Matching Items (3)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

136618-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

137316-Thumbnail Image.png

Examination of One Month Retention of Executive Function in Assisted Cycling Therapy on Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor) cycling groups, with one participant used as a control (NC). Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (posttest) of the 8-week session, three executive functions including: set-switching, inhibition, and cognitive planning, were tested. Approximately one month after the posttest, all participants underwent the cognitive testing again. The results showed that for the AC group cognitive planning improved after eight weeks of assisted cycling and these improvements were maintained after one month of no cycling. However, no significant differences were found between the cycling groups for our measure of inhibition. Set-switching appeared to be improved by both types of exercise, rather than only assisted, but the improvements were not maintained during the one month retention period for either group. Thus, our results suggest that Assisted Cycling causes potentially permanent changes in the brain in regards to cognitive planning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

Cellular Evaluation of Postnatal Frontal Cortex in Down Syndrome

Description

Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic developmental disorder characterized by the trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS have some kind of intellectual disability, associated with dysfunction in cognition-related structures, including the frontal cortex. Studies have examined

Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic developmental disorder characterized by the trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS have some kind of intellectual disability, associated with dysfunction in cognition-related structures, including the frontal cortex. Studies have examined developmental changes in the frontal cortex during prenatal stages in DS, however little is known about cortical lamination and neuronal differentiation in postnatal periods in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Therefore, we examined the quantitative and qualitative distribution of neuronal profiles containing the neuronal migration protein doublecortin (DCX), the non-phosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament SMI-32, the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28K (Calb), calretinin (Calr), and parvalbumin (Parv), as well as human β-amyloid and APP (6E10), Aβ1-42, and phospho-tau (CP-13) in the supragranular (SG, II/III) and infragranular (IG, V/VI) layers in the DS postnatal frontal cortex compared to neurotypically developing (NTD) controls from ages 28 weeks to 196.4 weeks using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, cortical lamination was evaluated using thionin, a Nissl stain. We found DCX-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in both the SG and IG layers in younger cases, but not in the oldest cases in both groups. Strong expression of SMI-32 immunoreactivity was observed in pyramidal cells in layers III and V in the oldest cases in both groups, however SMI-32-ir cells appeared much earlier in NTD compared to DS. We found small and fusiform Calb-ir cells in the younger cases (28 to 44 weeks), while in the oldest cases, Calb immunoreactivity was also found in pyramidal cells. Calr-ir cells appeared earlier in DS at 32 weeks compared to NTD at 44 weeks, however both groups showed large bipolar fusiform-shaped Calr-ir cells in the oldest cases. Diffuse APP/Aβ-ir plaque-like accumulations were found in the frontal cortex grey and white matter at all ages, but no Aβ1-42 immunoreactivity was detected in any case. Furthermore, neuropil (but not cellular) granular CP-13 immunostaining was seen in layer I only at 41 weeks NTD and 33 weeks DS. Cell counts show a significantly higher cell number in SG compared to IG for all the neuronal markers in both groups, except in Calb and SMI-32. In NTD, age and brain weight showed the strongest correlations with all cellular counts, except in thionin where DS had a stronger negative correlation with age and brain weight compared to NTD. In addition, height and body weight showed a strong negative correlation in NTD with the migration and neurogenesis marker DCX. These findings suggest that trisomy 21 affects the postnatal frontal cortex lamination, neuronal migration<br/>eurogenesis, and differentiation of projection pyramidal cells and interneurons, which contribute to the disruption of the local and projection inhibitory and excitatory circuitries that may underlie the cognitive disabilities in DS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05