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Levels of Formality in French Translations of American TV Shows

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In a world where people can access a foreign language as easily as they can access Netflix, looking at and comparing translations can aid in considering the differences between cultures as they are conveyed through language. The purpose of my

In a world where people can access a foreign language as easily as they can access Netflix, looking at and comparing translations can aid in considering the differences between cultures as they are conveyed through language. The purpose of my thesis is to investigate the translation of levels of formality in American TV Shows into their French dubbed version. In particular, I survey the presence of specific lexical and morpho-syntactic French indicators of formality in the translations of five American TV Shows and how the inclusion of such features establishes the formality of a situation or relationship. Through my analysis, I explore the difficulties and concerns of translations, the effect of the translation on the audiences, and possible reasons behind the translators’ choices. When it comes to the incorporation of French lexical features, translations seem to be affected by the cultural differences between American and French society since these features deal with cultural material that is difficult to find a proper equivalence for. On the other hand, translations of morpho-syntactic features are concerned with transferring meaning from an American English structure into a French structure. When we consider these features one by one, we see how culture is filtered through language and the difficulty of translating language that is bound to a society, its institutions, and its culture.

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2019-05

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Vowel Phonemes Map Out on an Emotional Valence Continuum

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This study expands on findings by Yu, McBeath, & Glenberg (2019) which demonstrated a relationship between the pronunciation of English vowel phonemes and emotional valence due to embodied cognition. That study found that single syllable words containing the phoneme /i:

This study expands on findings by Yu, McBeath, & Glenberg (2019) which demonstrated a relationship between the pronunciation of English vowel phonemes and emotional valence due to embodied cognition. That study found that single syllable words containing the phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were reliably rated as more positive than matched words containing the phoneme /ʌ/ (as in “glum”). The findings are consistent with the idea that the facial musculature when smiling is more conducive to making the /i:/ sound, while that of frowning or grimacing is more conducive to making the /ʌ/ sound. That study only compared the phonemes /i:/ and /ʌ/, which are opposite extremes of phoneme similarity (second formant frequency). The present study expands on this finding by testing the relative emotional valence ratings of matched single-syllable words containing /i:/ vs /ʌ/ plus two intermediate phonemes, /ɪ/ (as in “bit”), and /ɔ/ (as in “bought”). The new findings replicate the Gleam-Glum effect, and provide support for a weak ordering hypothesis for the intermediate phonemes, but not a strong ordering. The weak ordering hypothesis is that single-syllable words containing a middle vowel phoneme that is intermediate to /i:/ and /ʌ/ in musculature and acoustic features are also generally rated as intermediate in emotional valence. The strong ordering hypothesis is that the intermediate phonemes are each differentially rated in emotional valance in precisely the same order as determined acoustically. The pattern of results found is consistent with the Russell Circumplex Model of emotion at a cursory level, but individual emotions do not fully conform to a simple 2-D model that generalizes to similarity judgments of phonemes. Nevertheless, the work supports that facial musculature associated with visually discernible emotions generally relates to a phonetic acoustic continuum.

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2019-05

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Legally Male: The Role of Legal Language in Maintaining Sexism

Description

Psychological studies and feminist theories have determined the existence of many forms of
male bias in the English language. Male bias can be traced through American history in the form of laws of coverture and the categorization of women in

Psychological studies and feminist theories have determined the existence of many forms of
male bias in the English language. Male bias can be traced through American history in the form of laws of coverture and the categorization of women in law. Taking into account the connections between sexist language, history, and law, this paper investigates 1) how and why legal language is biased, 2) why male bias has persisted in law over time, and 3) what impact male-biased law has on women. The works of ancient philosophers, feminist historians, psycholinguistic scientists, and modern philosophers of law are used to explain the patriarchal gender hierarchy’s influence on law. Case law and legal policies demonstrate that sexism has been maintained through history due to the preservation of male-biased language and the exclusion of women from the public sphere. Today, the use of masculine generics continues to taint the legal profession by reflecting, rather than denouncing, its patriarchal roots.

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2020-05

De aquí, de allá, de las dos: Three Women's Language Learning Journeys from Mexico to Arizona

Description

The purpose of this study is to document and analyze three women's English language learning journeys after moving from various parts of Mexico to Phoenix, Arizona. The study explores the effects of English as a Second Language (ESL) education on

The purpose of this study is to document and analyze three women's English language learning journeys after moving from various parts of Mexico to Phoenix, Arizona. The study explores the effects of English as a Second Language (ESL) education on the social and cultural development of Mexican women students at Friendly House, whose mission is to "Empower Arizona communities through education and human services". The literature review section explores such topics as the complications and history of Mexican immigration to Phoenix and of state-funded ESL education in Phoenix. The consequent research study will entail a pair of interviews with the three beginner ESL students about their lives in Mexico compared to their lives in Phoenix, with a specific focus on aspects of their language acquisition and cultural adjustment to life in Arizona. Photos of and by the consultants add to their stories and lead to a discussion about the implications of their experiences for ESL teachers. By documenting the consultants' experiences, this study finds many gaps in ESL education in Phoenix. Suggestions about how ESL programs and teaching methods can be modified to fit student's needs form the basis for the conclusions.

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2018-05

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Social Predictors of Intervocalic /b/ Variant Usage in Riverense Spanish

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A situation of language contact on the Uruguayan-Brazilian border has created a unique opportunity to study variant usage with respect to the phoneme /b/. Following past research models, the thesis analyzes the social and linguistic effects of contact bilingualism on

A situation of language contact on the Uruguayan-Brazilian border has created a unique opportunity to study variant usage with respect to the phoneme /b/. Following past research models, the thesis analyzes the social and linguistic effects of contact bilingualism on the border variety of Spanish using acoustic phonetics. The intervocalic /b/ was the target variant in the study. Analysis was performed on the speech tokens of 20 speakers living on the Uruguayan-Brazilian border using the phonetics software Praat, and from the tokens the consonant-vowel intensity ratio of each intervocalic /b/ was determined in order to characterize the variant. The tokens were classified as one of four possible variants, [b], [v], [β], or phonetic zero. The thesis found that cognate status, normative Spanish orthography, and professional status were the significant predictors of variant usage.

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2017-12

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Disaster Linguistics: An Exploration of the Potency of Cataclysmic Event on Languages

Description

It is no great secret that languages come into contact with each other. From people interacting on the street, to children in school, to nations working on international policies, days do not pass where languages do not collide. And, while

It is no great secret that languages come into contact with each other. From people interacting on the street, to children in school, to nations working on international policies, days do not pass where languages do not collide. And, while this is a well-documented and studied phenomenon with many books devoted to it, it is one that is incomplete. Throughout the course of time, natural and social disasters have impacted language in an unrelentless and undocumented way. The question, therefore, becomes: what happens to the languages of the people who are affected by some sort of disaster? It is well known that there are many factors that affect a language's life and development. However, what about the events like a massive volcanic eruption or the destruction of a population due to genocide? It makes sense to theorize that natural and social disasters could have lasting effects on the languages of the world. As language is one of the most important aspects of human societies, it is crucial to be able to explore and possibly understand any potential patterns of change that are stimulated from different types of devastating events. The disasters that a society undergoes directly alter the language of that people. By studying the patterns of these changes and using integral examples, the key factors of change can be identified and an evaluative system can be developed. By first giving an in-depth overview of the relevant field, Contact Linguistics, understanding the current methods for analyzing language change, and then assessing these for their usefulness in disaster cases, this paper aims to arrive at a new, integrated method for evaluation of these unique situations.

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2017-12

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Advancing Second Language Proficiency of Monolinguals through a Comparative Analysis of Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners.

Description

The importance of second language learning in today’s ever-increasing globalized world is becoming ever more paramount. Despite seeming trends which indicate aversion to globalization, the international phenomenon which describes the connection made between peoples and cultures, will only increase its

The importance of second language learning in today’s ever-increasing globalized world is becoming ever more paramount. Despite seeming trends which indicate aversion to globalization, the international phenomenon which describes the connection made between peoples and cultures, will only increase its influence in coming years. With the advances globalization has made, it is becoming more important to learn and study foreign languages in order to keep abreast of this trend and not be left behind by globalization. Why electronic translation is not so viable in the long run (at least currently) is that culture and syntax are not things which can be simply ascertained via mediums such as application use. Due to the fact that advanced language proficiency is considered to be an integral piece towards stronger sentiments of “integration” (i.e. Syrian refugees integrating into EU and US) it is of more importance that increasing second language proficiency receives the adequate study and implementation to reflect a more cohesive globalized world. Accompanying this necessity is the simple fact that adult second language learners often struggle to overcome difficulty to the challenging yet rewarding task of learning and eventually mastering a second language.

To truly understand the difficulty some adult second language learners have with learning a second language it can be helpful to compare second language acquisition to how one naturally, and seemingly effortlessly in many cases, acquires their native language. How can a comparative analysis of how native speakers and adult second language learners each learn their first and second language respectively be successfully converted to a specific means of assisting adult second language learners achieve the highest level of possible fluency? In order to more accurately propose a viable solution to the overarching question, the following three questions have been proposed as a means to springboard into better understanding the nature of the main topic.
The points to consider while analyzing the main question throughout this analysis are as follows: How would it be best for an adult second language learner to achieve the same level off proficiency as a native speaker of a given language whom has been exposed to all of its intricacies since birth? At what point exactly is someone considered to have the same level of proficiency which a native speaker of a given language would have and how does that differ from being a heritage speaker? With the final supporting question being: What type of learning would be best suited in helping a heritage speaker (someone who learns a language in the home by virtue of their heritage) or adult second language learner to become highly proficient in a second language?
In order to propose a wide variety of integration between these questions with the conjoined purpose of answering the inquiry of this thesis, many different sources supporting each of the above questions will contain certain overlap, providing a clear basis for constructing a tri-fold argument in answering the thesis question as acutely as possible. In regards to the first question, the question of “proficiency” will be a subsection committed to understanding the nature of how language proficiency works and at what point (if ever) one can ever be considered “highly proficient” in a second language.

All three exploratory questions are compatible with a theory known as Critical Period Theory, a theory in linguistics proposed by Montreal neurologist Wilder Penfield, which states, “There is a critical age, before puberty, that one must learn language. If one has not learned to speak before puberty it is much more difficult, and sometimes impossible, to learn language and speak in a meaningful way.” The overlap which this method binds to Universal Grammar is a rather close-knit relationship. Research composed by certain linguists suggest that “children are born with a certain universal grammar wired into their brains.” This will be compared and cross-examined to a higher degree in a later section of the paper.

The importance of Universal Grammar in relation to Critical Period Theory cannot be overstated.  Universal Grammar in relation to the second language Critical Period Theory will help explain at which point, someone is considered to be a “native speaker” of a given language. The third question posed of how would it be best for heritage and second language learners to increase their proficiency in a second language really touches on both of these theories in regards to at which age someone is exposed to a specific language in addition to how Universal Grammar affects the development of second language acquisition. In the realm of perpetually working towards mitigating an answer to this analysis’s thesis, the connecting thread or “roter Faden”, as it is said in German, will be the integrative domain the above questions will have on arriving to a clearer understanding of the nature of how a comparative analysis of second language learners and mother-tongue speakers can expedite the language learning process of second language learners, using techniques of native speakers which they inherently pick-up.

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2018-12

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Pragmatic functions of the Japanese sentence-final construction no(da): an analysis of online forum postings.

Description

This paper investigates the usage of the Japanese sentence-final construction no(da) in 27 postings collected from online question-and-answer forums. This linguistic feature appears frequently in both spoken and written Japanese discourse; however, it continues to pose difficulties to researchers when

This paper investigates the usage of the Japanese sentence-final construction no(da) in 27 postings collected from online question-and-answer forums. This linguistic feature appears frequently in both spoken and written Japanese discourse; however, it continues to pose difficulties to researchers when attempting to identify its meaning and functions. A major issue is that insufficient information regarding discourse context has resulted in ambiguity in many of the functions described in previous studies. Considering these limitations, the present study attempted to specify discourse contexts towards which three proposed functions of no(da) gravitate: 1) giving and asking explanation, 2) evoking politeness, and 3) organizing discourse. The results of this study indicate that two collocations, ~no desu ga and ~no deshou ka, play important roles in serving these functions in the genre of question-and-answer forums.

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2014-12

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Making It Look Like a University Was Here: Arizona State University Architecture and Planning in the G. Homer Durham Decade, 1960-69

Description

Arizona State University experienced some of its most explosive growth in the 1960s—doubling its enrollment in just seven years, expanding many programs and adding a college of law, and significantly augmenting its physical plant. This work examines the architectural and

Arizona State University experienced some of its most explosive growth in the 1960s—doubling its enrollment in just seven years, expanding many programs and adding a college of law, and significantly augmenting its physical plant. This work examines the architectural and planning development of ASU in this decade and the surrounding years, coinciding with the presidency of Dr. G. Homer Durham, in various facets. Topics covered include the pedestrianization of the university campus, land acquisition and street realignment; the construction of newer and taller buildings to accommodate and expanded student population and educational program; and efforts to improve the university’s prestige through the use of modern architecture. ASU’s physical and human growth is compared to selected peer institutions. The legacy of the 1960s at ASU is also discussed within a historic preservation context.

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2016-05

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Rabaul Creole German: A Translation of Hansel und Gretel

Description

Rabaul Creole German is a language that developed in the early twentieth century in Papua New Guinea, as a mixture of German and languages of the environment such as Tok Pisin and Kuanua. Children at a Catholic mission and orphanage

Rabaul Creole German is a language that developed in the early twentieth century in Papua New Guinea, as a mixture of German and languages of the environment such as Tok Pisin and Kuanua. Children at a Catholic mission and orphanage were taught in German but it was not their native tongue; they developed a secret language that applied German vocabulary to their own syntax. As they grew up and married amongst themselves, their children learned the new language as native speakers; thus the creole was born. This project involved researching and becoming familiar with the language, familiar enough to apply the knowledge to translate a fairy tale from German into Rabaul Creole German.

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Date Created
2014-05