in magnetic and superconducting structures

Description

An electrical current with high spin polarization is desirable for the performance of novel spintronics devices, such as magnetic tunnel junction and giant magnetoresistance devices. The generation of spin polarized current can be from ferromagnetic materials or triplet superconductors.

Anomalous Hall

An electrical current with high spin polarization is desirable for the performance of novel spintronics devices, such as magnetic tunnel junction and giant magnetoresistance devices. The generation of spin polarized current can be from ferromagnetic materials or triplet superconductors.

Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is an effective way to study the properties of magnetic structures. The scattering of electrons by the magnetic moments affects the change of resistance, which can be used to detect the magnetization. In this dissertation, AHE is used to study the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) structures, including Co/Pt and Ta/CoFeB/MgO.

Domain walls exist in all ferromagnetic materials. This dissertation studies the domain wall movement in the Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure. A single domain is observed by measuring the anomalous Hall effect. On the other hand, a zero Hall step is successfully observed in a single layer of magnetic material for the first time, which can be used to fabricate advanced domain wall spintronics devices.

Besides the normal ferromagnetic material, the generation of spin polarized current in superconductor is also important for Spintronics. The electrons in superconductors form Cooper pairs. In this dissertation, Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy (ARS) is used to study the spin configuration in Cooper pairs.

Generally, ferromagnetism and superconductivity can not co-exist. In this dissertation, the Bi/Ni bilayer structure has been studied with ARS, and the measurement results show a triplet superconductivity below 4K. The appearance of superconductivity is believed to be attributed to the Bi-Ni interface, and the triplet Cooper pair makes it a promising candidate in superconducting spintronics.

Besides, a Bi3Ni single crystal is also studied with ARS. The measurements show a singlet superconductivity in this material, which further proves the importance of the Bi/Ni interface to achieve triplet superconductivity.

Finally, ARS is also used to study NbSe2 monolayer, a 2D superconductor. The monolayer is verified by the measurements of critical temperature and critical field, which are different from the values of multilayer or bulk. Andreev reflection results show that NbSe2 monolayer is a singlet superconductor and there is no node exist in the superconducting gap for a in plane magnetic field up to 58 kOe.

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Date Created
2018

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Characterization of cubic boron nitride interfaces with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy

Description

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has potential for electronic applications as an electron emitter and serving as a base material for diodes, transistors, etc. However, there has been limited research on c-BN reported, and many of the electronic properties of c-BN

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has potential for electronic applications as an electron emitter and serving as a base material for diodes, transistors, etc. However, there has been limited research on c-BN reported, and many of the electronic properties of c-BN and c-BN interfaces have yet to be reported. This dissertation focused on probing thin film c-BN deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). PES measurements were used to characterize the electronic properties of c-BN films and interfaces with vacuum and diamond. First, the interface between c-BN and vacuum were characterized with ultraviolet PES (UPS). UPS measurements indicated that as-deposited c-BN, H2 plasma treated c-BN, and annealed c-BN post H2 plasma treatment exhibited negative electron affinity surfaces. A dipole model suggested dipoles from H-terminated N surface sites were found to be responsible for the NEA surface. Then, Si was introduced into c-BN films to realize n-type doped c-BN. The valence structure and work function of c-BN:Si films were characterized with XPS and UPS measurements. Measurements were unable to confirm n-type character, and it is concluded that silicon nitride formation was the primary effect for the observations. Finally, XPS measurements were employed to measure the band offsets at the c-BN/diamond interface. Measurements indicated the valence band maximum (VBM) of c-BN was positioned ~0.8 eV above the VBM of diamond.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016